Galloway (Scottish Gaelic: Gall-Ghàidhealaibh, Latin: Gallovidia)[1] is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.

A native or inhabitant of Galloway is called a Gallovidian.[2][3] The place name Galloway is derived from the Gaelic i nGall Gaidhealaib ("amongst the Gall Gaidheil").[4] The Gall Gaidheil, literally meaning "Stranger-Gaidheil", originally referred to a population of mixed Scandinavian and Gaelic ethnicity that inhabited Galloway in the Middle Ages.

Galloway is bounded by sea to the west and south, the Galloway Hills to the north, and the River Nith to the east; the border between Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire is marked by the River Cree. The definition has, however, fluctuated greatly in size over history.

A hardy breed of black, hornless cattle named Galloway cattle is native to the region, in addition to the more distinctive 'Belted Galloway' or 'Beltie'.

Galloway (red) shown in Scotland (pink) shown in the United Kingdom (light grey).

Geography and landforms

Topographic map of southwestern Scotland
The main rivers and several towns

Galloway comprises that part of Scotland southwards from the Southern Upland watershed and westward from the River Nith. Traditionally it has been described as stretching from "the braes of Glenapp to the Nith".[5] The valleys of three rivers, the Urr Water, the Water of Ken and River Dee, and the Cree, all running north-south, provide much of the good arable land, although there is also some arable land on the coast. Generally however the landscape is rugged and much of the soil is shallow. The generally south slope and southern coast make for mild and wet climate, and there is a great deal of good pasture.

The northern part of Galloway is exceedingly rugged and forms the largest remaining wilderness in Britain south of the Highlands. This area is known as the Galloway Hills.

Land use

Historically Galloway has been famous both for horses and for cattle rearing, and milk and beef production are both still major industries. There is also substantial timber production and some fisheries. The combination of hills and high rainfall make Galloway ideal for hydroelectric power production, and the Galloway Hydro Power scheme was begun in 1929. Since then, electricity generation has been a significant industry. More recently wind turbines have been installed at a number of locations on the watershed, and a large offshore wind-power plant is planned, increasing Galloway's 'green energy' production.


Galloway landmarks on Ptolemy's map
Landmarks according to Ptolemy.
Galloway: modern names of landmarks on Ptolemy's map.

The 2nd century geographer Ptolemy produced a map of Britain in his Geography, in which he describes the landmarks and peoples of the island. The landmarks were identified long ago, and a number of them relate to Galloway:[6]

In the west, the city of Rerigonium (literally 'very royal place'), shown on Ptolemy's map of the world, is a strong contender for the site of Pen Rhionydd, referred to in the Welsh Triads as one of the 'three thrones of Britain' associated with the legendary King Arthur, and may also have been the caput of the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdom of Rheged. Rerigonium's exact position is uncertain except that it was 'on Loch Ryan', close to modern day Stranraer; it is possible that it is the modern settlement of Dunragit (Dun Rheged).

Early Galloway

Torehousekie Stone Circle - - 1098160
Torhousekie Stone Circle dating from 2nd millennium BC, is one of the best preserved sites in Britain. It is approx. 60ft in diameter. photo by Ronnie Leask
Cairn Holy, Galloway
Cairnholy chambered cairn.

The earliest inhabitants were Brythonic Celts, recorded by the Romans as the Novantae tribe. According to tradition, before the end of Roman rule in Britain, St. Ninian established a church or monastery at Whithorn, Wigtownshire, which remained an important place of pilgrimage until the Reformation. The county is rich in prehistoric monuments and relics, amongst the most notable of which are the Drumtroddan Standing Stones (and cup-and-ring carvings), the Torhousekie Stone Circle, both in Wigtownshire and Cairnholy (a Neolithic Chambered Cairn). There is also evidence of one of the earliest pit-fall traps in Europe which was discovered near Glenluce, Wigtownshire.

