Gardner Dozois

Gardner Raymond Dozois ( /doʊˈzwɑː/ doh-ZWAH; July 23, 1947 – May 27, 2018) was an American science fiction author and editor. He was the founding editor of The Year's Best Science Fiction anthologies (1984–present) and was editor of Asimov's Science Fiction magazine (1984–2004), garnering multiple Hugo and Locus Awards for those works almost every year. He also won the Nebula Award for Best Short Story twice.[2] He was inducted to the Science Fiction Hall of Fame on June 25, 2011.[3]

Gardner Dozois
Dozois at Clarion West Writers Workshop, Seattle, 1998
BornGardner Raymond Dozois[1]
July 23, 1947
Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedMay 27, 2018 (aged 70)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
OccupationEditor, writer
NationalityAmerican
Period1970–2018[1]
GenreScience fiction magazines, anthologies, short fiction
Notable worksAsimov's Science Fiction
SpouseSusan Casper (m. ca 1970-2017, her death)

Biography

Dozois was born July 23, 1947, in Salem, Massachusetts.[4] He graduated from Salem High School with the Class of 1965. From 1966 to 1969 he served in the Army as a journalist, after which he moved to New York City to work as an editor in the science fiction field. One of his stories had been published by Frederik Pohl in the September 1966 issue of If but his next four appeared in 1970, three in Damon Knight's anthology series Orbit.[1]

Dozois said that he turned to reading fiction partially as an escape from the provincialism of his home town.

He was badly injured in a taxi accident after returning from a Philadelphia Phillies game in 2004 (causing him to miss Worldcon for the first time in many years) but made a full recovery. On July 6, 2007, Dozois had surgery for a planned quintuple bypass operation. A week later, he experienced complications which prompted additional surgery to implant a defibrillator.

Dozois died on May 27, 2018, of a systemic infection at a hospital in Philadelphia at the age of 70.[5]

Fiction

As a writer, Dozois mainly worked in shorter forms. He won the Nebula Award for best short story twice: once for "The Peacemaker" in 1983, and again for "Morning Child" in 1984. His short fiction has been collected in The Visible Man (1977), Geodesic Dreams (a best-of collection), Slow Dancing through Time (1990, collaborations), Strange Days (2001, another best-of collection), Morning Child and Other Stories (2004) and When the Great Days Come (2011). As a novelist, Dozois's oeuvre is significantly smaller. He was the author of one solo novel, Strangers (1978), as well as a collaboration with George Alec Effinger, Nightmare Blue (1977), and a collaboration with George R. R. Martin and Daniel Abraham for Hunter's Run (2008). After becoming editor of Asimov's, Dozois's fiction output dwindled. His 2006 novelette "Counterfactual" won the Sidewise Award for best alternate-history short story. Dozois also wrote short fiction reviews for Locus.

Michael Swanwick, one of his co-authors, completed a long interview with Dozois covering every published piece of his fiction. Being Gardner Dozois: An Interview by Michael Swanwick was published by Old Earth Books in 2001.[6] It won the Locus Award for Non-Fiction and was a finalist for the Hugo Award for Best Related Book.[7]

Editorial work

Dozois was known primarily as an editor, winning the Hugo Award for Best Professional Editor 15 times in 17 years from 1988 to his retirement from Asimov's in 2004.[2] In addition to his work with Asimov's (of which he was the first associate editor in 1976), he also worked in the 1970s with magazines such as Galaxy Science Fiction, If, Worlds of Fantasy, and Worlds of Tomorrow.[4]

Dozois was also a prolific short fiction anthologist. After resigning from his Asimov's position, he remained the editor of the anthology series The Year's Best Science Fiction, published annually since 1984. In three decades Locus readers have voted it the year's best anthology almost 20 times and the runner-up almost 10 times.[2] And, with Jack Dann, he edited a long series of themed anthologies, each with a self-explanatory title such as Cats, Dinosaurs, Seaserpents, or Hackers.

Stories selected by Gardner Dozois for the annual best-of-year volumes have won, as of December 2015, 44 Hugos, 41 Nebulas, 32 Locus, 10 World Fantasy and 18 Sturgeon Awards. That also includes the Dutton series (Dozois volumes only).

