Galicia (/ɡəˈlɪʃ(i)ə/; Ukrainian and Rusyn: Галичина, Halyčyna; Polish: Galicja; Czech and Slovak: Halič; German: Galizien; Hungarian: Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Romanian: Galiția/Halici; Russian: Галиция, Galitsiya; Yiddish: גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine. The area, named after the medieval city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. In 1253 Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus (Latin: Rex Rusiae) or King of Ruthenia following the Mongol invasion in Ruthenia (Kievan Rus). In 1352 the Kingdom of Poland annexed the Kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia as the Ruthenian Voivodeship (Latin: Palatinatus Russiae).
The nucleus of historic Galicia lies within the modern regions of western Ukraine: the Lviv, Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk oblasts near Halych. In the 18th century, territories that later became part of the modern Polish regions of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Subcarpathian Voivodeship and Silesian Voivodeship were added to Galicia. It covers much of such historic regions as Red Ruthenia (centered on Lviv) and Lesser Poland (centered in Kraków). Galicia became contested ground between Poland and Ruthenia from medieval times, and in the 20th century between Poland and Ukraine. In the 10th century, several cities were founded in Galicia, such as Volodymyr and Jaroslaw, whose names mark their connections with Grand Princes of Kiev. There is considerable overlap between Galicia and Podolia (to the east) as well as between Galicia and south-west Ruthenia, especially in a cross-border region (centred on Carpathian Ruthenia) inhabited by various nationalities.
Location of Galicia (green) in Europe (dark gray)
Map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, 1914
Map of Europe in 1328
Andrew II, King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235, claimed the title Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae ("King of Galicia and Lodomeria") – a Latinised version of the Slavic names Halych and Volodymyr, the major cities of the principality of Halych-Volhynia, which the Hungarians ruled from 1214 to 1221. Halych-Volhynia had cut a swathe as a mighty principality under the rule of Prince Roman the Great (Roman Mstislavich) in 1170–1205. After the expulsion of the Hungarians in 1221, Ruthenians took back rule of the area. Roman's son Daniel of Galicia (Prince of Galicia until 1255) was crowned king of Halych-Volhynia in 1253. About 1247 Daniel of Galicia founded Lviv (Leopolis), named in honour of his son Leo I, who later moved the capital northwestwards from Halych to Lviv in 1272.
The Ukrainian name Halych (Галич) (Halicz in Polish, Галич in Russian, Galic in Latin) comes from the Khwalis or Kaliz who occupied the area from the time of the Magyars. They were also called Khalisioi in Greek, and Khvalis (Хваліс) in Ukrainian. Some historians[a] speculated that the name had to do with a group of people of Thracian origin (i.e. Getae) who during the Iron Age moved into the area after Roman conquest of Dacia in 106 CE and may have formed the Lypytsia culture with the Venedi people who moved in the region at the end of Le Tène period (La Tène culture). The Lypytsia culture supposedly replaced the existing Thracian Hallstatt (see Thraco-Cimmerian) and Vysotske cultures. Connection with Celtic peoples supposedly explains the relation of the name "Galicia" to many similar place names found across Europe and Asia Minor, such as ancient Gallia or Gaul (modern France, Belgium, and northern Italy), Galatia (in present-day Turkish Asia Minor), the Iberian Peninsula's Galicia, and Romanian Galați. Some other scholars assert that the name Halych has Slavic origins – from halytsa, meaning "a naked (unwooded) hill", or from halka which means "jackdaw". (The jackdaw featured as a charge in the city's coat of arms and later also in the coat of arms of Galicia-Lodomeria. The name, however, predates the coat of arms, which may represent canting or simply folk etymology.) Although Ruthenians drove out the Hungarians from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles.
In 1349, in the course of the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, King Casimir III the Great of Poland conquered the major part of Galicia and put an end to the independence of this territory. Upon the conquest Casimir adopted the following title:
Casimir by the grace of God king of Poland and Rus (Ruthenia), lord and heir of the land of Kraków, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, Pomerania (Pomerelia). [In Latin: Kazimirus, Dei gratia rex Polonie et Rusie, nec non Cracovie, Sandomirie, Siradie, Lancicie, Cuiavie, et Pomeranieque Terrarum et Ducatuum Dominus et Heres.
