Gardens by the Bay

Gardens by the Bay is a nature park spanning 101 hectares (250 acres) of reclaimed land[2] in the Central Region of Singapore, adjacent to the Marina Reservoir. The park consists of three waterfront gardens: Bay South Garden (in Marina South), Bay East Garden (in Marina East) and Bay Central Garden (in Downtown Core and Kallang).[3] The largest of the gardens is Bay South Garden at 54 hectares (130 acres). Its Flower Dome is the largest glass greenhouse in the world.[4]

Gardens by the Bay is part of the nation's plans to transform its "Garden City" to a "City in a Garden", with the aim of raising the quality of life by enhancing greenery and flora in the city. First announced by the Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, at the National Day Rally in 2005, Gardens by the Bay was intended to be Singapore's premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

Being one of the popular tourist attractions in Singapore, the park received 6.4 million visitors in 2014, while topping its 20 millionth visitor mark in November 2015.[5]

Gardens by the Bay
Taman di Persisiran  (Malay)
滨海湾花园 (Chinese)
வளைகுடா தோட்டம் (Tamil)
OCBC Skyway, Gardens By The Bay, Singapore - 20140809
The Supertree Grove at Gardens by the Bay
Gardens by the Bay is located in Singapore
Gardens by the Bay
TypeNature park
LocationDowntown Core, Kallang, Marina East, Marina South, Singapore
Coordinates1°17′5″N 103°51′54″E / 1.28472°N 103.86500°ECoordinates: 1°17′5″N 103°51′54″E / 1.28472°N 103.86500°E
Area101 hectares (250 acres)
Operated byGardens by the Bay
Visitors50 million (as of Oct 2018)[1]
Public transit access CE1  DT16  Bayfront
 TE22  Gardens by the Bay (from 2021)
Founders' Memorial (from 2025)

Bay Central Garden

Bay Central Garden will act as a link between Bay South and Bay East Gardens. It stands at 15 hectares (37 acres) with a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) waterfront promenade that allows for scenic walks stretching from the city centre to the east of Singapore.[6] More developments of Bay Central Garden are coming in the next few years.

Bay East Garden

Singapore skyline at sunset viewed from Gardens by the Bay East - 20120426
The Singapore skyline viewed from Bay East Garden

Bay East Garden is 32 hectares (79 acres) in size and it has a 2-kilometre (1.2 mi) promenade frontage bordering the Marina Reservoir. An interim park was developed at Bay East Garden in support of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics. The first phase of the garden was opened to the public in October 2011, allowing alternative access to the Marina Barrage.[7]

It is designed as a series of large tropical leaf-shaped gardens, each with its own specific landscaping design, character and theme. There will be five water inlets aligned with the prevailing wind direction, maximizing and extending the shoreline while allowing wind and water to penetrate the site to help cool areas of activity around them.

Bay East Garden provides visitors with an unobstructed view of the city skyline. Upcoming developments of Bay East Garden will be based on the theme of water.

Bay South Garden

Bay South Garden opened to the public on 29 June 2012.[8] It is the largest of the three gardens at 54 hectares (130 acres) and aims to showcase the best of tropical horticulture and garden artistry.

The overall concept of its master plan draws inspiration from an orchid as it is representative of the tropics and of Singapore, being the country's national flower, the Vanda 'Miss Joaquim'. The orchid takes root at the waterfront (conservatories), while the leaves (landforms), shoots (paths, roads and linkways) and secondary roots (water, energy and communication lines) then form an integrated network with blooms (theme gardens and Supertrees) at key intersections.


Gardens by the Bay, Singapore 2012
Gardens by the Bay in 2012.

