Galician cuisine

Galician cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients found in the cuisine of the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain. These include shellfish, empanadas, polbo á feira (a dish made of octopus), the cheese queixo de tetilla, the ribeiro and albariño wines, and orujo liquor.

Bandejas de empanadas gallegas
Empanadas gallegas
Pan de Galiza. VI festa da filloa da pedra. 2009. A Baña
Galician bread
Xamón asado en Galiza
Xamón asado

The potato is a staple food in the region, first arriving in Spain from the Americas in the 16th century, and then grown first and foremost on the coasts of the Ría de Noia. In Galician cuisine, neither the cook nor the recipe really matters; what is being served is the central part of the cuisine.

In Galicia, a wide variety of sea produce can be found in traditional dishes, due to the province's long shoreline and traditional fishing economy. Agriculture products such as potatoes, maize, and wheat are also staples in the Galician diet, along with dairy and meat products from cattle, sheep, and pigs; Galicia's grasses are green year-round and are excellent for grazing.

Due to the history of a weak economy, little industry, and overall a less-than-prominent position in Spanish politics and culture, the development of a Galician haute cuisine has been slowed until recently, with chefs such as Toñi Vicente gaining national attention only since the 1980s.

Mariscada
Mariscada

Typical dishes

Caldo gallego - juantiagues
Caldo gallego from Pontevedra, Spain

See also

Aguardiente

Aguardiente (Spanish: [aɣwaɾˈðjente] (listen); Basque: pattar [pacar]; Catalan: aiguardent [ˌajɣwəɾˈðen]; Galician: augardente [awɣaɾˈðentɪ]; Portuguese: aguardente [aɣwɐɾˈðẽt(ɨ)]/[agwɐʁˈdẽtʃi]) is a generic term for alcoholic beverages that contain between 29% and 60% alcohol by volume (ABV). The word is a compound of the Romance languages' words for "water" (agua in Spanish; aigua in Catalan; água in Portuguese; auga in Galician) and "burning"/"fiery" (ardiente in Spanish; ardent in Catalan; ardente in Portuguese and Galician), similarly to the English term firewater. Both aguardiente and brandy—from the Dutch expression for "burnt (i.e., distilled) wine"—originated as terms for distilled spirits using whatever ingredients were available locally.

Arzúa-Ulloa cheese

Arzúa-Ulloa cheese is a cow's milk cheese made in the Spanish autonomic region of Galicia, with Arzúa-A Ulloa Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status.It is a soft cheese, made from raw or pasteurized milk, has a minimum maturity period of six days, and has a lenticular shape, or cylindrical with rounded edges. Its rind is thin and pliant, medium to dark yellow, bright, clean and smooth. The cheese itself is uniform in color between white and pale yellow. It is soft and creamy without cracks but may have a few small holes or bubbles.

The flavour is slightly sweet and grassy.It is similar in flavor to its cousin cheese, Tetilla. Unlike Tetilla cheese, Arzúa-Ulloa has a soft pliant rind, and has a disc shape.

In addition to the PDO status, there are two other labels that the cheese may carry, farm-made Arzúa-Ulloa (Arzúa-Ulloa de Granxa), a cheese having the particularity that the milk comes entirely from cows on the same farm (its characteristics being otherwise similar), and aged Arzúa-Ulloa (Arzúa-Ulloa curado), a cheese that has been aged for at least six months, with the result that it is firmer in texture throughout.

Chorizo

Chorizo (, from Spanish [tʃoˈɾiθo]) or chouriço (from Portuguese [ʃo(w)ˈɾisu]) is a type of pork sausage. Traditionally, it uses natural casings made from intestines, a method used since Roman times.

In Europe, chorizo is a fermented, cured, smoked sausage, which may be sliced and eaten without cooking, or added as an ingredient to add flavor to other dishes. Elsewhere, some sausages sold as chorizo may not be fermented and cured, and require cooking before eating. Spanish chorizo and Portuguese chouriço get their distinctive smokiness and deep red color from dried, smoked, red peppers (pimentón/pimentão).Chorizo is eaten sliced in a sandwich, grilled, fried, or simmered in liquid, including apple cider or other strong alcoholic beverages such as aguardiente. It is also used as a partial replacement for ground (minced) beef or pork.

