Ganap Party

The Ganap Party was a Filipino political party that grew from the Sakdalista movement. Benigno Ramos, who served as its leader, was also the founder of the Sakdalista movement. The party took its name from the Tagalog word ganap, which means "complete".

Ganap Party
LeaderBenigno Ramos
IdeologyPro-Japanese Filipino nationalism


Sakdal party leader Benigno Ramos returned to the Philippines in 1938, after three years in self-imposed Japanese exile. Anxious to regroup after the failed May uprising, he formed Ganap. It was therefore not surprising that the party was pro-Japan in outlook and saw an alliance with them as the road to independence. Ramos named the party Ganap because he was anxious to kickstart their election campaign.[1] Indeed, their propaganda was so rabidly pro-Japanese and anti-American that Ramos was imprisoned on charges of swindling.[1][2]:113 Ganap drew its support base from the old Sakdal members, the disgruntled peasant class. The party was not without internal dissent, though, as opponents of Benigno Ramos remained in the old Sakdal Party, claiming that Ramos had become a Nacionalista turncoat and a puppet of Quezon.[1]:69

The coming of Japan

Ganap was able to organise and they were one of only three parties allowed to stand in the 1941 election when Manuel L. Quezon sought re-election.[3] The party's main area of support was the Bulacan-Southern Luzon area, where the major land estates were located.[4] As the party gained strength, membership spread to other provinces, such as La Union and Pangasinan.

The Pacific theater of the World War II was opened on December 8, 1941 (Philippine time), with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After that mission, Japanese planes proceeded to bomb targets in Davao. By Christmas, the Japanese forces had landed on Philippine soil. Among the invaders was the pro-Japanese Katipunan general Artemio Ricarte. In early April 1942, the Japanese liberated Ramos from his imprisonment, without forgetting to mobilize Ganap support for the Japanese.

Role in the Japanese occupation

Ganap saw the Japanese as saviors of the Philippines, and its members readily collaborated with them during the occupation of the islands. Many Ganap members were recruited into the Yoin, or United Nippon, an organisation dedicated to performing auxiliary and menial duties for the Japanese expeditionary force.

Other Ganap members were absorbed by the Japanese Army, and were issued weapons. Widespread abuse of these duties and powers was reported, and guerrilla outfits retaliated by harassing Ganap members and their families. In return, the Ganap members would begin sending "Intelligence scouts" into the enemy guerrilla units and their families. If proven that they were anti-Japanese or have killed a fellow Ganap member, these outfits would be rooted out and assassinated.

The Nacionalista Party clique, led by then-President José P. Laurel and former Philippine Executive Commission Chairman Jorge B. Vargas, became worried over the growing power of the Ganap Party. Ganap was therefore sidelined when the occupiers decreed the creation of KALIBAPI into which they were merged.[2] Although the party was a constituent of KALIBAPI, Ganap never exercised real influence within the new grouping, partly at the suggestion of Laurel and Vargas.[1] Many of the original party followers would go on to form the basis of the militia group Makapili, which the Japanese founded in November 1944.[2]:114


  1. ^ a b c d M. Terami-Wada (1999). "The Filipino volunteer armies". In Setsuho Ikehata & Ricardo Trota Jose (eds.). The Philippines under Japan: Occupation Policy and Reaction. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. pp. 59–98. ISBN 978-971-550-332-7.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b c William J. Pomeroy (1992). The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance!. New York, NY: International Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7178-0692-8.
  3. ^ 'Bedroom Campaign' from Time, November 24, 1941
  4. ^ 'Filipinos Fight for Freedom: 1941–1945'

External links

Benigno Ramos

See Pugad Baboy for the Filipino comic character Igno who shares this name.Benigno "Ben Ruben" Ramos y Pantaleón (February 10, 1892 – disappeared 1946) was a Filipino author, writer, organization founder, politician and was an advocate for the independence of the Philippines from the United States who collaborated with Japan.

Educated in Bulacan, Ramos went to work there as a teacher. Later, whilst based in Manila, he entered the civil service and by 1928 had risen to a high position with the Senate Staff. He became a member of the Nacionalista Party and a close associate of Manuel L. Quezon but this came to an end in 1930 when he joined a wildcat strike by teachers in the capital, causing Quezon to demand his resignation. Ramos did so but became a figure of anti-Quezon agitation, setting up a Tagalog language newspaper Sakdal which gained a wide circulation in rural areas.Ramos reconstituted his followers as the Sakdalista movement. Gaining as many as 20,000 members the group launched an attempted uprising in May 1935 but this was quickly crushed and Ramos went into exile in Japan.Ramos returned to Manila on August 28, 1938 on board the German passenger ship Gneisenau. He became leader of the Ganap Party which contested the 1941 elections (although Ramos himself was imprisoned during the vote). During the Japanese occupation this group became part of the KALIBAPI governing coalition, whilst Ramos formed the Makapili, a militant youth movement that aimed to limit the power of José P. Laurel and to provide soldiers for Japan. The followers of Ramos and his ally Artemio Ricarte were eventually armed by the Japanese in December 1944 by which time the Americans had already landed.

