GameSpot

GameSpot is a video gaming website that provides news, reviews, previews, downloads, and other information on video games. The site was launched on May 1, 1996, created by Pete Deemer, Vince Broady and Jon Epstein. It was purchased by ZDNet, a brand which was later purchased by CNET Networks. CBS Interactive, which purchased CNET Networks in 2008, is the current owner of GameSpot.

In addition to the information produced by GameSpot staff, the site also allows users to write their own reviews, blogs, and post on the site's forums.

In 2004, GameSpot won "Best Gaming Website" as chosen by the viewers in Spike TV's second Video Game Award Show,[3] and has won Webby Awards several times. The domain gamespot.com attracted at least 60 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.[4]

GameSpot
Logo of GameSpot
Type of site
Video game journalism
FoundedMay 1, 1996
OwnerCBS Interactive
Founder(s)Pete Deemer, Vince Broady, Jon Epstein
Websitegamespot.com
Alexa rankIncrease 247 (July 2018)[1]
RegistrationOptional (free and paid)
LaunchedJanuary 13, 1996[2]

History

GameSpot was founded by Pete Deemer, Vince Broady and Jon Epstein in San Francisco, CA, out of an old travel agency building. Initially, GameSpot focused exclusively on PC games. Its sister site, VideoGameSpot.com, was launched in December 1996 to cover console games. In 1997, VideoGameSpot.com became VideoGames.com for a short period, and by 1998, the PC and console sections were united at GameSpot.com.[5] In February 1999, PC Magazine named GameSpot one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors IGN and CNET Gamecenter.[6] The following year, The New York Times declared GameSpot and Gamecenter the "Time and Newsweek of gaming sites".[7]

On October 3, 2005, GameSpot adopted a new design similar to that of TV.com, now considered a sister site to GameSpot.[8]

A new layout change was adopted on October 2013.

International history

GameSpot UK (United Kingdom) was started in October 1997 and operated until mid-2002, offering content that was oriented for the British market that often differed from that of the U.S. site. During this period, GameSpot UK won the 1999 PPAi (Periodical Publishers Association interactive) award for best website,[9] and was short listed in 2001.[10] Following the purchase of ZDNet by CNET, GameSpot UK was merged with the main US site. On April 24, 2006, GameSpot UK was relaunched.[11]

In a similar fashion, GameSpot AU (Australia) existed on a local scale in the late 1990s with Australian-produced reviews. It ceased in 2003. When a local version of the main CNET portal, CNET.com.au was launched in 2003, Gamespot.com.au content was folded into CNET.com.au. The site was fully re-launched mid-2006, with a specialized forum, local reviews, special features, local pricings in A$, Australian release dates, and more local news.

GameSpot Japan in its current form launched in 2007. It provides Japanese video game industry news, previews, reviews, features, and videos as well as translated articles from the other GameSpot sites.

Gerstmann dismissal

Jeff Gerstmann, Editorial Director of the site, was fired on November 28, 2007.[12] Immediately after his termination, rumors circulated proclaiming his dismissal was a result of external pressure from Eidos Interactive, the publisher of Kane & Lynch: Dead Men, which had purchased a considerable amount of advertising space on GameSpot's website. Gerstmann had previously given Kane & Lynch a fair or undesirable rating along with critique.[12] Both GameSpot and parent company CNET stated that his dismissal was unrelated to the review, but due to corporate and legal constraints cannot reveal the reason.[12][13] A month after Gerstmann's termination, freelance reviewer Frank Provo left GameSpot after eight years stating that "I believe CNET management let Jeff go for all the wrong reasons. I believe CNET intends to soften the site's tone and push for higher scores to make advertisers happy."[14]

GameSpot staffers Jason Ocampo, Alex Navarro, Ryan Davis, Brad Shoemaker, and Vinny Caravella also left as a result of Gerstmann's termination.[15][16] Davis co-founded Gerstmann's subsequent project, Giant Bomb, and was later joined by Shoemaker and Caravella. Navarro became the community manager at Harmonix and in 2010 joined up with Whiskey Media, a family of sites that includes Gerstmann's Giant Bomb site, to be part of their new site Screened.com, focusing on cinema and television. Navarro later returned to Giant Bomb, where he currently works as a Senior Editor.

