Gardiners Island

Gardiner's Island is a small island in the Town of East Hampton, New York, in Eastern Suffolk County. It is located in Gardiner's Bay between the two peninsulas at the East end of Long Island. It is 6 miles (9.7 km) long, 3 miles (4.8 km) wide and has 27 miles (43 km) of coastline. The island has been owned by the Gardiner family and their descendants since 1639 when Lion Gardiner purchased it from the Montaukett chief Wyandanch.[1] It is one of the larger privately owned islands in the United States, and is slightly smaller than Naushon Island in Massachusetts, owned by the Forbes family.[2][3]

Gardiners Island
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Geography
LocationGardiners Bay
Total islands2
Area5.184 sq mi (13.43 km2)
Administration
United States
StateNew York
CountySuffolk County

Geography

Gardiner-island
Gardiners Island from Springs, New York showing the famed white windmill and manor house.

The island is 3,318 acres (1,343 ha) in size.[4] It includes more than 1,000 acres (400 ha) of old growth forest and another 1,000 acres (405 ha) of meadows. Many of the buildings date back to the 17th century. In 1989, the island was said to be worth $125 million.[5]

The island has the largest stand of white oak in the American Northeast. Other trees include swamp maple, wild cherry and birch. The island is home to New York state's largest colony of ospreys, and is one of the few locations in the world where they build their nests on the ground, as there are no natural predators to the osprey on the island.

Its structures include the oldest surviving wood-frame structure in New York state, a carpenter's shed built there in 1639, as well as a private airstrip on the south side of the island.

History

Gardiners island 2007
Gardiners Island from above

First English settlement in New York

In 1639, the island was settled by Lion Gardiner, who moved there with his family from Connecticut. The island was originally in its own jurisdiction, not part of Connecticut or Rhode Island, long before there was a State of New York. It has been privately owned by Gardiner's descendants for over three hundred and seventy five years.

Lion Gardiner reportedly purchased the island locally in 1639 from the Montaukett Indians for "a large black dog, some powder and shot, and a few Dutch blankets." The Indians called the island Manchonake, while Gardiner initially called it Isle of Wight, because it reminded him of the Isle of Wight in England.[6] The Montauketts gave Gardiner the title, at least in part because of his support for them in the Pequot War.

Gardiner also had to gain approval for the land grant from James Farrett, an agent of the Earl of Stirling, William Alexander. The Earl of Stirling had been given Long Island by the King of England in 1636.

The royal patent of 1639 gave Gardiner the "right to possess the land forever", with the island being declared a proprietary colony. Lion Gardiner was given the title of Lord of the Manor and thus was able to govern the island.

On October 5, 1665, after it had been resolved that the English, rather than the Dutch, would rule Long Island, and that it would not be part of Connecticut, Richard Nicolls, the first Governor of the Province of New York, issued a new patent to Lion Gardiner's son David Gardiner.

In 1688, when Governor Thomas Dongan granted a patent formally establishing the East Hampton government, there was an attempt to annex the island to East Hampton. However, the Gardiners resisted and Dongan reaffirmed its special status.[7] The island's special status was to continue until after the American Revolution, when it was formally annexed to East Hampton.

Gardiner established a plantation on the island for growing corn, wheat, fruit, and tobacco, as well for raising livestock.

Captain Kidd

Privateer William Kidd buried treasure on the island in June 1699, having stopped there while sailing to Boston to answer charges of piracy. With the permission of the island's proprietor, he buried a chest and a box of gold and two boxes of silver (the box of gold, Kidd told Gardiner, was intended for Lord Bellomont) in a ravine between Bostwick's Point and the Manor House. For her trouble, Kidd gave Mrs. Gardiner a length of gold cloth, captured from a Moorish ship off the coast of India (a piece of which is now at the East Hampton library), and a sack of sugar. It is said that Kidd warned that, if the treasure was not there when he returned, he would kill the Gardiners, although trial testimony given by John Gardiner on July 17, 1699 makes no mention of any threats, and Kidd's conduct appears to have been quite civil.[8] Kidd was tried in Boston, and Gardiner was ordered by Governor Bellomont to deliver the treasure as evidence. The booty included gold dust, bars of silver, Spanish dollars, rubies, diamonds, candlesticks, and porringers. Gardiner kept one of the diamonds which he later gave to his daughter. A plaque on the island marks the spot where the treasure was buried.[9][10][11]