The conservatory complex at Gardens by the Bay, Singapore, comprises two cooled conservatories – the Flower Dome (Chinese: 花穹) and the Cloud Forest (Chinese: 云雾林), situated along the edge of Marina Reservoir. The conservatories, designed by WilkinsonEyre, are intended to be an energy efficient showcase of sustainable building technologies and to provide an all-weather edutainment space within the Gardens. Both are very large (around 1 hectare (2.5 acres)) and the Flower Dome is the world's largest columnless glasshouse.[9]

SkylinefromGardensbytheBay-23Sep2016-Bimal Mehta
Singapore Skyline at Sunset from Gardens by the Bay

The construction of the glasshouses is special in two ways. First of all by being able to have such large a glass-roof without additional interior support (such as columns). Secondly because the constructions aims strongly at minimizing the environmental footprint. Rainwater is collected from the surface and circulated in the cooling system which is connected to the Supertrees. The Supertrees are used both to vent hot air and to cool circulated water.[10]

Flower Dome

Flower Dome, Gardens by the Bay, Singapore - 20120712-02
The main avenue in the Flower Dome.
Flower Dome, Gardens by the Bay, Singapore - 20120628-01
The South American garden

The Flower Dome is the lower but larger of the two, at 1.2 hectares (3.0 acres). It replicates a mild, dry climate and features plants found in the Mediterranean and other semi-arid tropical regions (e.g. parts of Australia, South America, South Africa).

The Flower Dome is 38 metres (125 ft) high and maintains a temperature between 23 °C and 25 °C, slightly lower at night.

The Flower Dome features seven different "gardens" as well as an olive grove with a bistro and a central changing display field has also been incorporated to enable flower shows and displays to be held within the conservatory.

Here is the list of some plants growing in the Flower Dome:[11]

Cloud Forest

Cloud Forest, Gardens by the Bay, Singapore - 20120617-05
The Cloud Mountain
Cloud Forest, Gardens by the Bay, Singapore - 20120628-01
The Lost World

The Cloud Forest is higher but slightly smaller at 0.8 hectares (2.0 acres). It replicates the cool moist conditions found in tropical mountain regions between 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above sea level, found in South-East Asia, Middle- and South America. It features a 42-metre (138 ft) "Cloud Mountain", accessible by an elevator, and visitors will be able to descend the mountain via a circular path where a 35-metre (115 ft) waterfall provides visitors with refreshing cool air.

The "Cloud Mountain" itself is an intricate structure completely clad in epiphytes such as orchids, ferns, peacock ferns, spike- and clubmosses, bromeliads and anthuriums. It consists of a number of levels, each with a different theme, including The Lost World, The Cavern, The Waterfall View, The Crystal Mountain, The Cloud Forest Gallery, The Cloud Forest Theatre and The Secret Garden.

The following is a partial list of plants growing in the Cloud Forest:[12]

Supertree Grove

Supertrees are tree-like structures that dominate the Gardens' landscape with heights that range between 25 metres (82 ft) and 50 metres (160 ft). They are vertical gardens that perform a multitude of functions, which include planting, shading and working as environmental engines for the gardens.[13]

Supertree Grove Singapore (36623029551) (2)
Supertree Grove Singapore
Supertree Grove, Gardens by the Bay, Singapore - 20120630-04
A night view of the Supertrees.

The Supertrees are home to enclaves of unique and exotic ferns, vines, orchids and also a vast collection of bromeliads such as Tillandsia, amongst other plants. They are fitted with environmental technologies that mimic the ecological function of trees: photovoltaic cells that harness solar energy which can be used for some of the functions of the Supertrees (such as lighting), similar to how trees photosynthesize, and collection of rainwater for use in irrigation and fountain displays, similar to how trees absorb rainwater for growth. The Supertrees also serve air intake and exhaust functions as part of the conservatories' cooling systems.

There is an elevated walkway, the OCBC Skyway, between two of the larger Supertrees for visitors to enjoy a panoramic aerial view of the Gardens. A food and beverage outlet is planned atop the 50-metre (160 ft) Supertree. Every night, at 7:45pm and 8:45pm, the Supertree Grove comes alive with a coordinated light and music show known as the Garden Rhapsody. The accompanying music to the show changes every month or so, with certain themes such as A World of Wonder and A Night of Musical Theatre, which features excerpts/pieces from films like Jurassic Park and Pirates of the Caribbean.

Italy's Pavilion in Expo 2015, featured a structure called Albero della Vita (or "Tree of Life" in Italian), which proved visually similar to Singapore's Supertrees.