On March 15, 2012, it was announced that CBS Interactive, the parent company of GameSpot operator CNET, had acquired the Giant Bomb and Comic Vine websites from Whiskey Media. As part of the deal, the non-disparagement agreement between Gerstmann and CNET was nullified, allowing him to finally speak publicly about his termination over four years prior. Later that evening on GameSpot's On the Spot web show, GameSpot VP John Davison appeared on camera with Gerstmann, marking Gerstmann's first appearance on the GameSpot web site since November 2007. In the segment, Gerstmann revealed that his firing was in fact related to the low review score he had given to Kane & Lynch, though his explanation cited other similar events that led up to the termination, including a 7.5 (good) rating given to Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction by Aaron Thomas, then an employee under Gerstmann.

Notable staff

  • Greg Kasavin – executive editor and site director of GameSpot, who left in 2007 to become a game developer. He became a producer at EA and 2K Games but he is currently working for Supergiant Games as a writer and creative director for Bastion.[17]
  • Jeff Gerstmann – editorial director of the site, dismissed from GameSpot on November 28, 2007 for undisclosed reasons, after which he started Giant Bomb.[18] Following the announcement of the purchase of Giant Bomb by CBS Interactive on March 15, 2012, Jeff was allowed to reveal that he was dismissed by management as a result of publishers threatening to pull advertising revenue due to less-than-glowing review scores being awarded by GameSpot's editorial team.[19]

Community features

Forums

GameSpot's forums were originally run by ZDNet, and later by Lithium. GameSpot uses a semi-automated moderation system with numerous volunteer moderators. GameSpot moderators are picked by paid GameSpot staff from members of the GameSpot user community. Due to the size and massive quantity of boards and posts on GameSpot, there is a "report" feature where a normal user can report a violation post to an unpaid moderator volunteer. The ostensible purpose of the reporting feature is to deal more quickly with violations of the website's posting policy. GameSpot's ToS states that users must be aged 13 or older to post content and maintain an account. Proof of a user's age when he/she creates an account is not required. Proof of a moderator's age is also not required. All users must agree to GameSpot's ToS (terms of service) during registration. GameSpot's ToS (as they apply to the community forums) give moderators the power to use their own discretion when deciding if a posting violation has occurred.

In addition to the message board system, GameSpot has expanded its community through the addition of features such as user blogs (formerly known as "journals")[20] and user video blogs. Users can track other users, thus allowing them to see updates for their favorite blogs. If both users track each other, they are listed on each other's friends list.

GameSpot formerly had a paid subscription service known as "GameSpot Complete". On February 21, 2006, the paid subscription model was changed.[21] It now maintains two paid membership services: Total Access and Plus.[22]

Total Access is essentially a replacement of GameSpot Complete, as it is the same price of US$5.95 per month or $39.95 per year and offers the same basic benefits.[22] The second premium service, GameSpot Plus, is a cheaper, intermediate-level service.[22]

On January 9, 2013, it was announced that the Paid Subscription model will no longer be accepting new subscribers, and current subscribers will not be able to renew after January 31, 2013.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Gamespot.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
  2. ^ "GameSpot.com WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools". WHOIS. 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  3. ^ "Results of Spike TV's 2004 Video Game Awards". Archived from the original on June 14, 2006. Retrieved June 9, 2006.
  4. ^ "Site Profile for gamespot.com".
  5. ^ Navarro, Alex (July 14, 2006). "Burning Questions: July 14, 2006". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
  6. ^ Willmott, Don (February 9, 1999). "The 100 Top Web Sites". PC Magazine. 18 (3): 114.
  7. ^ Olafson, Peter (December 7, 2000). "BASICS; Sites Keep Up With Games and Gamers". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 23, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
  8. ^ "GameSpot Redesign: Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved September 29, 2006.
  9. ^ "GameSpot UK Winner, PPAi Awards 1999". Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
  10. ^ "GameSpot UK Short Listed, PPAi Awards 2001". Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
  11. ^ "GameSpot UK launches". April 24, 2006. Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. Retrieved November 1, 2006.
  12. ^ a b c "Spot On: GameSpot on Gerstmann". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. December 5, 2007. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
  13. ^ "CNET Denies 'External Pressure' Caused Gerstmann Termination". Shacknews. November 30, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
  14. ^ "Farewell, GameSpot". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. January 4, 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  15. ^ Orland, Kyle (January 14, 2008). "Gamespot staffer Alex Navarro quits in wake of Gerstmann-gate". Engadget. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  16. ^ Orland, Kyle (February 4, 2008). "Gamespot exodus continues: Ryan Davis to leave". Endgadget. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  17. ^ Kasavin, Greg (January 19, 2007). "To Live and Die in L.A." Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
  18. ^ "Jeff Gerstmann - Virtual Fools". Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  19. ^ "GameSpot and Giant Bomb, Together". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. March 15, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  20. ^ "GameSpot Forums". GameSpot. Archived from the original on August 14, 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
  21. ^ "GameSpot revamps subscription model". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  22. ^ a b c "GameSpot sign-up page". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on March 21, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
  23. ^ "GameSpot's Paid Subscription Service is Ending: FAQ". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. January 9, 2013. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.