Dozois consistently expressed a particular interest in adventure SF and space opera, which he collectively referred to as "center-core SF".[8]

Works as writer

Fiction

  • A Special Kind of Morning (1971)
  • Chains of the Sea (1971)
  • Machines of Loving Grace (1972)
  • A Day in the Life (1973, ISBN 978-0-06-080307-0)First Edition 1978 Library of Congress number 78-160655
  • Nightmare Blue (with George Alec Effinger) (1977, ISBN 978-0-00-614617-9)
  • The Visible Man (collection) (1977, ASIN B000GZU4C8)
  • Strangers (1978)
  • A Traveler in an Antique Land (1983)
  • The Peacemaker (1983) (Nebula Award winner)
  • Morning Child (1984) (Nebula Award winner)
  • Slow Dancing Through Time (collection) (1990, 978-0942681031)
  • Geodesic Dreams (collection) (1992, ISBN 978-0-441-00021-0)
  • A Knight of Ghosts and Shadows (1999)
  • Strange Days: Fabulous Journeys with Gardner Dozois (collection) (2001)
  • The Hanging Curve (The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, April 2002)
  • Morning Child and Other Stories (collection) (2004, ISBN 978-0-7434-9318-5)
  • When the Great Days Came (The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Dec 2005)
  • Shadow Twin (2005) (with George R. R. Martin and Daniel Abraham)
  • Counterfactual (The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, June 2006)
  • Hunter's Run (2008, ISBN 978-0-06-137329-9) (with George R. R. Martin and Daniel Abraham)
  • When the Great Days Come (collection) (2011)
  • Neanderthals (The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Jan/Feb 2018)

Nonfiction

  • The Fiction of James Tiptree, Jr. (1977, ISBN 978-0-916186-04-3)
  • Writing Science Fiction & Fantasy (1993, ISBN 978-0-312-08926-9) (co-edited with Stanley Schmidt and Sheila Williams)

Selected anthologies edited by Gardner Dozois

Cross-genre anthologies co-edited by Dozois and Martin

  • Songs of the Dying Earth, a tribute anthology to Jack Vance's seminal Dying Earth series, published by Subterranean Press (co-edited with George R. R. Martin) (2009)
  • Warriors, a cross-genre anthology featuring stories about war and warriors (co-edited with George R. R. Martin) (2010); Locus Award
  • Songs of Love and Death, a cross-genre anthology featuring stories of romance in fantasy and science fiction settings (co-edited with George R. R. Martin) (2010)
  • Down These Strange Streets, a cross-genre anthology featuring stories of private-eye detectives in fantasy and science fiction settings (co-edited with George R. R. Martin)[9] (November 2011)
  • Old Mars, an anthology featuring new stories about Mars in retro-SF vein (co-edited with George R. R. Martin) (2013); Locus Award[10]
  • Dangerous Women, a cross-genre anthology featuring stories about women warriors (co-edited with George R. R. Martin) (2013)[11]
  • Rogues, a cross-genre anthology featuring stories about assorted rogues (co-edited with George R. R. Martin) (2014)
  • Old Venus, an anthology featuring new stories about Venus in retro-SF vein (co-edited with George R. R. Martin) (2015)[12]

Themed anthology series co-edited by Dozois and Dann

Formerly known as "Magic Tales Anthology Series" until 1995; most released under the Ace imprint.

"Isaac Asimov's" series

  • Transcendental Tales from Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (1989, ISBN 978-0-89865-762-3)
  • Time Travelers from Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (1989, ISBN 978-0-441-80935-6)
  • Isaac Asimov's Robots (1991, ISBN 978-0-441-37376-5) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Aliens (1991, ISBN 978-0-441-01672-3)
  • Isaac Asimov's Mars (1991, ISBN 978-0-441-37375-8)
  • Isaac Asimov's Earth (1992, ISBN 978-0-441-37377-2) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's War (1993, ISBN 978-0-441-37393-2)
  • Isaac Asimov's SF Lite (1993, ISBN 978-0-441-37389-5)
  • Isaac Asimov's Cyberdreams (1994, ASIN B000HWNC5Q)
  • Isaac Asimov's Skin Deep (1995, ISBN 978-0-441-00190-3) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Ghosts (1995, ISBN 978-0-441-00254-2) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Vampires (1996, ISBN 978-0-441-00387-7) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Moons (1997, ISBN 978-0-441-00453-9) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Christmas (1997, ISBN 978-0-441-00491-1) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Detectives (1998, ISBN 978-0-441-00545-1) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Camelot (1998, ISBN 978-0-441-00527-7) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Solar System (1999, ISBN 978-0-441-00698-4) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Werewolves (1999, ISBN 978-0-441-00661-8) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Valentines (1999, ISBN 978-0-441-00602-1) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Halloween (1999, ISBN 978-0-441-00854-4) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Utopias (2000, ISBN 978-0-441-00784-4) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Mother's Day (2000, ISBN 978-0-441-00721-9) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)
  • Isaac Asimov's Father's Day (2001, ISBN 978-0-441-00874-2) (co-edited with Sheila Williams)

