García de Toledo Osorio, 4th Marquis of Villafranca

García Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, 4th Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo (29 August 1514 – 31 May 1577), was a Spanish general and politician.

Siege of malta 3
The Siege of Malta - Flight of the Ottomans by Matteo Perez d'Aleccio, showing Don García's relief force battling the retreating Ottomans.


He was born at Villafranca del Bierzo, the son of Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca, Viceroy of Naples between 1532 and 1553. His mother was Juana Pimentel, Marchioness of Villafranca del Bierzo. The famous Duke of Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, was his first cousin. Among his many siblings was Eleonora of Toledo, wife of Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

He started his military career under the command of Andrea Doria in the galleys of Naples, as commander of two ships. In 1535, already the commander of six galleys, he distinguished himself in the battles of La Goletta, Tunis, Algiers, Sfax, Calibria y Mebredia. After this he was named Capitain General of the Galleys of Naples.

He was Capitain General of the expedition to Greece, and Capitán General del Mar, a title he received in 1544 after having fought Hayreddin Barbarossa. He was Viceroy of Catalonia between 1558 and 1564. He then became Colonel General of the Infantry of the Kingdom of Naples and finally, between 1564 and 1566, Viceroy of Sicily.

As Viceroy of Sicily he accomplished his two greatest achievements: the conquest of Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera in 1564, and the relief of the Siege of Malta (1565). For this he received from King Philip II of Spain the titles Duke of Fernandina and Prince of Montalbán on 24 December 1569. He died at Naples in 1577.

Marriage and children

In 1552,[1] in Naples, the Duke married Donna Vittoria Colonna, the daughter of Don Ascanio Colonna, 2nd Duke of Paliano, and Giovanna d'Aragona and the niece of famed poet and diplomat Vittoria Colonna, with whom she shares a name. They had six children:

He also had two illegitimate children:

  • Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, Señor de Gaipuli;
  • Delia de Toledo, a Carmelite nun.


  1. ^ Crews, Daniel A. (2008-10-22). Twilight of the Renaissance: The Life of Juan de Valdes. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781442692978.
Government offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Alcalá
Viceroy of Catalonia
Succeeded by
The Duke of Francavilla
Preceded by
The Duke of Medinaceli
Viceroy of Sicily
Succeeded by
The Duke of Terranova
Spanish nobility
Preceded by
Fadrique de Toledo Osorio
Marquis of
Villafranca del Bierzo

Succeeded by
Pedro de Toledo Osorio
New title Duke of Fernandina
Pedro de Toledo Osorio, 5th Marquis of Villafranca

Pedro de Toledo Osorio y Colonna or Pedro Álvarez de Toledo Osorio, 5th Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo, (Naples, 6 September 1546 – 17 July 1627), Governor of the Duchy of Milan, 1616 - 1618, Prince of Montalbano, 2nd Duke of Fernandina was a Spanish-Italian nobleman and a Grandee of Spain.

He was the son of García de Toledo Osorio, 4th Marquis of Villafranca, and Vittoria Colonna di Paliano, niece of Vittoria Colonna.

He was Commander in chief of an army in Naples, General of Cavalry of Spain in 1621 . His success in Milan was awarded with the honorable Grandeza de España title in 1623. In 1625 he participated in the successful Defense of Cadiz against the attacks from the Anglo-Dutch fleet under the command of Sir Edward Cecil.

The expulsion of the Spanish moriscos since 1610 increased the Ottoman naval attacks in the West Mediterranean, especially when young Ahmed I became Sultan. Pedro Alvarez set up an extensive defensive engineering program, with Italian engineers working in Italy, Spain and the Caribbean in America.

On 7 June 1576 he married Elvira de Mendoza, daughter of Íñigo Lopez de Hurtado de Mendoza, III Marquess of Mondéjar, 4th count of Tendilla, Viceroy of Naples, 1575 - 1579, a.k.a. Iñigo López de Mendoza y Mendoza, 1512 - 1580), and Maria de Mendoza.

They had four children.

Doña Victoria de Toledo, married Don Luis Ponce de León, 6th Marquis of Zahara

Don García de Toledo Osorio, 6th Marquis of Villafranca, deceased at Madrid, 1649 and Grandee of Spain, notorious admiral fighting against the French and Moroccans.

Don Fadrique de Toledo, 1st Marquis of Villanueva de Valdueza

Doña María de Toledo, a nun

Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera (Spanish pronunciation: [peˈɲon de ˈβeleθ ðe la ɣoˈmeɾa]; Berber language: Badis; Arabic: جزيرة غمارة jazīrat ghumara) is a Spanish rock (plaza de soberanía) and tied island in the west of the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the Moroccan shore by a sandy isthmus. It is also connected to a smaller islet to the east, la Isleta, by a rocky isthmus. It is one of several peñones, or rock-fortresses, on the coast of Northern Africa. Vélez de la Gomera, along with la Isleta, is administered by the Spanish central government, and have a population consisting only of a small number of Spanish military personnel.

Ancestors of García de Toledo Osorio, 4th Marquis of Villafranca
García Álvarez de Toledo
1st Duke of Alba
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo
2nd Duke of Alba
María Enriquez
Pedro Álvarez de Toledo
2nd Marquis of Villafranca
Álvaro de Zuñiga
Duke of Plasencia
Isabel de Zuñiga y Pimentel
Leonor de Pimentel
García Álvarez de Toledo
4th Marquis of Villafranca
Rodrigo Alonso de Pimentel
Duke of Benavente
Luís de Pimentel
1st Marquis of Villafranca
María Pacheco
María Osorio
Marchioness of Villafranca
Pedro Álvarez Osorio
Count of Lemos
Juana Osorio y Bazán
María de Bazán

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