External links

4X

4X is a genre of strategy-based video and board games in which players control an empire and "explore, expand, exploit, and exterminate". The term was coined by Alan Emrich in his September 1993 preview of Master of Orion for Computer Gaming World. Since then, others have adopted the term to describe games of similar scope and design.

4X computer games are noted for their deep, complex gameplay. Emphasis is placed upon economic and technological development, as well as a range of non-military routes to supremacy. Games can take a long time to complete since the amount of micromanagement needed to sustain an empire increases as the empire grows. 4X games are sometimes criticized for becoming tedious for these reasons, and several games have attempted to address these concerns by limiting micromanagement, with varying degrees of success.

The earliest 4X games borrowed ideas from board games and 1970s text-based computer games. The first 4X computer games were turn-based, but real-time 4X games are not uncommon. Many 4X computer games were published in the mid-1990s, but were later outsold by other types of strategy games. Sid Meier's Civilization is an important example from this formative era, and popularized the level of detail that later became a staple of the genre. In the new millennium, several 4X releases have become critically and commercially successful.

In the board (and card) game domain, 4X is less of a distinct genre, in part because of the practical constraints of components and playing time. The Civilization board game that gave rise to Sid Meier's Civilization computer game, for instance, has no exploration and no extermination. Unless extermination is targeted at non-player entities, it tends to be either nearly impossible (because of play balance mechanisms, since player elimination is usually considered an undesirable feature) or certainly unachievable (because victory conditions are triggered before extermination can be completed) in board games.

Age of Empires

Age of Empires is a series of historical real-time strategy video games, originally developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Xbox Game Studios. The first title of the series was Age of Empires, released in 1997. Seven titles and three spin-offs have been released.

Age of Empires focused on events in Europe, Africa and Asia, spanning from the Stone Age to the Iron Age; the expansion game explored the formation and expansion of the Roman Empire. The sequel, Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings, was set in the Middle Ages, while its expansion focused partially on the Spanish conquest of Mexico. The subsequent three games of Age of Empires III explored the early modern period, when Europe was colonizing the Americas and several Asian nations were on the decline. The newest installment, Age of Empires Online, takes a different approach as a free-to-play online game utilizing Games for Windows Live. A spin-off game, Age of Mythology, was set in the same period as the original Age of Empires, but focused on mythological elements of Greek, Egyptian, and Norse mythology. A fourth main installment in the series, Age of Empires IV, is under development.

The Age of Empires series has been a commercial success, selling over 20 million copies. Critics have credited part of the success of the series to its historical theme and fair play; the artificial intelligence (AI) players have fewer advantages than in many of the series' competitors.

Fighting game

A fighting game is a video game genre based around interpersonal combat between a limited amount of characters in which they fight until they defeat their opponents or the timer expires. The fight matches typically consist of several rounds and take place in an arena, while each character has differing abilities but each is relatively viable to choose. Players must master techniques such as blocking, counter-attacking, and chaining attacks together into "combos". Starting in the early 1990s, most fighting games allowed the player to execute special attacks by performing specific input combinations. The fighting game genre is related to but distinct from beat 'em ups, which involve large numbers of enemies against the human player.