Churrasco

Churrasco (Spanish: [tʃuˈrasko], Portuguese: [ʃuˈʁasku]) is Spanish and Portuguese for beef or grilled meat more generally. It is a prominent feature in the cuisine of Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Guatemala, Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru, Chile and other Latin American countries. The related term churrascaria (or churrasqueria) is mostly understood to be a steakhouse.

A churrascaria is a restaurant serving grilled meat, many offering as much as one can eat: the waiters move around the restaurant with the skewers, slicing meat onto the client's plate. This serving style is called espeto corrido or rodízio, and is quite popular in Brazil, specially in southern states like Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina and São Paulo.

Costrada from Pontedeume

Costrada is a typical Galician food from Pontedeume. There is a tradition that the recipe originated with a community of monks from Italy, perhaps belonging to the order of Saint Augustine, who brought the refectory of the monastery of Caaveiro in the 12th century. The use of this dish decreased greatly in the 20th century because of the cost of production.

Empanada

An empanada is a type of baked or fried pasty, consisting of pastry and filling, in Latin American and Filipino cultures. The name comes from the Spanish verb empanar, and literally translates as "enbreaded", that is, wrapped or coated in bread.

Empanadas are made by folding dough over a stuffing, which may consist of meat, cheese, corn, or other ingredients.

European cuisine

European cuisine, or alternatively western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries, including (depending on the definition) that of Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of the Americas, Oceania, and Southern Africa, which derive substantial influence from European settlers in those regions. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking, analogous to Westerners' referring collectively to the cuisines of East Asian countries as Asian cuisine. When used by Westerners, the term may sometimes refer more specifically to cuisine in Europe; in this context, a synonym is Continental cuisine, especially in British English.

The cuisines of Western countries are diverse by themselves, although there are common characteristics that distinguish Western cooking from cuisines of Asian countries and others. Compared with traditional cooking of Asian countries, for example, meat is more prominent and substantial in serving-size. Steak and cutlet in particular are common dishes across the West. Western cuisines also put substantial emphasis on grape wine and on sauces as condiments, seasonings, or accompaniments (in part due to the difficulty of seasonings penetrating the often larger pieces of meat used in Western cooking). Many dairy products are utilised in the cooking process, except in nouvelle cuisine. Cheeses are produced in hundreds of different varieties, and fermented milk products are also available in a wide selection. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common source of starch in this cuisine, along with pasta, dumplings and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch plant in the diet of Europeans and their diaspora since the European colonisation of the Americas, particularly in Northern Europe. Maize is much less common in most European diets than it is in the Americas; however corn meal (polenta or mămăligă), is a major part of the cuisine of Italy and the Balkans. Although flatbreads (especially with toppings such as pizza or tarte flambée), and rice are eaten in Europe, they do not constitute an ever-present staple. Salads (cold dishes with uncooked or cooked vegetables with sauce) are an integral part of European cuisine.

Formal European dinners are served in distinct courses. European presentation evolved from service à la française, or bringing multiple dishes to the table at once, into service à la russe, where dishes are presented sequentially. Usually, cold, hot and savoury, and sweet dishes are served strictly separately in this order, as hors d'oeuvre (appetizer) or soup, as entrée and main course, and as dessert. Dishes that are both sweet and savoury were common earlier in ancient Roman cuisine, but are today uncommon, with sweet dishes being served only as dessert. A service where the guests are free to take food by themselves is termed a buffet, and is usually restricted to parties or holidays. Nevertheless, guests are expected to follow the same pattern.

Historically, European cuisine has been developed in the European royal and noble courts. European nobility was usually arms-bearing and lived in separate manors in the countryside. The knife was the primary eating implement (cutlery), and eating steaks and other foods that require cutting followed. In contrast in the Sinosphere, the ruling class were the court officials, who had their food cut ready to eat in the kitchen, to be eaten with chopsticks. The knife was supplanted by the spoon for soups, while the fork was introduced later in the early modern period, ca. 16th century. Today, most dishes are intended to be eaten with cutlery and only a few finger foods can be eaten with the hands in polite company.

