Ganjam

Ganjam is a town and a notified area council in Ganjam district in the state of Odisha, India.

Ganjam
Town
View of the Rushikulya river from Ganjam fort
View of the Rushikulya river from Ganjam fort
Ganjam is located in Odisha
Ganjam
Ganjam
Location of Ganjam in Odisha, India
Ganjam is located in India
Ganjam
Ganjam
Ganjam (India)
Coordinates: 19°23′N 85°04′E / 19.38°N 85.07°ECoordinates: 19°23′N 85°04′E / 19.38°N 85.07°E
Country India
StateOdisha
DistrictGanjam
Named forGanjam Fort
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Odisha
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
(2011)
 • Total11,747
Languages
 • OfficialOriya
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationOD
Websiteganjam.nic.in

Geography

Ganjam is located at 19°23′N 85°04′E / 19.38°N 85.07°E in the Ganjam district of Odisha with an elevation of 3 metres (9 feet). Ganjam has been blessed with beautiful and mineral rich coast line which is extended over 60 km. It provides unique opportunity for fishing and port facility at Gopalpur for international trade. The rivers like Rushikulya, Dhanei, Bahuda, Ghoda Hada are the source of agriculture and power sectors of the town. Economic wise, Ganjam is a sub industrial town. The Chilika Lake which attracts international tourists, known for its scenic beauty and a marvelous birds sanctuary is situated in the eastern part of district, near the City of Ganjam. Ganjam shares its boundary with Andhra Pradesh.

Ganjam is an ideal choice for its scenic beauty, monuments, rivers and religious spots. A mix of moist peninsular high and low level Sal forests, tropical moist and dry deciduous and tropical deciduous forest types provide a wide range of forest products and unique lifestyle to wild life. Bhairabi, which consists of 108 temples, is a place of worship and popular destination for tourists. Taptapani, which consist of a hot sulphur spring that is 56 km from Berhampur, near Ganjam, is also a tourist destination. Tara Tarini Temple sits on Taratarini Hill near Angu. Solaghar, Raipur is also a famous destination for tourists. Twin Goddess Tara and Tarini are worshipped there. Rushikulya flows at the foot of the Taratarini Hill. The temple of the Goddess Mahuri KaluaMahuri Kalua is near a famous picnic spot by the same name located at the center of the town.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[1] Ganjam had a population of 3529031. Ganjam has an average literacy rate of 63% while male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 54%. Total Child Population (Age between 0–6 years)are 420158. Sex ratio is 983 and density of the overall population is 429 (persons per km2).

Economy

The district has own international reputation for its cottage industries and handicrafts. The main crafts are brass, appliqué, bamboo craft, stone carving, wood carving, terracotta, textile toys etc. and thousands of artisans are operating individually and through co-operative societies. Cultivation is one of the major occupation in the town, which has engaged approximately 75% of the total workers. Livestock, forestry, fishing, mining, construction, trading and transport are few of the work-related categories being the source of income for another 25% of the workers. The major crops grown in the district are paddy, groundnut, cotton, sugarcane and green vegetables. The district has a prosperous live stock population and potentially is very rich in inland and brackish water fisheries. The Chilika coastal area and extended sea shore are the source of rich marine products which serves for the production of like shells and salt.

Ganjam Fort/Potagarh Fort

Ganjam
The Ganjam Fort Map

Located at 19°13′N 85°29′E / 19.22°N 85.49°E, the Ganjam Fort (also called Potagarh Fort) is the main spot for tourists in Ganjam. This star fort is located 8 km from Chatrapur. The fort of Potagarh was the first Collectorate complex of Ganjam. Later on it was shifted to Berhampur in 1815 and subsequently to Chhatrapur in 1835, where it is still is.

Potagarh or the "buried fort" is named as such since it is buried. It is situated at present near a village named Ganjam on the mouth of the river Rushikulya. The fort is in ruins and still it stands as the mute witness to many rulers, who have used it as their administrative Headquarters to rule over this region named in different periods as Kalinga, Kalinga, Dandapat, Ganjam, Chichacole Circar etc. It is not a single fort, rather a cluster of forts erected by different governments, the remnants of which tell the stories of their administrative procedures. Thus the history of Potagarh is the history of the Ganjam Collectorate that involves the history of Ganjam, Northern Circars, French Government, Madras Presidency, Bengal Presidency and the history of the East India Company as a whole.