Middle Ages

NW Britain 11th cent
11th century

A Brythonic speaking kingdom dominated Galloway until the late 7th century when it was taken over by the English kingdom of Bernicia.

English dominance was supplanted by Norse-Gaelic (Gall-Ghàidheal) peoples between the 9th and the 11th century. This can be seen in the context of widespread Norse domination of the Irish Sea, including extensive settlement in the Isle of Man and in the now English region of Cumbria immediately south of Galloway.

If it had not been for Fergus of Galloway who established himself in Galloway, the region would rapidly have been absorbed by Scotland. This did not happen because Fergus, his sons, grandsons and great-grandson Alan, Lord of Galloway, shifted their allegiance between Scottish and English kings. During a period of Scottish allegiance a Galloway contingent followed David, King of Scots in his invasion of England and led the attack in his defeat at the Battle of the Standard (1138).

Alan died in 1234. He had three daughters and an illegitimate son Thomas. The 'Community of Galloway' wanted Thomas as their 'king'. Alexander III of Scotland supported the daughters (or rather their husbands) and invaded Galloway. The Community of Galloway was defeated, and Galloway divided up between Alan's daughters, thus bringing Galloway's independent existence to an end.

Alan's eldest daughter, Derbhorgail (Latinized as Dervorguilla), married John de Balliol, and their son (also John) became one of the candidates for the Scottish Crown. Consequently, Scotland's Wars of Independence were disproportionately fought in Galloway.

There were a large number of new Gaelic placenames being coined post 1320 (e.g. Balmaclellan), because Galloway retained a substantial Gaelic speaking population for several centuries more. Following the Wars of Independence, Galloway became the fief of Archibald the Grim, Earl of Douglas and his heirs. Whithorn remained an important cultural centre, and all the medieval Kings of Scots made pilgrimages there.

Modern history

Galwegian Gaelic seems to have lasted longer than Gaelic in other parts of Lowland Scotland, and Margaret McMurray (d. 1760) of Carrick (outside modern Galloway) appears to have been the last recorded speaker.

In the years after the Union of the Crowns in 1603, Galloway underwent radical change, during the War of the Three Kingdoms and Covenanter rebellion.

In modern times, Stranraer was a major ferry port, but the company have now moved to Cairnryan.

Galloway in literature

Galloway has been the setting of a number of novels, including Walter Scott's Guy Mannering. Other novels include the historical fiction trilogy by Liz Curtis Higgs, Thorn in My Heart, Fair is the Rose, and Whence Came a Prince. Richard Hannay flees London to lie low in Galloway in John Buchan's novel The Thirty-nine Steps. Five Red Herrings, a whodunit by Dorothy L. Sayers, initially published in the US as Suspicious Characters, sees Lord Peter Wimsey, on holiday in Kirkcudbright, investigating the death of an artist living at Gatehouse of Fleet; the book contains some remarkable descriptions of the countryside. S R Crockett, a bestselling writer of historical romances active before the First World War, set several novels in the region including "The Raiders" and "Silver Sand".

See also


  • Brooke, D: Wild Men and Holy Places: Canongate Press, Edinburgh, 1994: ISBN 0-86241-479-2
  • Oram, Richard, The Lordship of Galloway
  • Ptolemy (c. 140), Thayer, Bill (ed.), Geographia, LacusCurtius website at the University of Chicago (published 2008), retrieved 26 April 2008 Check date values in: |date= (help)


  1. ^ Andy Eagle (2003-02-27). "The Online Scots Dictionary". Retrieved 2014-06-18.
  2. ^ "Gallovidian". n.d. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  3. ^ "Gallovidian, adj. and n." OED Online. n.d. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  4. ^ Jennings, AP (2001). "Galloway, Origins of". In Lynch, M (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford Companions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 257–58. ISBN 0-19-211696-7..
  5. ^ "Those green hills that are the haunt of angels". The Herald. 13 May 1995.
  6. ^ Ptolemy & c. 140 Ptolemy, Bk. II, Ch. 2. Trans. Albion island of Britannia - First Map of Europe

External links

Coordinates: 55°03′N 4°08′W / 55.050°N 4.133°W

Archdiocese of Glasgow

The Archdiocese of Glasgow was one of the thirteen (after 1633 fourteen) dioceses of the Scottish church. It was the second largest diocese in the Kingdom of Scotland, including Clydesdale, Teviotdale, parts of Tweeddale, Liddesdale, Annandale, Nithsdale, Cunninghame, Kyle, and Strathgryfe, as well as Lennox, Carrick and the part of Galloway known as Desnes.

