Game (hunting)

Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, and the meat of those animals. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world.

Phasianus colchicus 2 tom (Lukasz Lukasik)
Common pheasant, widely introduced and hunted as game

Description

Game or quarry is any animal hunted for its meat or for sport.

The term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, the word derived from the generic Old English gamen (Germanic *gamanan) "joy, amusement, sport, merriment".

Quarry in the generic meaning is early modern (first recorded 1610), in the more specific sense "bird targeted in falconry" late 14th and 15th centuries as quirre "entrails of deer placed on the hide and given to the hunting-dogs as a reward", from Old French cuiriee "spoil, quarry" (ultimately Latin corium "hide"), but influenced by corée "viscera, entrails" (Late Latin *corata "entrails", from cor "heart").

Wild game meat (usually considered to include animals harvested from game reserves) is generally considered to be superior in nutrient density, and usually has lower fat content, than meat procured through contemporary farming methods, while the cost in time and money to procure wild game is much higher.

Small game includes small animals, such as rabbits, pheasants, geese or ducks. Large game includes animals like deer, moose, and bear. Big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large, typically African, mammals (specifically "big five game" or "dangerous game") which are hunted mainly for trophies.

By continent and region

The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. This is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted. Sometimes a distinction is also made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish. The flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is often described as having a "gamey" flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the wild diet of the animal, which usually results in a lower fat content compared to domestic farm raised animals.

In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either "small game" or "large game". A single small game licence may cover all small game species and be subject to yearly bag limits. Large game are often subject to individual licensing where a separate licence is required for each individual animal taken (tags).

Africa

In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat; see that article for more detailed information on how this operates within the economy (for personal consumption and for money) and the law (including overexploitation and illegal imports). Animals hunted for bushmeat include, but are not limited to:

Some of these animals are endangered or otherwise protected, and thus it is illegal to hunt them.

In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game.

Also see the legal definition of game in Swaziland.[1]

South Africa

South Africa is a famous destination for game hunting, with its large biodiversity and therefore rather impressive variety of game species. Many creatures have returned to former areas from which they were once taken from as a result of being killed for big-game hunting. Species of creatures commonly hunted include:

South Africa also has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, francolin, partridge, quail, sandgrouse, duck, geese, snipe, bustard and korhaan. Some of these species are no longer hunted, and of the 44 indigenous gamebirds that can potentially be utilised in South Africa, only three, namely the yellow-throated sandgrouse, Delegorgue's pigeon and the African pygmy goose warrant special protection. Of the remaining 41 species, 24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so. The status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the remaining three species. The gamebirds of South Africa where the population status in 2005 was secure or growing are listed below:

Oceania

Australia

In Australia, game includes:

New Zealand

Game in New Zealand includes:

North America

Canada and the United States

In the U.S. and Canada, white-tailed deer are the most commonly hunted big game. Other game species include:

Virginia-Wachtel 2007-06-16 059
Bobwhite quail, an important North American gamebird
White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer

Asia

People's Republic of China

In the PRC there is a special cuisine category called ye wei, which includes animals in the wild.

Russia

Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow 004
"The Hunters at Rest" by Vasily Perov, 1871

Europe

United Kingdom

Game birds Borough Market
Game birds at Borough Market in London

In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831. It is illegal to shoot game on Sundays or at night. Other (non-game birds) that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. UK law defines game as including:

Deer are not included in the definition, but similar controls provided to those in the Game Act apply to deer (from the Deer Act 1991). Deer hunted in the UK are:

Other animals which are hunted in the UK include:

Capercaillie are not currently hunted in the UK because of a recent decline in numbers and conservation projects towards their recovery. The ban is generally considered voluntary on private lands, and few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly.

Iceland

In Iceland game includes:

Nordic countries

Kopf eines Rehs (Capreolus capreolus)
Roe deer

Game in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland includes:

Preparation

Attributed to Frans Hals, 1625-1630, A Kitchen Interior with a Maid and a Lady Preparing Game
A kitchen interior with a maid and a lady preparing game, c. 1600

Game meat is typically taken from a wild animal that has been shot with a gun or bow. Hunters must be absolutely certain of their target before shooting and should make every effort to get the animal down as quickly and painlessly as possible. Once obtained, game meat must be processed. The method of processing varies by game species and size. Small game and fowl may simply be carried home to be butchered. Large game such as deer is quickly field-dressed by removing the viscera in the field, while very large animals like moose may be partially butchered in the field because of the difficulty of removing them intact from their habitat. Commercial processors often handle deer taken during deer seasons, sometimes even at supermarket meat counters. Otherwise the hunter handles butchering. The carcass is kept cool to minimize spoilage.