The first game to feature fist fighting was Heavyweight Champ in 1976, but it was Karate Champ which popularized one-on-one martial arts games in arcades in 1984. The following year, Yie Ar Kung-Fu featured antagonists with differing fighting styles, while The Way of the Exploding Fist further popularized the genre on home systems. In 1987, Street Fighter introduced hidden special attacks. In 1991, Capcom's highly successful Street Fighter II refined and popularized many of the conventions of the genre. The fighting game subsequently became the preeminent genre for competitive video gaming in the early to mid-1990s, particularly in arcades. This period spawned dozens of other popular fighting games, including successful and long running franchises like Street Fighter, Mortal Kombat, Tekken, Guilty Gear, The King of Fighters, Virtua Fighter, Marvel vs. Capcom, Killer Instinct, Darkstalkers, Dead or Alive and SoulCalibur.

Final Fantasy

Final Fantasy is a Japanese science fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix (formerly Square). The franchise centers on a series of fantasy and science fantasy role-playing video games (RPGs/JRPGs). The first game in the series was released in 1987, with 14 other main-numbered entries being released since then. The franchise has since branched into other video game genres such as tactical role-playing, action role-playing, massively multiplayer online role-playing, racing, third-person shooter, fighting, and rhythm, as well as branching into other media, including CGI films, anime, manga, and novels.

Final Fantasy installments are generally stand-alone stories, each with different settings, plots and main characters, however, as a corpus they feature some identical elements that help to define the franchise. These recurring elements include plot themes, character names, and game mechanics. Each plot centers on a particular group of heroes who are battling a great evil, but also explores the characters' internal struggles and relationships. Character names are frequently derived from the history, languages, pop culture, and mythologies of cultures worldwide. The mechanics of each game involve similar battle systems and maps.

The Final Fantasy video game series has been both critically and commercially successful, selling more than 142 million games worldwide, making it one of the best-selling video game franchises of all time. The series is well known for its innovation, visuals, and music, such as the inclusion of full-motion videos (FMVs), photorealistic character models, and music by Nobuo Uematsu. It has been a driving force in the video game industry, and the series has affected Square Enix's business practices and its relationships with other video game developers. It has popularized many features now common in role-playing games, also popularizing the genre as a whole in markets outside Japan.

Jeff Gerstmann

Jeffrey Michael Gerstmann (born August 1, 1975) is an American video game journalist. Former editorial director of the gaming website GameSpot and the co-founder/editor of the gaming website Giant Bomb, Gerstmann began working at GameSpot in the fall of 1996, around the launch of VideoGameSpot when GameSpot split PC and console games into separate areas. He shared his thoughts on a variety of other subjects every Monday on his GameSpot blog before his controversial dismissal from GameSpot in 2007 following a review of Kane & Lynch: Dead Men. As a member of Spike Video Game Awards' advisory council until its cancellation, Gerstmann was 1 of 25 journalists responsible for voting the nominees and winners of the event. Complex magazine named Gerstmann in their top 25 biggest celebrities in the video game industry.

List of Alien, Predator, and Alien vs. Predator games

This is a chronological list of games in the Alien, Predator and Alien vs. Predator science fiction horror franchises. There have been thirty-eight officially licensed video games, one trading card game, and one tabletop miniatures game released as tie-ins to the three franchises.

The first video game of the Alien franchise was released in 1982, based on the 1979 film Alien. Subsequent games were based on that film and its sequels Aliens (1986), Alien 3 (1992), and Alien: Resurrection (1997). The first video game in the Predator franchise was released in 1987, the same year as the Predator film on which it was based. Subsequent Predator games were based on that film and its sequels Predator 2 (1990) and Predators (2010). The first game to cross the two franchises was Alien vs Predator, released in September 1993 and based on an earlier comic book series. Since then the characters and storylines of the two franchises have been officially crossed over in comic books, video games, and the feature films Alien vs. Predator (2004) and Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem (2007). To date, there have been seventeen officially licensed video games released in the Alien franchise, six in the Predator franchise, and fourteen in the Alien vs. Predator franchise. These have been created by various developers and released for a variety of platforms including video game consoles, handheld game consoles, personal computers, and mobile phones. The Aliens vs. Predator Collectible Card Game published in 1997 and the Alien vs. Predator themed sets for HorrorClix released in 2006 are the only non-video games in the franchises.