American Revolution

The Gardiners sided with the colonists during the American Revolution. However, a fleet of thirteen British ships sailed into Cherry Harbor and began foraging the island and its manor house at will; they were planning to turn it into a private hunting preserve. Among the British guests were Henry Clinton and John André. At one point, Major André and Gardiner's son Nathaniel Gardiner exchanged toasts on the island. Nathaniel Gardiner was a surgeon for the New Hampshire Continental Infantry. He was the American surgeon who later attended to André before he was executed for spying with Benedict Arnold.[12]

Following the revolution, the island was formally brought under East Hampton town jurisdiction.

War of 1812

During the War of 1812 a British fleet of seven ships of the line and several smaller frigates anchored in Cherry Harbor and conducted raids on American shipping through Long Island Sound. Crews would come ashore for provisions which were purchased at market prices. During one of the British excursions, Americans captured some of the crew. The British came to arrest then Lord of the Manor John Lyon Gardiner I, who, being a delicate man, adopted the "green room defense" where he stayed in a bed with green curtains surrounded by medicine to make him look feeble. The British, not wanting a sick man on board, let him be.[13]

The British were to bury several personnel on the island during the course of the war. Some of the British fleet that burned Washington assembled in the harbor in 1814.[14]

Gardiner's supply boats were manned by slaves during the war and this made it easier for them to pass through British lines. Many of the Gardiner slaves were to live in the Freetown, just north of East Hampton village.[13]

Birthplace of First Lady Julia Gardiner Tyler

Julia Gardiner, who was to become President John Tyler's second wife and First Lady in 1844, was born on the island in 1820.

Gardiners Point Lighthouse and Fort Tyler

From 1854 to 1894, the island was the site of the Gardiners Island Lighthouse.

Gardiners Point Island is an island in Block Island Sound that was the former location of the Gardiner Island Lighthouse as well as Fort Tyler. For many years the island was connected via a shoal to Gardiners Island and as such it is under the jurisdiction of East Hampton (town), New York. In 1851 the federal government purchased 14 acres (5.7 ha) on the peninsula from the Gardiners for $400 with the lighthouse first being lit in 1855 after a construction expenditure of $7,000. The lighthouse was in 27-foot (8.2 m) square, 1½ story brick building and had a sixth order Fresnel Lens, fixed white light 33 feet (10 m) above sea level.

A March 1888 Nor'easter caused a break in the peninsula permanently turning the point into an island. Between 1890 and 1893 the island was shrinking at the rate of 10 34 feet (3.3 m) per year. On March 7, 1894, the lighthouse was abandoned and shortly afterward fell into the ocean. A lighted buoy was then moored ¼ miles northeast of the lighthouse. During the Spanish–American War the War Department appropriated $500,000 to build the Fort Tyler battery on the island (named for former President John Tyler who had married Julia Gardiner Tyler who had been born on Gardiners Island). The shifting sands caused problems for the fort as well and it was abandoned in the late 1920s. In 1921 its guns included Battery Edmund Smith, 2 - 8" Disappearing, 2 - 5" (or possibly 8") Pedestal. In 1938 the island was declared a National Bird Refuge by Franklin Roosevelt and transferred to the Agriculture Department. During World War II the fort was used for target practice and was reduced to its present state where it is popularly called "The Ruins."

The state of New York briefly considered turning it into a park but it is deemed a navigational hazard because of the possibilities of unexploded ordnance. It is privately owned now.