Ganjam Fort
Potagarh fort in Ganjam town

It is said that the construction of Potagarh fort was commenced in 1768 by Edward Costford, the first Resident of Ganjam. But the star-shaped design of the fort and a very old Masjeed standing near it attest more of its Mahammadan origin than British. During the Kutabsahi rule in 17th century Ganjam was extended from Chilika to Chicacole and designated as Chicacole Circar which was the Northern-most Circar of the Northern Circars and was controlled from Golconda. In 1641 a Faujdar named Mahammed Khan was appointed in Srikakulam for the first time by Abdul Kutab Shah, the ruler of Golconda. He constructed some fine mosques at Srikakulam and Icchapuram. The old Kalinga Dandapat (Ganjam) was then divided into two divisions namely Chicacole (Srikakulam) and Icchapuram. Most probably it was Mahammed Khan who erected a fort at the present site of Potagarh for administration of Icchapuram division. Some scholars are of the opinion that the fort was erected by the Fourth Sultan Ibrahim Kutabshah.

In 1753 the Northern Circar was granted to the French and Monsieur De Bussy, the French Commander took control over Ganjam and functioned from Potagarh. He must have erected a fort there for him as well as his French people. The presence of the French people is proved by two tombs erected in the cemetery close to Potagarh in honour of two souls of French origin. in 1765, the Northern Circars were granted to English by an imperial farman. French power ended and Edward Costford was appointed as the British Resident of Ganjam in 1766 and took direct charge of Ganjam in 1768. He constructed there another fort. The fort is spread in a vast area close to the river in star-shape. Inside the compound there are three residential buildings of three different architectural designs, most probably assigned to the Mahammadans, French and British. The first one probably of Mahammadan or Kutabshahi origin is completely in ruined state. The other two are also not in so good condition. Besides, two magazine houses are there. Two passages are there in the eastern side of the compound wall opening to the river.

One was probably used as a secret passage to escape into the sea and the other for the queen to go to the river to take bath. The compound wall is about 8' thick with a moat encircling it. The fort has two nicely designed doors, one is in the front side the other one is in the back side, close to the river. The fort of Potagarh is described by the celebrated historian W.W.Hunter having towers in the star angles except in the east front where there is a large gateway, the walls neither under 18 nor above 22 feet in height and a ditch running in three sides in many parts with deep water and in the fourth side defended by a thick wood which runs to 150 yards from the walls". Potagarh tells many stories of horror relating to the wrath of the fort-goddess on the ancient village of Ganjam and the escape of the king through the secret passage into the Bay of Bengal by a boat at the time of attack. The fort Potagarh is an archaeological asset of the state and deserves preservation.

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
Asika

Asika is a town and a Notified Area Council in Ganjam district in the state of Odisha, India.Fondly known as the sugar city of India.Asika is the 2nd largest city in district of Ganjam.Asika is a major commercial and transportation hub of Ganjam district. It is situated between river Badanadi and holy river Rushikuliya.

Asika is located on state highway 7 and national highway 59.It is 40 kilometers away from Berhampur.It has road connectivity to all most all town and cities of Odisha.This city is home to people of various religious beliefs and thus contains several temples, mosques and churches, as well as colleges, schools and other institutions.

Aska (Lok Sabha constituency)

Aska Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 21 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Odisha state in eastern India.

Berhampur

Berhampur (bərɵmpu:r) also known as Brahmapur is a city on the eastern coastline of Ganjam district of the Indian state of Odisha in East India.

Berhampur (Lok Sabha constituency)

Berhampur is a Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency in Odisha. Assembly constituencies which constitute this parliamentary constituency are: Chatrapur, Gopalpur, Berhampur, Chikiti, Digapahandi, Mohana and Parlakhemundi.

Chhatrapur

Chatrapur (also spelt as Chhatrapur) is a town and a notified area committee in Ganjam district in the state of Odisha, India. It is the headquarters town of Ganjam district. There are two railway stations in Chatrapur; they are Chatrapur Station and Chatrapur Court Station.

Ganjam Kewda Flower

Kewda, also spelt Kewra is an extract from the male flowers of the screw-pine tree. A native to the tropics, the Ganjam Kewda Flower is registered (on Application No. 229) under the Geographical Indications (GI) of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act by Government of India. Kewda scent is produced in Chhatrapur, Brahmapur, Gopalpur and Jagannathpur in district of Ganjam, Odisha. Although kewda plants can be found through most of India, 90% of the commercial production of the kewda flower is estimated to occur in the Odisha state.The flower of the kewda plant (Pandanus odoratissimus) grows on a small tree or shrub; it is both cultivated and grows wild in coastal areas. The plant can also be found in some inland districts but the flowers seem to create their most exquisite floral bouquet in certain coastal localities, the most famous being the Ganjam district of Odisha. The tree can reach a height of 18 feet, with dense branches supported by aerial roots that can form a thick, almost impenetrable jungle. The long leaves possess prickly spines along the edges and mid-ribs making the plant tough to handle for those not familiar with the handling and harvesting techniques. The male flower "spikes" (or inflorescence) are 10-20 inches long. Along the central stalk of each spike one can find many flowers, each encased in a fragrant cream-colored spathe (a spathe is a protective leaf enclosing a flower). A fully mature kewda tree produces about 30 to 40 flower spikes each year weighing 5 to 6 each ounces each.