Children's Garden

Designed by Grant Associates, which also designed Gardens by the Bay, the Children's Garden was fully funded by Far East Organization for $10 million. This is an attraction for kids aged 6 and below and 6–12 years old. This attraction was opened on 21 Jan 2014. The children's garden is near the treehouse and the adventure trail. The adventure trail consists of trampolines, balancing beams, hanging bridges and many more.

It is open on Tuesdays to Fridays from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. and on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. It will be closed on Mondays, or on the next working day if Monday is a public holiday.[14]

Horticultural themed gardens

There are two distinctly different sets of horticultural themed gardens which centre on the horticultural heritage of the various cultural groups in Singapore and on the biology and ecology of gardens and forests. They are an important part of the Gardens' edutainment programme, which aims to bring plant knowledge to the public.

The "Heritage Gardens" theme features gardens that highlights the various cultural groups in Singapore and the important role that plants play in their respective cultures, as well as the country's colonial history. It also focuses on economically important plants to Singapore and South East Asia. The 4 gardens are the Indian Garden, the Chinese Garden, the Malay Garden and the Colonial Garden.[15]

The "World of Plants" theme emphasizes the web of relationships amongst the various plants within a fragile forest setting, showcasing the biodiversity of plant life on the planet. It consists of 6 subthemes illustrated by 6 "gardens", which are named Discovery, Web of Life, Fruits and Flowers, Understorey, World of Palms, and Secret Life of Trees.[16]

Flower Market and main event space (Phase 2 of development)

Gardens at Marina South model
A model by the Urban Redevelopment Authority of the future garden at Marina South.

The Flower Market will eventually be the main entry precinct into the Gardens. It will include an indoor events space, retail and various food & beverage outlets. The main event space is a 2-hectare (4.9-acre) outdoor lawn with a stage.


The final construction cost for the project, not including the price of the land but including an access road, drainage works, and soil improvement, was within a $1.035 billion allocated budget.[17] The annual operating cost was expected to be approximately $58 million, of which $28 million was for operation of the Conservatory buildings. The project received 1.7 million visitors between June and October 2012, who had free admission to most portions of the park but were required to purchase tickets for entering the Conservatories.[18]

In 2006, an international competition for the design of the park was held, attracting more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries. Two British firms – Grant Associates and Dominic White[19] – were awarded the contracts for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

Alongside the lead designers Grant Associates, the design team for Bay South included WilkinsonEyre, Atelier Ten (environmental design consultants) and Atelier One (structural engineers). They were supported by a number of Singapore firms including CPG Consultants (architecture, civil and structural, mechanical and electrical), Meinhardt Infrastructure (civil and structural), Langdon & Seah (cost consultants) and PMLink (project management).

Transport connections

The nearest Mass Rapid Transit station is Bayfront MRT station. The Gardens by the Bay MRT station, under construction, will open in 2021.[20]

Bus Service 400 also serves the Gardens.[21]