1947 to today

The current manor house was built some time after 1947 by Sarah Diodati Gardiner, who was descended from Lion Gardiner the First in three ways. The previous manor house was built by David Gardiner in 1774 and burned to the ground in 1947; it was thought after a guest fell asleep while smoking. Valuable antiques were destroyed in this fire, while the caretaker saved his own life by jumping from a window. Sarah Gardiner erected a new 28-room manor house in the Georgian style. She died in 1953, still unmarried, at the age of ninety. From 1955 until 1963 Sperry Rand leased the island for top echelon meetings.[15] Sarah Gardiner was a multimillionaire and left the island estate to her nephew, Robert David Lion Gardiner and his sister, Alexandra Gardiner Creel. They took possession of the island at the expiration of Sperry Rand's lease in 1963.

Robert David Lion Gardiner, the 16th Lord of the Manor, inherited three Gardiner fortunes from his father, his uncle and his Aunt Sarah.[16]

The island was designated as a National Natural Landmark (NNL) in April 1967 by the National Park Service, in recognition of its waterfowl and shorebird habitat, and its role as a breeding ground for osprey.[17] Its NNL status was removed in July 2006 following a request from the island's owner.[18]

Challenges to private ownership

Owing to the high cost of upkeep, in 1937 the island was put up for sale but was bought at the last minute by a relative, Sarah Diodati Gardiner, for $400,000. Upon her death in 1953, the island passed in trust to her nephew, Robert David Lion Gardiner, and his sister, Alexandra Gardiner Creel.[5] Their aunt had also set aside a trust fund for upkeep of the island, but it was exhausted by the 1970s. When Creel died, her rights passed to her daughter, Alexandra Creel Goelet. Robert Gardiner and Mrs. Goelet were to have a highly publicized dispute over ownership and direction of the island.

Robert accused Alexandra of wanting to sell and develop the island. She accused him of not paying his share of the estimated $2 million per year upkeep and taxes of the island. Robert said he would not oppose ownership by the government or a private conservancy group.[5] The case went to court in 1980 and Robert was initially barred from visiting the island, but in 1992, courts ruled that he could visit the island (although the Goelets and Gardiner were not on the island at the same time).

Robert Gardiner, who claimed the title "16th Lord of the Manor of Gardiner's Island" and lived in East Hampton, married in 1961 but had no children, leaving him with no direct heir. In 1989, Mr. Gardiner attempted unsuccessfully to adopt a middle-aged Mississippi businessman, George Gardiner Green, Jr., as his "son."[5] Green was a descendent of Lion Gardiner. Upon Robert's death in 2004, total ownership passed to Alexandra. Shortly before his death he said:

We have always married into wealth. We've covered all our bets. We were on both sides of the Revolution, and both sides of the Civil War. The Gardiner family always came out on top.[5]

The Goelets offered to place a conservation easement on the island in exchange for a promise from the Town of East Hampton not to rezone the land, change its assessment or attempt to acquire it by condemnation. The Goelets and East Hampton agreed upon the easement through 2025.[19]

Ownership

  • Lion Gardiner as a proprietary colony, 1st Proprietor and Lord of the Manor. 1639 to 1663.[20]
  • John Lyon Gardiner I.
  • John Lyon Gardiner II ? to 1910.[21]
  • Sarah Diodati Gardiner 1937 to 1953.[20]
  • Alexandra Gardiner Creel and Robert David Lion Gardiner, 16th Lord of the Manor, 1953 to ?[20]
  • Alexandra Creel Goelet, sole owner after the death of her uncle, 2004 to present.