Following the death of Casimir in 1370, Poland entered into a personal union with Hungary (1370-1382) and Ruthenia (Galicia) came under the rule of a Ruthenian lord, Vladislaus II of Opole, appointed by the King of Hungary. Later Galicia was ruled for short time by various Hungarian voivodes of Ruthenia.
Under the Jagiellonian dynasty (Kings of Poland from 1386 to 1572, the Kingdom of Poland revived and reconstituted its territories. In place of historic Galicia there appeared the Ruthenian Voivodeship.
In 1526, after the death of Louis II of Hungary, the Habsburgs inherited the Hungarian claims to the titles of the Kingship of Galicia and Lodomeria, together with the Hungarian crown. In 1772 the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, used those historical claims to justify her participation in the first partition of Poland. In fact, the territories acquired by Austria did not correspond exactly to those of former Halych-Volhynia - the Russian Empire took control of Volhynia to the north-east, including the city of Volodymyr-Volynskyi (Włodzimierz Wołyński) – after which Lodomeria was named. On the other hand, much of Lesser Poland – Nowy Sącz and Przemyśl (1772–1918), Zamość (1772–1809), Lublin (1795–1809), and Kraków (1846–1918) – became part of Austrian Galicia. Moreover, despite the fact that Austria's claim derived from the historical Hungarian crown, "Galicia and Lodomeria" were not officially assigned to Hungary, and after the Ausgleich of 1867, the territory found itself in Cisleithania, or the Austrian-administered part of Austria-Hungary.
The full official name of the new Austrian territory was the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator. After the incorporation of the Free City of Kraków in 1846, it was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator (German: Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator).
Each of those entities was formally separate; they were listed as such in the Austrian emperor's titles, each had its distinct coat-of-arms and flag. For administrative purposes, however, they formed a single province. The duchies of Auschwitz (Oświęcim) and Zator were small historical principalities west of Kraków, on the border with Prussian Silesia. Lodomeria, under the name Volhynia, remained under the rule of the Russian Empire - see Volhynian Governorate.
In Roman times, the region was populated by various tribes of Celto-Germanic admixture, including Celtic-based tribes – like the Galice or "Gaulics" and Bolihinii or "Volhynians" – the Lugians and Cotini of Celtic, Vandals and Goths of Germanic origins (the Przeworsk and Púchov cultures). During the Great Migration period of Europe (coinciding with the fall of the Roman Empire), a variety of nomadic groups invaded the area. Overall, Slavs (both West and East Slavs, including White Croats, Lendians as well as Rusyns) came to dominate the Celtic-German population.
In the 12th century, a Rurikid Principality of Halych (Halicz, Halics, Galich, Galic) formed there, which merged in the end of the century with the neighbouring Volhynia into the Principality of Halych Volhynia. Galicia and Volhynia had originally been two separate Rurikid principalities, assigned on a rotating basis to younger members of the Kievan dynasty. The line of Prince Roman the Great of Vladimir-in-Volhynia had held the principality of Volhynia, while the line of Yaroslav Osmomysl held the Principality of Halych (later adopted as Galicia). Galicia–Volhynia was created following the death in 1198 or 1199 (and without a recognised heir in the paternal line) of the last Prince of Galicia, Vladimir II Yaroslavich; Roman acquired the Principality of Galicia and united his lands into one state. Roman's successors would mostly use Halych (Galicia) as the designation of their combined kingdom. In Roman's time Galicia–Volhynia's principal cities were Halych and Volodymyr-in-Volhynia. In 1204, Roman captured Kiev, while being in alliance with Poland, he signed a peace treaty with Hungary and established diplomatic relations with the Byzantine Empire.
In 1205, Roman turned against his Polish allies, leading to a conflict with Leszek the White and Konrad of Masovia. Roman was subsequently killed in the Battle of Zawichost (1205), and his dominion entered a period of rebellion and chaos. Thus weakened, Galicia–Volhynia became an arena of rivalry between Poland and Hungary. King Andrew II of Hungary styled himself rex Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ, Latin for "king of Galicia and Vladimir [in-Volhynia]", a title that later was adopted in the Habsburg Empire. In a compromise agreement made in 1214 between Hungary and Poland, the throne of Galicia–Volhynia was given to Andrew's son, Coloman of Lodomeria.