The Year's Best Science Fiction series

  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: First Annual Collection (1984)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Second Annual Collection (1985)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Third Annual Collection (1986)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Fourth Annual Collection (1987)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Fifth Annual Collection (1988)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Sixth Annual Collection (1989)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Seventh Annual Collection (1990)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Eighth Annual Collection (1991)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Ninth Annual Collection (1992)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Tenth Annual Collection (1993)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Eleventh Annual Collection (1994)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twelfth Annual Collection (1995)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirteenth Annual Collection (1996)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Fourteenth Annual Collection (1997)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Fifteenth Annual Collection (1998)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Sixteenth Annual Collection (1999)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Seventeenth Annual Collection (2000)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Eighteenth Annual Collection (2001)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Nineteenth Annual Collection (2002)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twentieth Annual Collection (2003)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-First Annual Collection (2004)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Second Annual Collection (2005)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Third Annual Collection (2006)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Fourth Annual Collection (2007)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Fifth Annual Collection (2008)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Sixth Annual Collection (2009)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Seventh Annual Collection (2010)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Eighth Annual Collection (2011)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Ninth Annual Collection (2012)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirtieth Annual Collection (2013)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirty-First Annual Collection (2014)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirty-Second Annual Collection (2015)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirty-Third Annual Collection (2016)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirty-Fourth Annual Collection (2017)
  • The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirty-Fifth Annual Collection (2018)
    • Best of the Best: 20 Years of the Year's Best Science Fiction (2005) (Anthology from previous Year's Best Science Fiction editions)
    • Best of the Best Volume 2: 20 Years of the Year's Best Short Science Fiction Novels (2007) (Anthology from previous Year's Best Science Fiction editions)

Dozois also edited volumes six through ten of the Best Science Fiction Stories of the Year series after Lester del Rey edited the first five volumes. That series ended in 1981.

References

  1. ^ a b c Gardner Dozois at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB). Retrieved 2013-04-08. Select a title to see its linked publication history and general information. Select a particular edition (title) for more data at that level, such as a front cover image or linked contents.
  2. ^ a b c "Dozois, Gardner" Archived 2012-07-29 at WebCite. The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index of Literary Nominees. Locus Publications. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
  3. ^ ""Science Fiction Hall of Fame"". Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-21.. [Quote: "EMP is proud to announce the 2011 Hall of Fame inductees: ..."]. May/June/July 2011. EMP Museum (empmuseum.org). Archived 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
  4. ^ a b "Gardner Dozois: The Good Stuff". Interview of Dozois. Locus: The Magazine of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Field 574 (November 2008), pp. 68–70.
  5. ^ Graham, Kristen A. (2018-05-29). "Gardner Dozois, 70, acclaimed science fiction editor". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  6. ^ Being Gardner Dozois title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database. (ISFDB). Retrieved 2013-04-08.
  7. ^ "Swanwick, Michael". The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index of Literary Nominees. Locus Publications. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
  8. ^ Gardner Dozois, the Revitalization of Genre SF, and The New Space Opera Archived September 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. by Dave Truesdale, Fantasy and Science Fiction, accessed Nov. 3, 2008.
  9. ^ "Another Monkey Off My Back" Archived 2010-10-05 at the Wayback Machine.. September 30, 2010. George R. R. Martin (blog). Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  10. ^ "2014 Locus Awards Winners". Locus. June 28, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  11. ^ "Dangerous Women Arrives on Tor.com". Tor.com. July 24, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  12. ^ "Not A Blog: Venus In March". GRRM.livejournal.com. June 19, 2014. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2014.