Notable people

  • Lewis A. Edwards (1811–1879), was an American businessman, manufacturer, politician and a Democratic member of the New York State Senate (1st D.)[22]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Weigold, Mary E. (2015). Peconic Bay: Four Centuries of History on Long Island's North and South Forks. Syracuse University Press. pp. 16–17.
  2. ^ Nevius, Michelle & Nevius, James (2009), Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City, New York: Free Press, ISBN 141658997X, pp.84-85
  3. ^ Niihau is larger, see: Trebay, Guy (2004-08-29). "The Last Lord Of Gardiners Island". New York Times.
  4. ^ Suffolk County Department of Planning (October 2000). "1999 Land Available for Development - Eastern Suffolk County" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 18, 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-26.
  5. ^ a b c d e Gardiners Island: What Next? Archived June 16, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "The Isle of Wight Postcard and Feature Page's summary of information from Newsday". Round-the-island.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
  7. ^ Henry P. Hedges, History of East Hampton (1849) Chapter 6, on longislandgenealogy.com
  8. ^ New England Historical and Genealogy Register, Vol. VI, pp. 72-84. A verbatim report of John Gardiner's testimony taken before a board of government commissioners at Boston.
  9. ^ Jeannette Edwards Rattray, PIRATES AND PROHIBITION from East Hampton History (1953, Country Life Press, Garden City, NY) on longislandgeneology.com, accessed January 12, 2007
  10. ^ Richard Zacks, The Pirate Hunter: The True Story of Captain Kidd, pp. 153-159, 241, 260
  11. ^ http://archive.easthamptonstar.com/ehquery/980625/hist1.htm\East
  12. ^ John Austin Stevens, 'The Manor of Gardiners Island' in The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries (January 1885), p. 12
  13. ^ a b The Manor of Gardiners Island - The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries By John Austin Stevens - January 1885
  14. ^ "Gardiners Island Lighouses". East End Lighthouses. Archived from the original on 2012-01-29. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
  15. ^ "Reading Eagle - Google News Archive Search".
  16. ^ Ellsworth S. Grant, writing in American Heritage, October 1975 issue
  17. ^ National Registry of Natural Landmarks. National Park Service. 1989. p. 79. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  18. ^ "Notice of Multiple National Natural Landmark Boundary Changes and De-designations" (PDF). Federal Register. 71 (138): 41050. July 19, 2006. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  19. ^ Newsday, May 24, 2005
  20. ^ a b c "Robert D.L. Gardiner, 93, Lord of His Own Island, Dies". New York Times. August 24, 2004. Retrieved 2014-01-29. Robert David Lion Gardiner, the last heir to bear the name of the family that has owned Gardiner's Island, off the coast of Long Island, for nearly four centuries, died yesterday at his home in East Hampton, N.Y. He was 93. ... Mr. Gardiner called himself the 16th Lord of the Manor and saw himself as a custodian of his family's history on what is said to be the largest privately owned island in the world.
  21. ^ "John Lyon Gardiner Dead. Owner of Gardiner's Island, Associated with Capt. Kidd, the Pirate" (PDF). New York Times. January 22, 1910. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  22. ^ The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough, Stephen C. Hutchins and Edgar Albert Werner (1870; pg. 444 and 591)

Further reading

Coordinates: 41°05′48″N 72°06′15″W / 41.09667°N 72.10417°W

Block Island Sound

Block Island Sound is a strait in the open Atlantic Ocean, approximately 10 miles (16 km) wide, separating Block Island from the coast of mainland Rhode Island in the United States. On the west, it extends to Montauk Point on the eastern tip of Long Island, as well as Plum Island, Gardiners Island, and Fishers Island, all in the state of New York.Geographically, Block Island Sound is the eastward extension of Long Island Sound as well as the westward extension of Rhode Island Sound.

Carpenter's shed on Gardiners Island

A carpenter's shed built in 1639, on Gardiners Island in New York is possibly the oldest surviving wooden structure built in New York and was reportedly built when Lion Gardiner first settled on the island.Gardiner's Island has been owned by the same family for nearly 400 years and is the only American real estate still intact as part of an original royal grant from the English Crown.In 1639, the island was settled by Lion Gardiner from a grant by Charles I as the first colonial English settlement in present-day New York state. The island was originally in its own jurisdiction affiliated with neither New York nor New England. Lion Gardiner reportedly purchased the island in 1639 from the Montaukett Indians for "a large black dog, some powder and shot, and a few Dutch blankets." The Indians called the island Manchonake, while Gardiner initially called it Isle of Wight, because it reminded him of the Isle of Wight in England. The Montauketts gave Gardiner title at least in part because of his support for them in the Pequot War.

The original 1639 royal patent gave Gardiner the "right to possess the land forever" with the island being declared a proprietary colony with the Gardiners getting the title of Lord of the Manor and thus able to establish laws for the island.