Galician wine

Galician wine is Spanish wine made in the autonomous community of Galicia in the northwest corner of Spain. It includes wine made in the provinces of A Coruña, Ourense, Pontevedra and Lugo. Within Galicia are five Denominacións de Orixe (DO): Monterrei, Rías Baixas, Ribeira Sacra, Ribeiro and Valdeorras. In recent years, the region has seen a resurgence in its wine industry led by the international acclaim being received by the Rías Baixas region for its Albariño wines.

List of European cuisines

This is a list of European cuisines. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, often associated with a specific culture. European cuisine (also called "Western cuisine") refers collectively to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries. European cuisine includes cuisines of Europe, including (depending on the definition) that of Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of North America, Australasia, Oceania, and Latin America, which derive substantial influence from European settlers in those regions. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking. This is analogous to Westerners referring collectively to the cuisines of Asian countries as Asian cuisine. When used by Westerners, the term may refer more specifically to cuisine in Europe; in this context, a synonym is Continental cuisine, especially in British English.

The cuisines of Western countries are diverse by themselves, although there are common characteristics that distinguishes Western cooking from cuisines of Asian countries and others. Compared with traditional cooking of Asian countries, for example, meat is more prominent and substantial in serving-size. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common sources of starch in this cuisine, along with pasta, dumplings and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch plant in the diet of Europeans and their diaspora since the European colonization of the Americas.

List of Spanish dishes

This is a list of dishes found in Spanish cuisine.

Lublin cuisine

Lublin cuisine is an umbrella term for all dishes with a specific regional identity belonging to the region of Lublin. It is a subtype of Polish and Galician cuisine with many similarities to and signs of the influence of neighbouring cuisines.

Miodownik (cake)

Miodownik, or chonek łejkech (German: Honig), is a dessert cake which, together with the cuker łejkech, serves as a popular wedding cake in Jewish cuisine.

Chonek łejkech is prepared similarly to sponge cake, which is topped with honey that is melted and then cooled down along with other sugar ingredients. Once the mass of prepared dough is poured onto a baking sheet, it is baked at a temperature of 200°C for around 40 minutes.The recipe for miodownik originates from Galicia and Central Poland.

Padrón peppers

Padrón peppers (Galician: pementos de Padrón) are a variety of peppers (Capsicum annuum) from the municipality of Padrón in the province of A Coruña, Galicia, northwestern Spain. These are small peppers about 2 inches (5 cm) long, with a color ranging from bright green to yellowish green, and occasionally red. Their peculiarity lies on the fact that, while their taste is usually mild, a minority (10-25%) are particularly hot. Whether a given pepper ends up being hot or mild depends on the amount of water and sunlight it receives during its growth, in addition to temperature. It's said that solely watering the soil of the plant is likely to produce milder pimentos, whilst watering the whole plant, leaves and stalks included, produces peppers of the spicier variety.The peppers are customarily fried in oil and served as tapas.

Polbo á feira

Polbo á feira (Pulpo a la gallega in Spanish) (Galician name literally meaning "fair-style octopus") alternatively known as pulpo estilo feira is a traditional Galician dish.

This dish is prepared by first boiling the octopus inside a copper cauldron. Before actually boiling it, the octopus' tentacles are dipped in and out of the boiling water three times, held by its head. The objective of this operation is to curl the tips of the tentacles. The tentacles are preferred over the head, which sometimes is discarded. After the octopus has been boiled, it is trimmed with scissors, sprinkled with coarse salt and both sweet and spicy paprika (known in Galicia as pemento and pemento picante) and drizzled with olive oil. The optimal cooking point is the one in which octopus is not rubbery but not overcooked either, similarly to the al dente concept in Italian pasta cooking. This is achieved after approximately a 40-90 minutes boil, provided that the octopus is left to rest for a further 20 minutes inside the boiled water away from the fire.

The dish is traditionally served on wooden plates and bread. Tradition dictates that drinking water should not accompany octopus, so the dish is usually accompanied by young Galician red wine.