Traditionally, game meat used to be hung until "high", i.e. approaching a state of decomposition. The term "gamey" / "gamy" refers to this usually desirable taste (haut goût). However, this adds to the risk of contamination. Small game can be processed essentially intact, after gutting and skinning or defeathering (by species). Small animals are ready for cooking, although they may be disjointed first. Large game must be processed by techniques commonly practiced by commercial butchers.

Cooking

Generally game is cooked in the same ways as farmed meat.[2] Because some game meat is leaner than store-bought beef, overcooking is a common mishap which can be avoided if properly prepared.[3][4] It is sometimes grilled or cooked longer or by slow cooking or moist-heat methods to make it more tender, since some game tends to be tougher than farm-raised meat. Other methods of tenderizing include marinating as in the dish Hasenpfeffer, cooking in a game pie or as a stew such as Burgoo.

Safety

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority considers that children, pregnant women, fertile-aged women, and people with high blood pressure should not consume game shot with lead-based ammunition more than once a month. Children who often eat such game might develop a slightly lower IQ, as lead influences the development of the central nervous system.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Game Act Swaziland Legislation
  2. ^ "Game-to-Eat". 2007-05-02.
  3. ^ "About Game Meat". 2007-05-19. Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  4. ^ Venison Direct to Your Door Highland Game
  5. ^ "Mattilsynet: – Barn kan få lavere IQ av storvilt" (in Norwegian). NRK.no. Retrieved August 30, 2013.

External links

.40-60 Winchester

The .40-60 Winchester is a centerfire rifle cartridge intended for 19th-century big-game hunting. Nomenclature of the era indicated the .40-60 cartridge contained a 0.40-inch (10 mm) diameter bullet with 60 grains (3.9 g) of gunpowder. Winchester Repeating Arms Company necked down the .45-60 Winchester cartridge to hold a bullet with improved ballistics for the Winchester Model 1876 rifle. The lever-action Model 1876's advantage of faster loading for subsequent shots was eclipsed two years later by the stronger and smoother Winchester Model 1886 action capable of handling longer cartridges with heavier bullets. The .40-60 and similarly short cartridges designed for the Model 1876 rifle faded into obsolescence as 20th-century hunters preferred more powerful smokeless powder loadings of cartridges designed for stronger rifles. Winchester production of .40-60 cartridges ended during the great depression.

.45-60 Winchester

The .45-60 Winchester is a centerfire rifle cartridge intended for 19th-century big-game hunting. Nomenclature of the era indicated the .45-60 cartridge contained a 0.45-inch (11 mm) diameter bullet with 60 grains (3.9 g) of black powder. Winchester Repeating Arms Company shortened the .45-70 government cartridge to operate through the Winchester Model 1876 rifle's lever-action. The Colt Lightning Carbine and the Whitney Arms Company's Kennedy lever-action rifle were also chambered for the .45-60. These early rifles' advantage of faster loading for subsequent shots was soon eclipsed by the stronger and smoother Winchester Model 1886 action capable of handling longer cartridges including the popular full length .45-70. The .45-60 and similarly short cartridges designed for the Model 1876 rifle faded into obsolescence as 20th-century hunters preferred more powerful smokeless powder loadings of cartridges designed for stronger rifles. Winchester production of .45-60 cartridges ended during the great depression.

.45-75 Winchester

The .45-75 Winchester Centennial is a centerfire rifle cartridge developed in 1876 for the newly designed Winchester Model 1876 Centennial lever-action rifle. Winchester Repeating Arms Company introduced the new rifle and cartridge at the United States Centennial Exposition. The Model 1876 rifle used an enlarged version of the famous Winchester Model 1873 action to offer a lever-action repeating rifle using cartridges suitable for big-game hunting. The cartridge and rifle enjoyed brief popularity with Gilded Age American hunters including Theodore Roosevelt, and was issued to the Canadian North-West Mounted Police and to Texas Rangers.

1962 Liechtenstein referendum

A double referendum was held in Liechtenstein on 25 February 1962. The first question was on the subject of the law on civic defence, and was rejected by 74.3% of voters. The second was on the game hunting law, and was approved by 54.6% of voters.