Glasgow became an archbishopric in 1492, eventually securing the dioceses of Galloway, Argyll and the Isles as suffragans. The Scottish church broke its allegiance to Rome in 1560, but bishops continued intermittently until 1689.

Drew McIntyre

Andrew McLean Galloway IV (born June 6, 1985) is a Scottish professional wrestler. He is signed to WWE, where he performs on the Raw brand under the ring name Drew McIntyre. He is a one-time Intercontinental Champion and two-time WWE Tag Team Champion. Outside of WWE he has performed as Drew Galloway most notably with Impact Wrestling, where he was a one-time Impact World Champion and one-time Impact Grand Champion. He has also wrestled extensively on the independent scene. He is a two-time ICW World Heavyweight Champion with Insane Championship Wrestling (ICW) and a one-time Evolve Champion, one-time Open the Freedom Gate Champion, and two-time Evolve Tag Team Champion with Evolve.

Galloway returned to WWE in April 2017 and joined the developmental brand NXT, first appearing at NXT TakeOver: Orlando. He won the NXT Championship at NXT TakeOver: Brooklyn III, becoming the first man to win the title in his TakeOver in-ring debut as well as the first WWE Superstar to hold it after having previously been on the main roster drew has been entered into the tna hall of fame.

Dumfries and Galloway

Dumfries and Galloway (Scots: Dumfries an Gallowa; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phrìs is Gall-Ghaidhealaibh) is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland and is located in the western Southern Uplands. It comprises the historic counties of Dumfriesshire, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright and Wigtownshire, the latter two of which are collectively known as Galloway. The administrative centre is the town of Dumfries.

Following the 1975 reorganisation of local government in Scotland, the three counties were joined to form a single region of Dumfries and Galloway, with four districts within it. Since the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, however, it has become a unitary local authority. For lieutenancy purposes, the historic counties are largely maintained with its three lieutenancy areas being Dumfries, Wigtown and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright.

To the north, Dumfries and Galloway borders East Ayrshire, South Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire; in the east the Borders; and to the south the county of Cumbria in England and the Solway Firth. To the west lies the Irish Sea.

Dumfries and Galloway (UK Parliament constituency)

Dumfries and Galloway is a county constituency in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was first used in the 2005 general election, and replaced Galloway and Upper Nithsdale and part of Dumfries. It elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

Earl of Galloway

Earl of Galloway is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1623 for Alexander Stewart, 1st Lord Garlies, with remainder to his heirs male bearing the name and arms of Stewart. He had already been created Lord Garlies in the Peerage of Scotland in 1607, with remainder to the heirs male of his body succeeding to the estates of Garlies. This branch of the Stewart family were distant relatives of the Stewart King of Scotland.Lord Galloway was succeeded by his second but eldest surviving son, the second Earl. He had already been created a Baronet, of Corsewell in the county of Wigtown, in 1627. This title is in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia. His grandson, the fifth Earl (who had succeeded his elder brother, who in his turn had succeeded his father), was a politician. He was succeeded by his son, the sixth Earl. He was a Lord of Police. In 1704 Lord Galloway succeeded his kinsman Sir Archibald Stewart, 2nd Baronet, of Burray, as third Baronet of Burray (see below). On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the seventh Earl. He was a Member of Parliament and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Wigtownshire. From 1774 to 1796 he sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer. In 1796 Lord Galloway was created Baron Stewart of Garlies in the Peerage of Great Britain, which gave him an automatic seat in the House of Lords. He was succeeded by his son, the eighth Earl. He was an admiral in the Royal Navy, a Member of Parliament and Lord-Lieutenant of Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire. When he died the titles passed to his eldest son, the ninth Earl. He represented Cockermouth in the House of Commons and was Lord-Lieutenant of Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the tenth Earl. He sat as Member of Parliament for Wigtownshire. On his death the titles passed to his younger brother, the eleventh Earl. He was a soldier and fought in the Crimean War and in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. He was succeeded by his only son, the twelfth Earl. He served as Lord-Lieutenant of Kirkcudbrightshire. As of 2017 the titles are held by his only son, the thirteenth Earl, who succeeded in 1978.