David Gardiner (politician)

David Gardiner (May 29, 1784 – February 28, 1844) was an American lawyer and politician who served as a member of New York State Senate from 1824 to 1828. He was the father of Julia Gardiner Tyler, second wife of U.S. President John Tyler. He died in an explosion aboard the USS Princeton.

Dennis Puleston

Dennis Puleston (30 December 1905 – 8 June 2001) was a British-born American environmentalist, adventurer and designer. He is perhaps best known for playing a key part in securing a nationwide ban in the United States on the use of the pesticide DDT, a decision regarded as the first important success of the emerging environmental movement. As a result of this ban, he helped save his favourite bird, the osprey, from extinction in North America. He was co-founder and the first chairman of the Environmental Defense Fund. Puleston also co-designed the DUKW, an amphibious vehicle used in World War II.

East Hampton (town), New York

The Town of East Hampton is located in southeastern Suffolk County, New York, at the eastern end of the South Shore of Long Island. It is the easternmost town in the state of New York. At the time of the United States 2010 Census, it had a total population of 21,457.

The town includes the village of East Hampton, as well as the hamlets of Montauk, Amagansett, Wainscott, and Springs. It also includes part of the incorporated village of Sag Harbor.

East Hampton is located on a peninsula, bordered on the south by the Atlantic Ocean, to the east by Block Island Sound and to the north by Gardiners Bay, Napeague Bay and Fort Pond Bay. To the west is western Long Island, reaching to the East River and New York City. The Town has eight state parks, most located at the water's edge.

The town consists of 70 square miles (180 km2) and stretches nearly 25 miles (40 km), from Wainscott in the west to Montauk Point in the east. It is about six miles (10 km) wide at its widest point and less than a mile at its narrowest point. The town has jurisdiction over Gardiners Island, which is one of the largest privately owned islands in the United States. The town has 70 miles (110 km) of shoreline.

Gardiners Bay

Gardiners Bay is a small arm of the Atlantic Ocean, approximately 10 mi (16 km) long and 8 mi (13 km) wide in the U.S. state of New York between the two flukelike peninsulas at the eastern end of Long Island. It is bounded on its eastern end, where it connects to Block Island Sound, by Gardiners Island and Promised Land.

Adjoining harbors include Three Mile Harbor, Clearwater beach, Acabonack Harbor, and Lazy Point's Napeague harbor. Native fish include; Striped Bass, Bluefish, Fluke, Yellowtail, flounder, blackfish, weakfish, Porgy, sea Robbin, and sea skate. The area is fed by the nearby estuaries of Three mile Harbor, Acabonack Creek, and Napeague, which produce ideal environments for shellfish and crustaceans. Blue claw crab, oysters, and hard shell clams, scallops, and conch are abundant throughout these areas.

It is bounded on the western end by Shelter Island. It connects by two channels at the north and south end of Shelter Island to Great Peconic Bay. During the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, the bay was controlled by the British, who used Gardiners Island to store provisions. The British fleet assembled in Cherry Harbor in the bay before sailing to Chesapeake Bay to attack Washington, D.C. and burn the United States Capitol.

Gardiners Bay is part of the Peconic Estuary and received the designation as an Estuary of National Significance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1993.

Gardiners Island Windmill

Gardiners Island Windmill is a historic windmill on Gardiners Island in East Hampton, New York.

The windmill was built in 1795 and added to the National Historic Register in 1978.

Gardiners Point Island

Gardiners Point Island is an island in Block Island Sound, New York, that was the former location of the Gardiner Island Lighthouse as well as Fort Tyler.

For many years the island was connected via a shoal to Gardiners Island and as such it is under the jurisdiction of East Hampton. In 1851 the federal government purchased 14 acres (5.7 ha) on the peninsula from the Gardiners for $400 with the Gardiners Point Light first being lit in 1855 after a construction expenditure of $7,000.

A March 1888 Nor'easter, referred to as the Great Blizzard of 1888, caused a break in the peninsula permanently turning the point into an island. Between 1890 and 1893 the island was shrinking at the rate of 10​2⁄3 feet per year.