Accounts differ on what happened to Ramos after the fall of the Second Philippine Republic; some claim that he was killed in an airplane crash in Baguio along with the retreating Japanese.

As well as his political activism, Ramos was also noted as a writer of poetry with a collection Mga Agam-agam at Iba Pang Tula due for publication.


The Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Association for Service to the New Philippines), or KALIBAPI (Baybayin:ᜃᜎᜒᜊᜉᜒ), was a Fascist Filipino political party that served as the sole party of state during the Japanese occupation. It was intended to be a Filipino version of Japan's governing Imperial Rule Assistance Association.

List of political parties in the Philippines

There are many and diverse political parties in the Philippines. Most party membership consists primarily of political figures and leaders, with little or no grassroots membership.The Philippines has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments for political expediency and convenience. Since no political parties have sustaining membership to which party leaders are developed, most of the political parties have the rise-and-fall-and-rise character.

There are three types of parties in the Philippines. These are: (a) major parties, which typically correspond to traditional political parties; (b) minor parties or party-list organizations, which rely on the party-list system to win Congressional seats; and (c) regional or provincial parties, which correspond to region-wide or province-wide organizations, respectively.


The Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino (Patriotic Association of Filipinos), better known as the Makapili, was a militant group formed in the Philippines in 1944 during World War II to give military aid to the Imperial Japanese Army. Organised by Benigno Ramos and Artemio Ricarte, they were born out of José P. Laurel's refusal to conscript Filipinos for Japan.The Japanese decreed that the group should be founded in November 1944 when they brought together many of the supporters of the defunct Ganap Party. Like Ganap its main area of support was Metro Manila, although Makapili established chapters across the islands, attracting some support. In all it attracted 4 to 6,000 members, many of them poor or landless farmers who came to the group due to vague promises of land reform after the war. Their main purpose was to counter the recognized guerrilla and the Philippine Commonwealth military activity by anti-Japanese forces in rural areas and to this end members of Makapili were given rudimentary military training.After the war ended in 1945, the group was disbanded and vilified for its involvement in some Japanese atrocities in the islands and individual members faced trials for treason as a result.A 1951 film of the same name was made starring Justina David.

Philippine Falange

The Philippine Falange, the informal name for the Spanish National Assemblies of the Philippines (Juntas Nacional Española) was a Philippine falangist political party that was a branch of the Spanish Falange. It was founded in 1936. The party was initially led from the late 1930s by Spanish citizen and businessman Andrés Soriano. A leadership struggle occurred between Martín Pou and Enrique Zóbel de Ayala.The party was effectively dissolved when Soriano applied for, and was quietly granted by the government, Filipino citizenship, in large measure because of a desire not to have a major political formation within the Philippines which was at least tacitly supportive of the Axis Powers, as Franco's Falange and subsequent Spanish Government were; others followed suit, preventing the threat of their properties being seized by the Allied powers. Other members collaborated with the Japanese during the occupation, excluding Soriano who joined with Manuel Quezon and the government of the Philippine Commonwealth in exile, in the United States, as well as the Spanish Filipinos who formed Commonwealth military and guerrilla forces in Negros in the Philippines.

Second Philippine Republic

The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas; Japanese: フィリピン共和国(きょうわこく), romanized: Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: República de Filipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.

President Manuel L. Quezon declared the national capital Manila an "open city", and left it under the rule of Jorge B. Vargas, as mayor. The Japanese entered the city on January 2, 1942, and established it as the capital. Japan fully captured the Philippines on May 6, 1942, after the Battle of Corregidor.

General Masaharu Homma decreed the dissolution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission, a caretaker government, with Vargas as its first chairman in January 1942. KALIBAPI– Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Tagalog for the "Association for Service to the New Philippines") was formed by Proclamation No. 109 of the Philippine Executive Commission (Komisyong Tagapagpaganap ng Pilipinas), a piece of legislation passed on December 8, 1942, banning all existing political parties and creating the new governing alliance. Its first director-general was Benigno Aquino, Sr. The pro-Japanese Ganap Party, which saw the Japanese as the saviours of the archipelago, was absorbed into the KALIBAPI.

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