Traditionally, this diatopic use of octopus was facilitated by its inland availability as stockfish. In the last decades, frozen octopus has replaced dried octopus. Fresh octopus is not so frequently used nowadays either, as it is necessary to pound it heavily before cooking to avoid the dish becoming rubbery. This procedure can be skipped after freezing, which, unlike other seafood, does not alter the organoleptic properties of octopus.

The provinces of Ourense and Lugo have a reputation for good octopus cooking. Fair style octopus is the totemic food of the patron saint festivities of Lugo (San Froilán). Some Galician cooks specialize in this dish. They are usually women, known by the name polbeiras (Galician name). After the modern decline of traditional rural fairs, many polberías (octopus restaurants, by its Galician name) have sprouted across the Galician geography. Polbeiras tend to be rough-and-ready eateries, rather than refined restaurants.

Queimada (drink)

Queimada is an alcoholic beverage of Galician tradition.

Queimada is a punch made from Galician augardente (orujo from Galicia) -a spirit distilled from the rests of winemaking- and flavoured with special herbs or coffee, plus sugar, lemon peel, coffee beans and cinnamon. It is traditionally prepared in a hollow pumpkin.

Typically, while preparing the punch a spell or incantation is recited, so that special powers are conferred to the queimada and those drinking it. Then the queimada is set alight, and slowly burns as more brandy is added.

Spanish cuisine

Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by historical processes that shaped local culture and society in some of Europe's Iberian Peninsula territories. Geography and climate had great influence on cooking methods and available ingredients. These cooking methods and ingredients are still present in the gastronomy of the various regions that make up Spain. Spanish cuisine derives from a complex history where invasions and conquests of Spain have modified traditions which made new ingredients available. Thus, the current and old cuisine of Spain incorporates old and new traditions.

Tarta de Santiago

Torta de Santiago (in Galician) or Tarta de Santiago (in Spanish), literally meaning cake of St. James, is an almond cake or pie from Galicia with origin in the Middle Ages. The Galician for cake is Torta whilst it is often referred to Tarta, which is the Spanish word for it. The filling principally consists of ground almonds, eggs, and sugar, with additional flavouring of lemon zest, sweet wine, brandy, or grape marc, depending on the recipe used. It is a round shape and can be made with or without a base which can be either puff pastry or shortcrust pastry.

The top of the pie is decorated with powdered sugar, masked by an imprint of the Cross of Saint James (cruz de Santiago) which gives the pastry its name.

In May 2010, the EU gave Tarta de Santiago PGI status within Europe. To qualify, the cake must be made in the Autonomous Community of Galicia and contain at least 33% almonds, excluding the base.It was the sweet chosen to represent Spain in the Café Europe initiative of the Austrian presidency of the European Union on Europe Day 2006.

Tetilla cheese

Tetilla is a regional cow's cheese made in Galicia, in north-western Spain. It is a common element in Galician cuisine, often used as a dessert. It has had Denominación de Origen certification since 1993 and European DOP certification since 1996.Originally produced in small towns along the border between the provinces of A Coruña and Pontevedra such as Arzúa, Melide, Curtis or Sobrado dos Monxes, it is now produced throughout Galicia. It is made with milk from three breeds of cattle: imported Friesian and Parda Alpina (Braunvieh), and the local Rubia Gallega of Galicia.The name tetilla (Spanish for small breast; the word is also the official name in Galician) describes the shape of the cheese, a sort of cone topped by a nipple, or a half pear – hence its other name, perilla. It weighs from 0.5 to 1.5 kg, with a diameter and height ranging from 90 to 150 mm.

Świętokrzyskie cuisine

Świętokrzyskie cuisine is an umbrella term for all dishes with a specific regional identity belonging to the region of Świętokrzyskie. It is a subtype of Polish and Galician cuisine with many similarities to and signs of the influence of neighbouring cuisines.

Galician cuisine
Soups and stews
Empanadas
Egg dishes
Bean dishes
Pork dishes
Beef dishes
Seafood dishes
Other protein dishes
Breads
Desserts and sweets
Jamones
Embutidos
Tapas
Cheeses
Beverages

Languages

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