Ganjam Kewda Rooh

Ganjam Kewda Rooh (Screw pine, IPA:/Kia/, Pandanus fascicularis) is a plant native to the Indian state of Odisha primarily in the Ganjam district. Kewda has been identified as a Geographical Indications in India.They are found between the rivers Rushikulya on the north and Bahuda on the south. It is an economically important species due to its male inflorescence which are used for the fragrant tender white spathes covering the flowers. The perfumery products including Kewda attar, Kewda water and Kewda oil (rooh Kewda) derived from this plant are. The Ganjam district of Odisha supplies about 85-90% of the India’s kewda essence. Kewda grows in the 45 km x 15 km coastal belt along the Bay of Bengal.

Ganjam district

Ganjam district is a district in the Indian state of Odisha. Ganjam's total area is 8,070 km² (3,116 mi²).

The district headquarters is Chhatrapur. Ganjam is divided into three sub-divisions Chhatrapur, Berhampur, and Bhanjanagar. The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908 lists Ganjam, along with the Thanjavur and South Canara districts, as the three districts of the Madras Presidency where Brahmins were most numerous.

As of 2011 it is the most populous district of Odisha (out of 30).

Gopalpur, Odisha

Gopalpur is a town and a Notified Area Council on the Bay of Bengal coast in Ganjam district in the southern part of Odisha, India. Today it is a commercial port , a famous sea beach and a tourist destination around 15 km from Berhampur. The reconstruction of an all weather port including new berths is under development.

Hinjilicut

Hinjilicut is a city and municipality of Ganjam district in the Indian state of Odisha.

Kabisuryanagar

Kabisuryanagar (also spelled Kavisuryanagar) is a town and a NAC in Ganjam district in the Indian state of Odisha.

Khallikote

Khallikote is a town and a Notified Area Council in Ganjam district in the Indian state of Odisha.

Kodala

Kodala is a town and a notified area committee in Ganjam district in the Indian state of Odisha.

List of constituencies of the Odisha Legislative Assembly

The following is the list of Vidhan sabha Constituencies of Odisha and the Elected Members

* representatives had contested the election with NCP ticket.

Mausimaa Temple

Mausimaa Temple is an ancient shrine in Ganjam District of Orissa. The temple can be approached by road from Bhubaneswar (140 km) and Chhatrapur (102 km). The nearest railway station is at Berhampur (88 km). It is about 8 km from Bhanja Nagar.

The presiding deity of the temple is aunty (Mother's Sister) of Lord Jagannath.

The temple celebrates its festival during the Rath Yatra held in the Jagannath Temple (Puri). Upper Bagh Devi Temple and Ratneswar Mahadev temple are important shrines nearby.

This temple is located in Kullada, a village also famous for its Bagdevi temple in Ganjam district.

Purusottampur

Purusottampur (also spelt as Purushottampur) is a town and a notified area committee in Ganjam district in the Indian state of Odisha.

Purushottmpur has a lot to see, one of them is Tara Tarani Temple which is very famous in Orissa.

Rambha, Odisha

Rambha is a town and a notified area council in Ganjam district in the Indian state of Odisha.

Rushikulya River

The Rushikulya River is one of the major rivers in the state of Odisha and covers entire catchment area in the districts of Kandhamal and [[Ganjam] of Odisha. The Rushikulya originates at an elevation of about 1000 metres from Daringbadi hills of the Eastern Ghats range. The place from where the river originates, Daringbadi is called the ' Kashmir of Odisha '. The river lies within the geographical coordinates of 19.07 to 20.19 north latitude and 84.01 to 85.06 east longitude. It meets the Bay of Bengal at Puruna Bandha in Ganjam. Its tributaries are the Baghua, the Dhanei, the Badanadi etc. It has no delta as such at its mouth.

Upper Bagh Devi Temple

Upper Bagh Devi Temple is an ancient shrine at Kulada, Ganjam District in the state of Odisha in India. The temple is about 8 km from Bhanjanagar, 102 km from Chhatrapur and 140 km from Bhubaneswar. The nearest railway station is at Berhampur, 88 km away.

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