External links

Interviews
Other
Alastair Reynolds

Alastair Preston Reynolds (born 13 March 1966) is a British science fiction author. He specialises in hard science fiction and space opera. He spent his early years in Cornwall, moved back to Wales before going to Newcastle University, where he read physics and astronomy. Afterwards, he earned a PhD from the University of St Andrews. In 1991, he moved to Noordwijk in the Netherlands where he met his wife Josette (who is from France). There, he worked for the European Space Research and Technology Centre (part of the European Space Agency) until 2004 when he left to pursue writing full-time. He returned to Wales in 2008 and lives near Cardiff.

Bestiary!

Bestiary! is an anthology of fantasy short stories, edited by American writers Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois. It was first published in paperback by Ace Books in October 1985, and reprinted in 1986.The book collects eighteen novelettes and short stories by various authors featuring imaginary creatures out of myth and legend including the dragon, unicorn, giant, centaur, dryad, minotaur, sphinx, sea serpent, phoenix, troll, griffin, and pegasus, together with a preface and brief essays on the creatures by the editors.

Dangerous Women (anthology)

Dangerous Women is a cross-genre anthology featuring 21 original short stories and novellas "from some of the biggest authors in the science fiction/fantasy field", edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois and released on December 3, 2013. The works "showcase the supposedly weaker sex's capacity for magic, violence, and mayhem" and "explores the heights that brave women can reach and the depths that depraved ones can plumb." In his own introduction, Dozois writes: "Here you'll find no hapless victims who stand by whimpering in dread while the male hero fights the monster or clashes swords with the villain ... And if you want to tie these women to the railroad tracks, you'll find you have a real fight on your hands."According to Dozois, Dangerous Women was conceived as a "cross-genre anthology, one that would mingle every kind of fiction, so we asked writers from every genre — science fiction, fantasy, mystery, historical, horror, paranormal romance, men and women alike — to tackle the theme." The anthology was originally announced as Femmes Fatale. Martin noted that the works by himself, Brandon Sanderson, Diana Gabaldon, and Caroline Spector are novellas. The anthology won the 2014 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology.

Down These Strange Streets

Down These Strange Streets is an urban fantasy anthology edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois and released on October 4, 2011.

Futures Past

Futures Past (2006, ISBN 978-0-441-01454-5) is a science fiction anthology edited by American writers Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois. It was published in 2006, and includes stories on the theme of "futures past" that were originally published from 1956 to 2004. It is the 34th book in their anthology series for Ace Books.

Hackers (anthology)

Hackers is an anthology of science fiction short stories edited by Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois. It was first published in 1996. It contains stories by science fiction and cyberpunk writers of the late 1980s and early 1990s about hackers.

Immortals (anthology)

Immortals (ISBN 0-441-00539-X) is a 1998 anthology of science fiction short stories edited by American writers Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois.

Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois Ace anthology series

Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois have jointly edited a series of themed science fiction and fantasy anthologies, mostly published by Ace Books (a few were issued by other publishers). Because most of the earlier volumes had one-word titles followed by an exclamation mark, it has also been known as "The Exclamatory series."

The series began in 1980 with Aliens!, issued by Pocket Books. Ace took over publication with Unicorns!, the second volume, in 1982. Under Ace, most volumes of the series were originally themed around a certain type of "magic" entities, with science fiction-oriented volumes being the exception. Hence, it was known as the "Magic Tales Anthology Series" until 1995. The "magic" guideline was abandoned in 1996 when the series switched its focus to more strictly science fiction themes, beginning with Hackers. Volumes have usually appeared at the rate of one or two per year, with 38 volumes as of 2007.

The stories selected for the books tend to be reprints of previously published stories, some of them decades old. Each book has a preface by the editors, along with a short introduction for each of the stories, focused on other works by the story's author.

Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois have also co-edited anthologies that are not part of this series, such as Future Power (1976).

Nanotech (anthology)

Nanotech is a 1998 anthology of science fiction short stories revolving around nanotechnology and its effects. It is edited by American writers Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois.

Old Mars

Old Mars is a "retro Mars science fiction"-themed anthology edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois, published on October 8, 2013. According to the publisher Tor Books, the collection "celebrates the "Golden Age of Science Fiction", an era before advanced astronomy and space exploration told us what we currently know about the Solar System, when "of all the planets orbiting that G-class star we call the Sun, none was so steeped in an aura of romantic decadence, thrilling mystery, and gung-ho adventure as Mars."Old Mars won a 2014 Locus Award.

Old Venus

Old Venus is a "retro Venus science fiction"-themed anthology edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois, that was published on March 3, 2015. All of the stories are set on the planet Venus as styled in the pre-space probe pulp magazines of the 1930s through the 1950s, in which it is a planet where humans could live.