Several other members of the family have also gained distinction. The Hon. John Stewart, third son of the third Earl, was a brigadier-general in the army and also sat as Member of Parliament for Wigtownshire. The Hon. Keith Stewart, third son of the sixth Earl, was an Admiral and Member of Parliament. His son James Alexander Stewart-Mackenzie was Governor of Ceylon. His grandson was James Stewart-Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth. The Hon. Montgomery Granville John Stewart, sixth son of the seventh Earl, represented Kirkcudbrightshire in the House of Commons. The Hon. James Henry Keith Stewart, eighth son of the seventh Earl, was Member of Parliament for Wigtown Burghs. The Hon. Keith Stewart (1814–1859), younger son of the eighth Earl, was an admiral in the Royal Navy. The Hon. Alexander Stewart (1838–1896), third son of the ninth Earl, was a major-general in the army.

The Stewart Baronetcy, of Burray in the County of Orkney, was created in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia on 4 November 1687 for Archibald Stewart. In 1704 the title was inherited by the afromentioned sixth Earl.

The Earls of Galloway are now considered to be the senior branch of Clan Stewart, although their exact descent is debated.The family seat is Cumloden House, near Newton Stewart, Dumfries and Galloway. The former family seat was Galloway House, near Garlieston, Wigtownshire.

Galloway Township, New Jersey

Galloway Township is a township in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States. At 115.2 square miles (298 km2) of total area, Galloway Township is the largest municipality in the State of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 37,349, reflecting an increase of 6,140 (+19.7%) from the 31,209 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 7,879 (+33.8%) from the 23,330 counted in the 1990 Census; The increase of more than 14,000 in population since the 1990 Census was the 11th-highest in the state.Galloway Township was incorporated by Royal charter on April 4, 1774, from portions of Egg Harbor Township, when it was still part of Gloucester County. Galloway was incorporated as one of the initial group of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. After becoming part of the newly formed Atlantic County in 1837, portions of the township were taken to create Mullica Township (March 13, 1838), Egg Harbor City (June 14, 1858), Absecon town (February 29, 1872), Brigantine Beach borough (now Brigantine city; June 14, 1890) and Port Republic (March 1, 1905).

George Galloway

George Galloway (born 16 August 1954) is a British politician, broadcaster and writer. Between 1987 and 2015, with a gap in 2010–12, he represented four constituencies as a Member of Parliament, elected as a candidate for the Labour Party and later the Respect Party.

After becoming the youngest ever Chairman of the Scottish Labour Party in 1981, he became General Secretary of the London-based charity War on Want in 1983, remaining in the post until elected as MP for Glasgow Hillhead (later Glasgow Kelvin) at the 1987 general election. In 2003, Galloway was expelled from the Labour Party, having been found guilty by the party's national constitutional committee of four of the five charges of bringing the party into disrepute, including having called on Arabs to fight British troops.In 2004, he became a member of Respect–The Unity Coalition, later known as the Respect Party (eventually becoming the party leader by late-2013). Having decided not to seek re-election for the Glasgow Kelvin constituency prior to the 2005 general election, he then stood for the London constituency of Bethnal Green and Bow; defeating the sitting Labour MP, Oona King, and served for one parliamentary term.He returned to the House of Commons at the Bradford West by-election in 2012, but lost his seat at the 2015 general election. Galloway stood as a candidate in the 2016 London mayoral election, but lost to the Labour Party nominee, Sadiq Khan; finishing in seventh place with 1.4% of the vote. The Respect Party "voluntarily deregistered" itself at the Electoral Commission in August 2016. He stood for election to Parliament in 2017, in the Manchester Gorton constituency gaining 5.7% of the vote.