Big-game hunting

Big-game hunting is the hunting of large game for meat, for other animal by-products (such as horn, bone, fat or oil), for trophy or for sport. The term is often associated with the hunting of Africa's "Big Five" game (lion, African elephant, Cape buffalo, leopard and rhinoceros), and with tigers and rhinoceroses on the Indian subcontinent. Many other species of big game are hunted including kudu, antelope, and hartebeest. Whale, moose, elk, caribou, bison, mule deer, and white-tailed deer are the largest game hunted in North America, which is where most big-game hunting is conducted today.

Big-game hunting is conducted in Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia. In Africa, lion, Cape buffalo, elephant, giraffe and other large game animals are hunted. In North America, animals such as whale, bear, wolf, walrus, caribou, moose, elk, alligator, boar, sheep and bison are hunted. In South America, deer, cougar, feral pig, feral water buffalo, capybara and other species are hunted. In Europe, bear, moose, sheep, boar, goats, elk, deer, and other species are hunted. In Asia, several species of deer, bear, sheep and other species are hunted. In Australia, several species of deer and wild boar are hunted.

Dogo Argentino

The Dogo Argentino is a large, white, muscular breed of dog that was developed in Argentina primarily for the purpose of big-game hunting, including wild boar. The breeder, Antonio Nores Martínez, also wanted a dog that would exhibit steadfast bravery and willingly protect its human companion. It was first bred in 1928 from the Cordoba Dog, along with a wide array of other breeds, including the Great Dane.

Eric Trump

Eric Frederick Trump (born January 6, 1984) is an American businessman, philanthropist, and former reality television personality. He is the third child and second son of President Donald Trump and his first wife Ivana.

A fourth generation businessman (following his great-grandmother Elizabeth, grandfather Fred, and father), he currently serves as a trustee and executive vice president of The Trump Organization, running the company alongside his older brother Donald Jr. He also served as a boardroom judge on his father's TV show The Apprentice.

Eric Trump is under United States Attorney for the District of Columbia's investigation along with his sister Ivanka for their role in their father's inauguration.

Guianan cuisine

French Guianan Cuisine or Guianan Cuisine is a mixture of French, Bushinengue, and indigenous cuisines, supplemented by influences from the cuisines of more recent immigrant groups. Common ingredients include cassava, smoked fish, and smoked chicken. Chinese restaurants may be found alongside Creole restaurants in major cities such as Cayenne, Kourou and Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni.

Mastiff

Mastiff-type means a large molosser dog. The term "mastiff-type" has been used synonymously with the term "molosser". For example, the bulldog breeds, the Great Dane, mountain dogs, pit bulls and even smaller dogs, such as the Boston Terrier, may be considered "mastiff-types" in this broad sense. The descriptive term, mastiff-type, should not be confused with breed names such as Bullmastif, Argentine Mastiff or English Mastiff, that may be commonly referred to as simply "Mastiff".

Molosser

Molosser is a category of solidly built, large dog breeds that all descend from the same common ancestor. The name derives from Molossia, an area of ancient Epirus, where the large shepherd dog was known as a Molossus.

Molossers typically have heavy bones, pendant ears, and a relatively short and well-muscled neck, with a short, broad muzzle.

Ralph P. Boas Jr.

Ralph Philip Boas Jr. (August 8, 1912 – July 25, 1992) was a mathematician, teacher, and journal editor. He wrote over 200 papers, mainly in the fields of real and complex analysis.

Silver Lake State Park (New York)

Silver Lake State Park is a 776-acre (3.14 km2) state park located near the south end of Silver Lake in the Town of Castile in Wyoming County, New York.

The park offers picnic tables, hiking, fishing, seasonal deer and small game hunting, cross-country skiing, and a boat launch.

Weimaraner

The Weimaraner ( VY-mə-rah-nər) is a large dog that was originally bred for hunting in the early 19th century. Early Weimaraners were used by royalty for hunting large game such as boar, bear and deer. As the popularity of large game hunting began to decline, Weimaraners were used for hunting smaller animals like fowl, rabbits and foxes.

The Weimaraner is an all-purpose gun dog. The name comes from the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Karl August, whose court, located in the city of Weimar (now in the state of Thuringia in modern-day Germany), enjoyed hunting.

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