The stories of the games are set in a fictional universe in which alien races and species have dangerous conflicts with humans and with each other. The games pit human, Alien, and Predator characters against one another in various fights for survival. The settings of the games vary, with most of the stories taking place far in the future. Games have been released for the following platforms; Atari 2600, Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, Apple IIe, MSX, Acorn Electron, Atari ST, BBC Micro, Nintendo Entertainment System, Amiga, Arcade, PC, Sega Master System, Sega Game Gear, Sega Mega Drive/Genesis, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Game Boy, Atari Jaguar, PlayStation, Sega Saturn, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Game Boy Color, PlayStation 2, Xbox, Mobile phone, PlayStation Portable, Online, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, Mobile device, Nintendo DS, Android, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, PlayStation Vita, iOS, Steam, VR, and Amazon Alexa.

List of Final Fantasy video games

Final Fantasy is a video game series developed and published by Square Enix (formerly Square). The first title in the series, the eponymous Final Fantasy, premiered in Japan in 1987, and Final Fantasy games have been released almost every single year since. Fifteen games have been released as part of the main (numbered) series. Sequels, prequels, spin-offs, and related video games have been published, as well as numerous titles in other media forms. Each game in the main series takes place in a different fictional universe rather than serve as direct sequels to prior games, although some titles have received sequels, or prequels, set in the same universe.

Most of the games have been re-released for several different platforms, many of which have been included in bundled releases. The series as a whole is primarily composed of role-playing video games, but also includes massively multiplayer online role-playing games, third-person shooters, tower defense games, and tactical role-playing games. Final Fantasy games have been released on over a dozen video game consoles beginning with the Nintendo Entertainment System, as well as for personal computers and mobile phones. The series is Square Enix's most successful franchise, having sold over 100 million units worldwide as of June 2011, across both the main series and its spin-offs. Final Fantasy's popularity has placed it as one of the best-selling video game franchises.

List of Game of the Year awards

Game of the Year (abbreviated GotY) is an award given by various gaming publications to a video game that they feel represents the pinnacle of video gaming that year.

List of Naruto video games

Naruto video games have appeared for various consoles from Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft. Most of them are fighting games in which the player directly controls one of a select few characters based on their counterparts in the Naruto anime and manga. The player pits their character against another character controlled by the game's AI or by another player, depending on the mode the player is in. The objective is to reduce the opponent's health to zero using basic attacks and special techniques unique to each character derived from techniques they use in the Naruto anime or manga. The first Naruto video game was Naruto: Konoha Ninpōchō, which was released in Japan on March 27, 2003, for the WonderSwan Color. Most Naruto video games have been released only in Japan. The first games released outside Japan were the Naruto: Gekitou Ninja Taisen series and the Naruto: Saikyou Ninja Daikesshu series, released in North America under the titles of Naruto: Clash of Ninja and Naruto: Ninja Council. In January 2012, Namco Bandai announced that they have sold 10 million Naruto games worldwide.

List of One Piece video games

The One Piece video games series is published by Bandai and Banpresto, later as part of Bandai Namco Entertainment, and is based on Eiichiro Oda's shonen manga and anime series of the same name. The games take place in the fictional world of One Piece, and the stories revolve around the adventures of Monkey D. Luffy and his Straw Hat Pirates, the franchise's protagonists. The games have been released on a variety of video game and handheld consoles. The series features various genres, mostly role-playing games—the predominant type in the series' early years—and fighting games, such as the titles of the Grand Battle! sub-series.

The series debuted in Japan on July 19, 2000 with One Piece: Mezase Kaizoku Ou!. The series contains 38 games, not counting appearances in crossover titles.

More than five years passed after the anime series' debut, One Piece: Grand Battle! Rush, was released outside Japan on September 7, 2005. Out of thirty-eight games (not including non-Japanese games), eleven have been released in North America, two in Australia and thirteen in Europe. Japan's large demand for such games leads its companies to produce the titles with haste and thus low regard for quality. The opposite is the case with the One Piece video game, which has been produced for and exclusively released to the North American markets, and was crowned "GBA Platformer of the Year" in 2005 by GameSpy's network of game websites. The One Piece series has received a mixed reception; assessments ranged from "slightly below or slightly above average" to "a grand video-game series".

List of PlayStation games (A–L)

This is a list of games for the Sony PlayStation video game system, organized alphabetically by name. There are often different names for the same game in different regions.