During the Spanish–American War the War Department recommended and Congress appropriated $500,000 to build Fort Tyler on the island as part of the Harbor Defenses of Long Island Sound. A temporary battery was constructed as an interim measure at a cost of $77,100. This battery consisted of emplacements for two 8-inch M1888 guns on converted carriages for 1870s-era Rodman guns. It was one of a number of batteries built shortly after the outbreak of the war, as it was feared the Spanish fleet would bombard the US east coast. The "Report of the Commission on the Conduct of the War with Spain" states the platforms were ready, but does not state that the guns were mounted. There are two stories as to who the permanent fort was named for. One source states it was named for Daniel Tyler, a general and Civil War veteran who died in 1882, in General Order 194 of 27 December 1904. Another story is that it was named for former President John Tyler (1841-1845) who married Julia Gardiner Tyler, born on Gardiners Island. The permanent fort consisted of Battery Edmund Smith, with emplacements for two 8-inch M1888 disappearing guns and two 5-inch M1900 guns on pedestal mounts. Records indicate that it was never armed. The fort was unusual in that it seems to have arisen entirely out of wartime fears. Most forts of its era were started based on recommendations of the 1885 Board of Fortifications and were already under construction (though years from completion) when war broke out. Thus, in most cases the temporary batteries were to quickly provide some armament for pre-existing forts.

The shifting sands caused continuing problems for the fort, and it was abandoned in 1924 and transferred to the state as part of a post-World War I drawdown of coast defenses.

In 1938 the island was declared a National Bird Refuge by Franklin Roosevelt and transferred to the Agriculture Department.During World War II the fort was used for bombing practice and this, combined with erosion, reduced it to its present state where it is popularly called "The Ruins."

The state of New York briefly considered turning it into a park but it is deemed a navigational hazard because of the possibilities of unexploded ordnance. It is now part of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex.

Lewis A. Edwards

Lewis A. Edwards (June 18, 1811 in Gardiners Island, East Hampton, Suffolk County, New York – June 3, 1879) was an American businessman, manufacturer and politician from New York.

Lion Gardiner

Lion Gardiner (1599–1663) founded the first settlement in New York on Long Island. His legacy includes Gardiners Island, which is held by his descendants.

List of islands of New York (state)

The following is a list of islands found within New York State.

List of windmills in Illinois

This is a list of traditional windmills in the American state of Illinois.

List of windmills in New York

This is a list of traditional windmills in the American state of New York.

List of windmills in Rhode Island

This is a list of traditional windmills in the American state of Rhode Island.

Murney Tower

Murney Tower is a Martello tower in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, whose construction dates to January 1846. The Tower was built in response to the Oregon Crisis, which was a tense dispute over the border between British North America and the United States in the 1840s.

The Tower is one of five components of the Kingston Fortifications that defended Kingston Harbour, the Naval Dockyard, military supply depot and the southern entrance of the Rideau Canal. Murney Tower complements the fortifications of Fort Henry, Ontario, Cathcart Tower on Cedar Island, Shoal Tower in the Confederation Basin and Fort Frederick on the grounds of the Royal Military College of Canada. In addition to protecting the harbour and approaches to Kingston, these fortifications were designed to concentrate fire on Gardiners Island; it being the only place to effectively land artillery at the time.

National Register of Historic Places listings in East Hampton (town), New York

This list is intended to provide a comprehensive listing of entries in the National Register of Historic Places in the Town of East Hampton, New York. The locations of National Register properties for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.

Suffolk County, New York

Suffolk County is a predominantly suburban county on Long Island and the easternmost county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 1,493,350, estimated to have decreased slightly to 1,492,953 in 2017, making it the fourth-most populous county in New York. Its county seat is Riverhead, though most county offices are in Hauppauge. The county was named after the county of Suffolk in England, from where its earliest European settlers came.

Suffolk County incorporates the easternmost extreme of the New York City metropolitan area. The largest of Long Island's four counties and the second-largest of 62 counties in New York State, Suffolk measures 86 miles (138 km) in length and 26 miles (42 km) in width at its widest (including water).Major scientific research facilities in Suffolk County include Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Huntington, and Plum Island Animal Disease Center on Plum Island.

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