Early in his career, Galloway was an opponent of Saddam Hussein, but he has been accused by David Aaronovitch and Christopher Hitchens of changing his mind about the Iraqi leader when it became Western policy not to support him.Galloway testified to the United States Senate in 2005 over alleged illicit payments from the United Nations' Oil for Food Program. Galloway supports the Palestinian side in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, opposes Zionism, and was involved in the Viva Palestina aid convoys.Galloway has supported Jeremy Corbyn since his election campaign and subsequent election victory in September 2015. In the 2016 EU membership referendum, he advocated a "Leave" vote, campaigning with the cross-party, pro-Brexit organisation Grassroots Out, while before the 2019 European Parliament election he announced on twitter that, "for one-time only", he would support Nigel Farage's Brexit Party.

John Balliol

John Balliol (c. 1249 – late 1314), known derisively as Toom Tabard (meaning "empty coat") was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296. Little is known of his early life. After the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, Scotland entered an interregnum during which several competitors for the Crown of Scotland put forward claims. Balliol was chosen from among them as the new King of Scotland by a group of selected noblemen headed by King Edward I of England.

Edward used his influence over the process to subjugate Scotland and undermined Balliol's personal reign by treating Scotland as a vassal of England. Edward's influence in Scottish affairs tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. This council signed a treaty with France known as the Auld Alliance.

In retaliation, Edward invaded Scotland, starting the Wars of Scottish Independence. After a Scottish defeat in 1296, Balliol abdicated and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Eventually, Balliol was sent to France, and retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306. John Balliol's son Edward Balliol would later exert a claim to the Scottish throne against the Bruce claim during the minority of Robert's son David.


Kirkcudbrightshire ( kə-KOO-bri-shər), or the County of Kirkcudbright or the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in the informal Galloway area of south-western Scotland. For local government purposes, it forms part of the wider Dumfries and Galloway council area of which it forms a committee area under the name of the Stewartry.

The county is occasionally referred to as East Galloway, forming the larger Galloway region with Wigtownshire. It is bounded on the north and north-west by Ayrshire, on the west and south-west by Wigtownshire, on the south and south-east by the Irish Sea and the Solway Firth, and on the east and north-east by Dumfriesshire. It included the small islands of Hestan and Little Ross.

It maintains a strong regional and distinct political identity. It formed a district in the Dumfries and Galloway region and today the Stewartry is an area committee represented by eight councillors. Local administration of the area today is overseen by a Stewartry Area Manager, based in the county town of Kirkcudbright. The current Lord Lieutenant of Kirkcudbright, the Crown's representative in the area, is Lt Col Sir Malcolm Ross.

List of civil parishes in Scotland

This is a list of the 871 civil parishes in Scotland.

Lord of Galloway

The lords of Galloway consisted of a dynasty of heirs who were lords (or kings) and ladies who ruled over Galloway in southwest Scotland, mainly during the High Middle Ages. Many regions of Scotland, including Galloway and Moray, periodically had kings or subkings, similar to those in Ireland during the Middle Ages. The Scottish monarch was seen as being similar to a high king (Ard-Righ in Gaelic). The lords of Galloway would have either paid tribute to the Scottish monarch, or at other times ignored him. The Lords of Galloway are fairly well recorded in the 12th and 13th centuries, but the records are incomplete or conflicting at other times. Later on, the kings were known as "lords" at the Scottish court, and "kings" at home, finally becoming "lords" in both arenas.