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ "Gardens by the Bay's visitorship reaches 50 million". Singapore. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  2. ^ "Bath architects help design Singapore's City in a Garden". BBC News. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  3. ^ "Introduction".
  4. ^ "Gardens by the Bay sets Guinness record for world's largest glass greenhouse". AsiaOne.
  5. ^ Vimita Mohandas (22 November 2015). "Gardens by the Bay received 6.4m visitors last year". Today. Singapore. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Interesting Facts about Gardens by the bay that will blow your mind". 2016-05-13. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  7. ^ "Bay East Garden". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  8. ^ "Gardens by the Bay opens to the public". Channel NewsAsia. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  9. ^ "Flower Dome". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  10. ^ "Sustainability Efforts". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  11. ^ "Flower Dome, April 2014". Independent Travellers. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  12. ^ "Cloud Forest, April 2014". Independent Travellers. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  13. ^ "Supertree Grove". Gardens by the Bay. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  14. ^ "New children's garden opens at Gardens by the Bay". Yahoo! News. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  15. ^ "Gardens & Plant Collections".
  16. ^ "Gardens & Plant Collections".
  17. ^ "This is how huge it costs for Gardens by the Bay to keep operating".
  18. ^ "Final cost for Gardens by the Bay within budget: Khaw". AsiaOne. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  19. ^ Spens, Michael (2007). "Deep Explorations into Site/Non-Site: The Work of Gustafson Porter". Architectural Design. 77 (2): 66–75. doi:10.1002/ad.426.
  20. ^ "Speech by Mr Lui Tuck Yew, Minister for Transport, at the Inspection of Downtown Line 1 Station and Announcement of Thomson Line alignment, 29 August 2012, 10.00am at Telok Ayer Station". Ministry of Transport. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  21. ^ "Getting here and parking". Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  22. ^ Failes, Ian (August 13, 2014). "The VFX of Guardians of the Galaxy". Fxguide. Archived from the original on August 16, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
  23. ^ Chang, Justin (19 August 2015). "Film Review: 'Hitman: Agent 47'". Variety. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  24. ^ Ang, Gillian (24 August 2015). "5 Singapore landmarks that star in Hitman: Agent 47". Geek Crusade. Tumblr. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  25. ^ "HITMAN: AGENT 47 Instagram Contest". Gardens by the Bay. Archived from the original on 30 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  26. ^ Gardens by the Bay. "WIN Premiere tickets to HITMAN:AGENT47 (courtesy of Twentieth Century Fox)". Instagram. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  27. ^ Treyarch (2015-11-06). Call of Duty: Black Ops III. Microsoft Windows, Xbox One, PlayStation 4. Activision. Level/area: Mission 4: Provocation.
  28. ^ Call of Duty: Black Ops 3 Mission 4 - Provocation walkthrough | Prima Games
  29. ^ Call of Duty: Black Ops 3 preview and interview - 'We want to take people off the linear road' | Metro
  30. ^ "Iconic S'porean landmarks & locations featured in Japanese anime series Plastic Memories". Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  31. ^ hermesauto (2018-04-23). "Crazy Rich Asians trailer shows off Singapore's CBD and Gardens by the Bay skylines". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2018-05-27.

External links

Bayfront MRT station

Bayfront MRT station (DT16/CE1) is an underground Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) interchange station on the Downtown Line and Circle Line, located in Downtown Core, Singapore.

Bayfront station primarily serves the integrated resort of Marina Bay Sands. It is also currently the nearest MRT station to Gardens by the Bay, but this title will be taken by Gardens by the Bay MRT station when it opens in 2021.

This station is one of five MRT stations on the network that feature cross-platform interchange; the others are Jurong East MRT station, City Hall MRT station, Raffles Place MRT station and Tanah Merah MRT station.

Botanic Gardens MRT station

Botanic Gardens MRT station (DT9/CC19) is an underground Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) interchange station on the Downtown Line and Circle Line in Tanglin, Singapore.

The station is located at the northwestern corner of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, where it was named after. It is the nearest MRT station to the Bukit Timah campus of the National University of Singapore.

As Bukit Brown MRT station is currently non-operational, the section of tracks between Botanic Gardens station and Caldecott MRT station is the longest between any two stations on the Circle Line.

Botanic Gardens station is one of two MRT stations in Singapore to have an official Malay name (which is announced on Downtown Line trains); the other station will be the future Gardens by the Bay MRT station.

Founders' Memorial MRT station

Founders' Memorial MRT station (TE22A) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line in Marina East planning area, Singapore. Scheduled to begin construction in 2019 and open in 2025, the station will be located within the Bay East Garden of the Gardens by the Bay, next to the Founders' Memorial. It will be the third infill station on the MRT network, after Dover and Canberra MRT stations, as well as the first infill station to be underground and have an island platform configuration.

Gardens by the Bay MRT station

Gardens by the Bay MRT station (TE22) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line in Marina South, Singapore. It will be the nearest MRT station to Gardens by the Bay and Marina Barrage.The station serves as a terminus of the Thomson-East Coast Line from 2021 to 2023, where it would be replaced by Bayshore as the fourth phase of the line opens.

Gardens by the Bay station is one of the two MRT stations in Singapore to have an official Malay name. The other station is Botanic Gardens MRT station.

Great World MRT station

Great World MRT station (TE15) is an upcoming underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line at the boundary of River Valley and Singapore River planning areas, Singapore.