The final licensed PlayStation game released in Japan (not counting re-releases) was Black/Matrix 00 on May 13, 2004, the final licensed game released in North America was FIFA Football 2005 on October 12, 2004, and the final licensed game released in Europe was Moorhuhn X on July 20, 2005. Additionally, homebrew games were created using the Sony PlayStation Net Yaroze.

List of Sonic the Hedgehog video games

Sonic the Hedgehog is a video game series. It is published by Sega, with entries developed by Sega, Sonic Team, Dimps, SIMS Co., Ltd., BioWare, and Sumo Digital. The series debuted in 1991 with the video game, Sonic the Hedgehog, released for the Mega Drive video game console (named Genesis in North America). Most Sonic the Hedgehog games have either been platform games or released for Sega video game consoles and handheld game consoles (handhelds) dating from the Genesis to the eighth generation of video game consoles (2012–present). However, some of the original games were ported into versions on third-party home consoles and developed by several companies. As of February 2013, the series has collectively sold over 85 million copies worldwide across both the platform games and spin-offs.Most of the games in the franchise are platform games, although the series also includes other genres such as racing video games, fighting games, action-adventure games, role-playing video games, and sports games. Each game focuses on the titular protagonist Sonic the Hedgehog, an anthropomorphic blue hedgehog. It also features a large cast of other characters such as Doctor Ivo "Eggman" Robotnik, Miles "Tails" Prower, Knuckles the Echidna, Amy Rose, Shadow the Hedgehog, and the Chao creatures.

List of Square Enix video games

Square Enix is a Japanese video game development and publishing company formed from the merger on April 1, 2003 of video game developer Square and publisher Enix. The company is best known for its role-playing video game franchises, which include the Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts series. Of its properties, the Final Fantasy franchise is the best-selling, with total worldwide sales of over 130 million units. The Dragon Quest series has sold over 71 million units worldwide and is one of the most popular video game series in Japan, while the Kingdom Hearts series has sold over 24 million copies worldwide. Since its inception, the company has developed or published hundreds of titles in various video game franchises on numerous gaming systems.

Square Enix has owned Taito Corporation, which continues to publish its own video games, since September 2005, and acquired game publisher Eidos Interactive in April 2009, which has been merged with Square Enix's European publishing wing and renamed as Square Enix Europe. This list includes some retail games developed or published by Square Enix after its formation. It does not include games published by Taito, but does include games published by Square Enix Europe. For games released before the merger, see List of Square video games and List of Enix games. For mobile games released by the company, see List of Square Enix mobile games. For games released by Taito, both before and after the acquisition, see List of Taito games, and see List of Eidos Interactive games for games published by Eidos prior to acquisition, and List of Square Enix Europe games for games published afterwards.

Mortal Kombat

Mortal Kombat is a video game franchise originally developed by Midway Games' Chicago studio in 1992. The development of the first game was originally based on an idea that Ed Boon and John Tobias had of making a video game starring Jean-Claude Van Damme, but as that idea fell through, a horror-fantasy themed fighting game titled Mortal Kombat was created instead. The original game has spawned many sequels and spin-offs consisting of several action-adventure games, films (animated and live-action with its own sequel), and television series (animated and live-action), as well as a comic book series, a card game and a live-action tour. Along with Street Fighter and Tekken, Mortal Kombat has become one of the most successful fighting franchises in the history of video games and one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.

The series has a reputation for high levels of violent content, including, most notably, its Fatalities (finishing moves, requiring a sequence of button inputs to perform). Controversies surrounding Mortal Kombat, in part, led to the creation of the ESRB video game rating system. Early games in this series were also noted for their realistic digitized sprites and an extensive use of palette swapping to create new characters. Following Midway's bankruptcy, the Mortal Kombat development team was acquired by Warner Bros. and turned into NetherRealm Studios. Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment currently owns the rights to the franchise which it rebooted in 2011.

Red Dead Redemption

Red Dead Redemption is a Western action-adventure game developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games. A spiritual successor to 2004's Red Dead Revolver, it is the second game in the Red Dead series, and was released for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in May 2010. Red Dead Redemption is set during the decline of the American frontier in the year 1911 and follows John Marston, a former outlaw whose wife and son are taken hostage by the government in ransom for his services as a hired gun. Having no other choice, Marston sets out to bring three members of his former gang to justice.