The boundaries of the Kingdom of Galloway were ill-defined, and varied over time. During many periods Galloway was much larger than it is today, and took in parts of southern Ayrshire, such as Carrick, Upper Douglasdale and Nithsdale. The area appears to have been the main bastion of Scottish Gaelic culture south of the Highlands in medieval times.

Respect Party

The Respect Party was a left-wing to far-left political party active in the United Kingdom between 2004 and 2016. At the height of its success in 2007, the party had one Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons and nineteen councillors in local government.

The Respect Party was established in London by Salma Yaqoob and George Monbiot in 2004. It grew out of the Stop the War Coalition, and from the start revolved largely around opposition to the United Kingdom's role in the Iraq War. Uniting a range of leftist and anti-war groups, it was unofficially allied to the far-left Socialist Workers Party (SWP) and Muslim Association of Britain (MAB). In 2005, Respect's candidate George Galloway was elected MP for Bethnal Green and Bow, and the party came second in three other constituencies. Respect made further gains in the 2006 and 2007 local elections, at which point its support peaked. In 2007, a schism emerged in the party between SWP supporters and the Respect Renewal group led by Galloway and Yaqoob; the former group left the party to form the Left List. Over the coming years, Respect gradually lost its council seats and it deregistered with the Electoral Commission in 2016.

Avowedly socialist and opposed to capitalism, it called for the nationalisation of much of the UK economy, increased funding to public services, and further measures to tackle poverty and discrimination. It was Eurosceptic and promoted an anti-imperialist worldview. It was also anti-Zionist, opposing the existence of Israel and endorsing the Palestinian solidarity movement. Several commentators claimed that Islamism was a component of its ideology and regarded it as part of a wider alliance between socialists and Islamists within Western Europe. Respect's voting base was primarily among the British Muslim communities in East London, Birmingham and Bradford, where it built upon opposition to the Iraq War and disenchantment among leftist voters with the governing Labour Party.


Stranraer (UK: , in Scotland also , stran-RAR; Scottish Gaelic: An t-Sròn Reamhar, pronounced [ən̪ˠ t̪ʰɾɔːn ˈɾãũ.əɾ]) is a town in the parish of Inch, Dumfries and Galloway, in the historical county of Wigtownshire in southwest Scotland. It lies on the shores of Loch Ryan, on the northern side of the isthmus joining the Rhins of Galloway to the mainland. Stranraer is Dumfries and Galloway's second-largest town, with a population including the surrounding area of nearly 13,000.

Stranraer is an administrative centre for the West Galloway Wigtownshire area of Dumfries and Galloway. It is best known as having been a ferry port, previously connecting Scotland with Belfast and Larne in Northern Ireland; the last service was transferred to nearby Cairnryan in November 2011. The main industries in the area are the ferry port, with associated industries, tourism and, more traditionally, farming.

The name comes from Scottish Gaelic An t-Sròn Reamhar meaning "the broad headland".

Town of Greece v. Galloway

Town of Greece v. Galloway, 572 U.S. ___ (2014), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the court decided that the Town of Greece, New York may permit volunteer chaplains to open each legislative session with a prayer. The plaintiffs were Susan Galloway and Linda Stephens, represented by Americans United for Separation of Church and State. They argue that the prayers violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled against the town, and on May 20, 2013 the Supreme Court agreed to rule on the issue. On May 5, 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5–4 in favor of the Town of Greece, and that the town's practice of beginning legislative sessions with prayers does not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.


W (named double-u, plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.


Wigtownshire or the County of Wigtown (Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Bhaile na h-Ùige, Scots: Wigtounshire) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in south-west Scotland. Until 1975, Wigtownshire was one of the administrative counties used for local government purposes, and is now administered as part of the council area of Dumfries and Galloway. As a lieutenancy area, Wigtownshire has its own Lord Lieutenant, currently John Alexander Ross. In the 19th century, it was also called West Galloway (Scottish Gaelic: Gallobha-an-iar).

Traditional provinces and districts of Scotland

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