The station is named after the Great World City shopping mall, which is located near this station. Prior to that, three names were shortlisted - 'Great World', 'Kim Seng' and 'River Valley.

Havelock MRT station

Havelock MRT station (TE16) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line in Bukit Merah planning area, Singapore. It will be located around Bukit Ho Swee residential estate, Tan Boon Liat Building and Holiday Inn.

Marina City Park

Marina City Park was a park in Singapore formerly located at Marina South, with entrances at Marina Boulevard and Marina Park. It is about 26.2 ha. Standing on reclaimed land, this park was planned to be a premier park of Singapore's proposed "city of the 21st century", as part of Singapore's vision to be a "City in a Garden". The park was closed in 2007 to make way for the Gardens by the Bay.

Marina East

Marina East is a planning area located in the Central Area of the Central Region of Singapore, covering 140 hectares (350 acres) of reclaimed land.It is the location of NTUC Club's Marina Bay Golf Course (formerly known as the Marina East Course) and the Gardens by the Bay (Bay East Garden).Marina East is bordered by Marine Parade to the east, Kallang to the north, Marina South and Downtown Core to the west, as well as the Singapore Straits to the south. Marina East Planning Area should not be confused with the Marina East subzone that is part of the adjacent Marine Parade Planning Area.

Marina South

Marina South is a planning area located within the Central Area of the Central Region of Singapore. It is largely home to Gardens by the Bay as well as the Marina Barrage. The name has also been used to refer to the larger peninsula the planning area is situated on, which encompasses the planning areas of Straits View and a portion of the Downtown Core.

Marina South is bordered by Marina East to the north and northeast, Straits View to the southwest, the Downtown Core to the north and west, as well as the Singapore Straits to the south and east.

Marina South MRT station

Marina South MRT station (TE21) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line situated along the boundary of the planning areas of Straits View and Marina South, Singapore. It will be located near Marina South Pier and is within walking distance to Marina South Pier station. The possible hub at Marina South will be built there, together with ActiveSG Marina South Swimming Pool.

Marina South Pier MRT station

Marina South Pier MRT station (NS28) is an underground Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) station along the North South Line, located in Straits View planning area, Singapore. Located on reclaimed land and built as part of the North South Line Extension, it is the southern terminus on the North South Line.

The station is located near Marina South Pier and the Marina Bay Cruise Centre Singapore, hence its name. An extension from Marina South Pier station to Marina Barrage was previously planned, but plans for that were shelved. Marina Barrage will eventually be served by the future Gardens By The Bay MRT station on the Thomson-East Coast Line.

Located near the Marina South Pier, it is the southernmost MRT Station in Singapore.

Maxwell MRT station

Maxwell MRT station (TE18) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line located at the boundary of Downtown Core and Outram, Singapore. It will be located around Kreta Ayer Heights and Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum.

Mount Pleasant MRT station

Mount Pleasant MRT station (TE10) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line in Novena planning area, Singapore. It will be located within the former grounds of Old Police Academy.

Napier MRT station

Napier MRT station (TE12) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line in Tanglin, Singapore. It will be located around Singapore Gleneagles Hospital and the Tanglin Gate of the Singapore Botanic Gardens.

Orchard Boulevard MRT station

Orchard Boulevard MRT station (TE13) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line situated at the boundary of Tanglin, River Valley and Orchard planning areas, Singapore. It will be located near Camden Medical Centre, Tourism Court and Traders Hotel.The station will be located along Orchard Boulevard, hence its name.

Shenton Way MRT station

Shenton Way MRT station (TE19) is a future underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Thomson-East Coast Line in Downtown Core, Singapore. It will be located around Asia Square and Shenton House.The station is named after the nearby Shenton Way, a major one-way street in the financial district of Singapore. Other station names considered involve McCallum and Asia Square, before settling on to Shenton Way.