The game is played from a third-person perspective in an open world, allowing the player to interact with the game world at their leisure. The player can travel the virtual world, a fictionalized version of the Western United States and Mexico, primarily by horseback and on foot. Gunfights emphasize a gunslinger gameplay mechanic called "Dead Eye" that allows players to mark multiple shooting targets on enemies in slow motion. The game makes use of a morality system, by which the player's actions in the game affect their character's levels of honor and fame and how other characters respond to the player. An online multiplayer mode is included with the game, allowing up to 16 players to engage in both cooperative and competitive gameplay in a recreation of the single-player setting.

Red Dead Redemption was developed over the course of five years and is one of the most expensive video games ever made. The game received critical acclaim for its visuals, dynamically-generated music, voice acting, gameplay, and story, and shipped over 15 million copies by 2017. It won several year-end accolades, including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications, and is considered by critics as one of the greatest video games ever made. After the game's release, several downloadable content additions were released; Red Dead Redemption: Undead Nightmare, later released as a standalone game, added a new single-player experience in which Marston searches for a cure for an infectious zombie plague that has swept across the Old West. A Game of the Year Edition containing all additional content was released in October 2011. A prequel, Red Dead Redemption 2, was released in October 2018 to similar acclaim.

Take-Two Interactive

Take-Two Interactive Software, Inc. is an American video game holding company based in New York City. The company owns two major publishing labels, Rockstar Games, and 2K, itself composed of two divisions: 2K Games and 2K Sports, all of which own and operate various game development studios. Take-Two's portfolio includes numerous successful video game series across personal computer and video game consoles, including BioShock, Borderlands, Civilization, Grand Theft Auto, NBA 2K, Red Dead, and XCOM. As of March 2018, it is the third-largest publicly traded game company in the Americas and Europe after Activision Blizzard and Electronic Arts, with an estimated market cap of US$13 billion.Take-Two was founded by Ryan Brant in September 1993, looking to become a major publisher in the video game area. The company went public in April 1997, and later acquired the publisher and developer behind Grand Theft Auto, through which it formed Rockstar Games and Rockstar North, respectively and also leading to their long-standing "label" structure. From 2003 to 2005, the company fell under investigation by the Security and Exchange Commission related to corporate and personal financial fraud after going public that led to Brant resigning by 2006 alongside the departures of other former executives and board members. As a result of this mismanagement, the company's majority shareholders led a takeover of Take-Two in March 2007, replacing them with Strauss Zelnick as the new Chairman and CEO. Take-Two subsequently rejected a US$1.9 billion buy-out from Electronic Arts in 2008. Since then, the company has continued to grow through acquisitions and creation of new studios. More recently, Take-Two created the label Private Division to support publishing from independent developers, and acquired the developer Social Point to establish itself in the mobile game market. The company also owns 50% of professional esports organization NBA 2K League.

X-Play

X-Play (previously GameSpot TV and Extended Play) is a TV program about video games that ran between July 4, 1998, and January 23, 2013. The program, known for its reviews and comedy skits, aired on G4 in the United States, G4 Canada in Canada, FUEL TV in Australia, Ego in Israel, GXT in Italy, MTV Россия in Russia and Solar Sports in the Philippines.

The show in its final incarnation was hosted by Morgan Webb and Blair Herter, with Kristin Adams (née Holt) and Jessica Chobot serving as special correspondents/co-hosts (Tiffany Smith, Alex Sim-Wise and Joel Gourdin have also served as correspondents during the show's run). Adam Sessler was the original host of the program; he previously co-hosted with Lauren Fielder and Kate Botello.

X-Play began on the ZDTV network in 1998 as GameSpot TV, where Sessler co-hosted with Fielder for the show's first year, then co-hosted with Botello up through 2002 (the producers of ZDTV originally had plans to air a video-game program when the channel launched called Extended Play that would be hosted by Simon Rex; however, when an agreement was reached with the makers of the newly created GameSpot website, plans for the original show's format were scrapped in favor of a GameSpot-branded program, and Rex was dropped as host).

The show assumed the previously rejected Extended Play moniker in 2001 after ZDTV changed to TechTV and the partnership with Ziff Davis' GameSpot ended. Botello left in early 2002, and Sessler hosted the show by himself up until April 2003, when Webb joined the cast and the show was renamed X-Play.

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