One Million A.D.

One Million A.D. is a science fiction anthology edited by American writer Gardner Dozois, published in 2005.

Rogues (anthology)

Rogues is a cross-genre anthology featuring 21 original short stories from various authors, edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois, and released on June 17, 2014.Of the book Martin said, "We’ve got something for everyone in Rogues … SF, mystery, historical fiction, epic fantasy, sword and sorcery, comedy, tragedy, crime stories, mainstream. And rogues, cads, scalawags, con men, thieves, and scoundrels of all descriptions. If you love Harry Flashman and Cugel the Clever, as I do, this is the book for you."

Songs of Love and Death (anthology)

Songs of Love and Death: All-Original Tales of Star-Crossed Love is a cross-genre anthology featuring 17 original short stories of romance in science fiction/fantasy settings, edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois and released on November 16, 2010. Suzanne Johnson wrote for Tor.com, "From zombie-infested woods in a postapocalyptic America to faery-haunted rural fields in eighteenth-century England, from the kingdoms of high fantasy to the alien world of a galaxy-spanning empire, these are stories of lovers who must struggle against the forces of magic and fate."

Songs of the Dying Earth

Songs of the Dying Earth: Stories in Honor of Jack Vance is a collection of short fiction and shorter essays composed in appreciation of the science fiction and fantasy author Jack Vance, especially his Dying Earth series. Edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois, it was published in 2009 by Subterranean Press.Twenty-two authors contributed short fiction and an Afterword, about thirty pages on average. Fifteen of the stories are novelettes (7500 to 17,500 words), six are shorter, and The Guiding Nose of Ulfänt Banderōz by Dan Simmons is a novella highlighted on the cover of the second U.S. edition.As of May 2012 there have been British (Harper) and American (Tor) hardcover and trade paper editions, an American audio edition, and two numbers of an Italian-language serialization.

Strangers (Dozois novel)

Strangers is a science fiction novel by American author Gardner Dozois, published in 1978.

The novel was expanded from its original form as a novella, which first appeared in New Dimensions IV (edited by Robert Silverberg) in 1974. The novella was nominated for both the Hugo and Locus Poll Award, and has since been collected in Dozois's short fiction collection, Strange Days: Fabulous Journeys with Gardner Dozois.

The expanded novel was originally published by Berkley Books, and was nominated for the Nebula Award for Best Novel and the Locus Poll Award. It was reprinted by iBooks in 2003.

The New Space Opera

The New Space Opera is a science fiction anthology edited by Gardner Dozois and Jonathan Strahan. It was published in 2007, and includes all original stories selected to represent the genre of space opera. It includes a five-page introduction, plus a brief introduction to each of the stories, and a dedication to Jack Dann. The front and back covers include endorsements by Orson Scott Card, Charles Stross, Joe Haldeman, Vernor Vinge, and Greg Bear. Ten out of the eighteen stories in the book were selected for the Locus recommended reading list for 2007.The anthology was followed with The New Space Opera 2 (2009).

The Year's Best Science Fiction

The Year's Best Science Fiction is a series of science fiction anthologies edited by Gardner Dozois. The series, which is unrelated to the similarly titled Year's Best SF series, is published by St. Martin's Press (Griffin).

In the UK the series is entitled The Mammoth Book Of Best New Science Fiction and is published by Robinson. The US edition of the first of the "Mammoth Book" series was The Year's Best Science Fiction: Fourth Annual Collection (1987). The UK series was titled Best New SF 2 through Best New SF 7 from 1988 through 1993.In 2005 Dozois edited a "Best of the Best" compilation. That compilation and the entire series is to be re-released as e-books in October 2012.

Warriors (anthology)

Warriors is a cross-genre, all-original fiction anthology featuring stories on the subjects of war and warriors; it was edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois. The book's Introduction, "Stories from the Spinner Rack", was written by Martin. This anthology was first published in hardcover by Tor Books on March 16, 2010. It won a Locus Award for Best Anthology in 2011.The book was later split and republished in paperback as Warriors 1 (ISBN 9780765360267, published in 2010); Warriors 2 (ISBN 9780765360274, published in 2011) and Warriors 3 (ISBN 9780765360281, also published in 2011). Stories from the Spinner Rack is included in all the three split books.

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