Thomson–East Coast MRT line

The Thomson–East Coast Line (TEL) is a medium-capacity Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line in Singapore that is currently under construction, being the sixth line to be built. The line was announced on 15 August 2014 by the Land Transport Authority as a merger of the then planned Thomson Line (TSL) and the Eastern Region Line (ERL). The stretch from Woodlands North to Gardens by the Bay costs around S$18 billion. The line will open in five stages from 2019 onwards, and interchanges with all existing lines. When the line fully opens, it is expected to serve about 500,000 commuters daily in the initial years, rising to one million commuters daily in the long term. It will be the fourth MRT line to be operated by SMRT, after the North South Line, East West Line and the Circle Line and also the fourth to be completely automated and driverless. The line is coloured brown on the rail map.

The fully underground line is 43 km (27 mi) long and consists of 32 stations, and will be among the world's longest driverless rapid transit lines. It will run through a combined north-south and east-west corridor, starting in the north at Woodlands town, then passing through the towns of Ang Mo Kio and Bishan, after that heading south to the residential estates of Thomson and Stevens, the shopping districts of Orchard Road and Marina Bay, then running eastwards along the east coast through Kallang, Marine Parade and Bedok South, before ending at Upper East Coast. The line will be served by Mandai Depot and East Coast Integrated Depot. By 31 December 2024, the planned Rapid Transit System (RTS) Link will interchange the line's Woodlands North terminus, allowing it to extend to Malaysia. The Land Transport Authority announced on 11 August 2017 that stations along the line will accept only cashless payments after the existing lines were converted in December 2018.

Tourism in Singapore

Tourism in Singapore is a major industry and contributor to the Singaporean economy, attracting 17.4 million international tourists in 2017, more than 3 times of Singapore's total population. It is also environmentally friendly, and maintains natural and heritage conservation programs. Along with this, it also has one of the world's lowest crime rates. As English is the dominant one of its four official languages, it is generally easier for tourists to understand when speaking to the local population of the country, for example, when shopping. Transport in Singapore exhaustively covers most, if not all public venues in Singapore, which increases convenience for tourists. This includes the well-known Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system. Singapore is the 5th most visited city in the world, and 2nd in Asia-Pacific.The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017 ranks Singapore 13th out of 136 countries overall, which was the third best in Asia only behind Japan (ranked 4th) and Hong Kong (ranked 11th). The report ranks Singapore's business environment, international openness, also travel and tourism policy and enabling conditions as the best in the world (ranked 1st). However, the island nation scored rather low in natural and cultural resources sub-index (ranked 40th).The Orchard Road district, which is dominated by multi-storey shopping centres and hotels, can be considered the center of tourism in Singapore. Other popular tourist attractions include the Singapore Zoo, River Safari and Night Safari, which allows people to explore Asian, African and American habitats at night without any visible barriers between guests and the wild animals. The Singapore Zoo has embraced the 'open zoo' concept whereby animals are kept in enclosures, separated from visitors by hidden dry or wet moats, instead of caging the animals, while the River Safari, features 10 different ecosystems around the world, including the River Nile, Yangtze River, Mississippi, Amazon as well as the Tundra and has 300 species of animals, including numerous endangered species.Jurong Bird Park is another zoological garden centred on birds, which is dedicated towards exposing the public to as much species and varieties of birds from around the world as possible, including a flock of one thousand flamingos. The tourist island of Sentosa, which attracts 19 million visitors in 2011, is located in the south of Singapore, consists of about 20–30 landmarks, such as Fort Siloso, which was built as a fortress to defend against the Japanese during World War II.

Guns from the World War II era can be seen at Fort Siloso, from a mini-sized to a 16 pound (7 kg) gun. Moreover, the island has built the Tiger Sky Tower, which allows visitors to view the whole of Sentosa, as well as the Sentosa Luge, a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleighs supine and feet-first. Steering is done by shifting the weight or pulling straps attached to the sled's runners. Among the latest tourists attractions built in Singapore includes the two integrated resorts which houses casinos, namely Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa, a Universal Studios theme park and Gardens by the Bay.


WilkinsonEyre is an international architecture practice based in London, England. In 1983 Chris Wilkinson founded Chris Wilkinson Architects, he partnered with Jim Eyre in 1987 and the practice was renamed WilkinsonEyre in 1999. The practice has led the completion of many high-profiled projects such as Gateshead Millennium Bridge, Cooled Conservatories Gardens by the Bay, Oxford's Weston Library and Guangzhou International Finance Center.

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