In 1352, when the principality was divided between the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the territory became subject to the Polish Crown. With the Union of Lublin in 1569 Poland and Lithuania merged to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which lasted for 200 years until conquered and divided up by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
In 1772 with the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the south-eastern part of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was awarded to the Habsburg Empress Maria-Theresa, whose bureaucrats named it the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, after one of the titles of the princes of Hungary, although its borders coincided but roughly with those of the former medieval principality. Known informally as Galicia, it became the largest, most populous, and northernmost province of the Austrian Empire until the dissolution of that monarchy at the end of World War I in 1918, when it ceased to exist as a geographic entity.
During the First World War, Galicia saw heavy fighting between the forces of Russia and the Central Powers. The Russian forces overran most of the region in 1914 after defeating the Austro-Hungarian army in a chaotic frontier battle in the opening months of the war. They were in turn pushed out in the spring and summer of 1915 by a combined German and Austro-Hungarian offensive.
In 1918, Western Galicia became a part of the restored Republic of Poland, which absorbed the Lemko-Rusyn Republic. The local Ukrainian population briefly declared the independence of Eastern Galicia as the "West Ukrainian People's Republic". During the Polish-Soviet War the Soviets tried to establish the puppet-state of the Galician SSR in East Galicia, the government of which after a couple of months was liquidated.
The fate of Galicia was settled by the Peace of Riga on 18 March 1921, attributing Galicia to the Second Polish Republic. Although never accepted as legitimate by some Ukrainians, it was internationally recognized on 15 May 1923.
The Ukrainians of the former eastern Galicia and the neighbouring province of Volhynia made up about 12% of the Second Polish Republic population, and were its largest minority. As Polish government policies were unfriendly towards minorities, tensions between the Polish government and the Ukrainian population grew, eventually giving rise to the militant underground Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.
In 1773, Galicia had about 2.6 million inhabitants in 280 cities and market towns and approximately 5,500 villages. There were nearly 19,000 noble families, with 95,000 members (about 3% of the population). The serfs accounted for 1.86 million, more than 70% of the population. A small number were full-time farmers, but by far the overwhelming number (84%) had only smallholdings or no possessions.
Galicia had arguably the most ethnically diverse population of all the countries in the Austrian monarchy, consisting mainly of Poles and "Ruthenians"; the peoples known later as Ukrainians and Rusyns, as well as ethnic Jews, Germans, Armenians, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Roma and others. In Galicia as a whole, the population in 1910 was estimated to be 45.4% Polish, 42.9% Ukrainian, 10.9% Jewish, and 0.8% German. This population was not evenly distributed. The Poles lived mainly in the west, with the Ukrainians predominant in the eastern region ("Ruthenia"). At the turn of the twentieth century, Poles constituted 78.7% of the whole population of Western Galicia, Ukrainians 13.2%, Jews 7.6%, Germans 0.3%, and others 0.2%. The respective data for Eastern Galicia show the following numbers: Ukrainians 64.5%, Poles 21.0%, Jews 13.7%, Germans 0.3%, and others 0.5%. Of the 44 administrative divisions of Austrian eastern Galicia, Lviv (Polish: Lwów, German: Lemberg) was the only one in which Poles made up a majority of the population
Linguistically, the Polish language was predominant in Galicia. According to the 1910 census 58.6% of the combined population of both western and eastern Galicia spoke Polish as its mother tongue compared to 40.2% who spoke the Ukrainian language. The number of Polish-speakers may have been inflated because Jews were not given the option of listing Yiddish as their language.
The Jews of Galicia had immigrated in the Middle Ages from Germany. German-speaking people were more commonly referred to by the region of Germany where they originated (such as Saxony or Swabia). For inhabitants who spoke different native languages, e.g. Poles and Ruthenians, identification was less problematic, but widespread multilingualism blurred the ethnic divisions again.
It is, however, possible to note that Galicia was a very Catholic state. Roman Catholicism was practiced in two rites. Poles were Roman Catholic, the Ukrainians belonged to the Greek Catholic Church, but were both overwhelmingly Catholic. The Jews represented the third largest religious group. Galicia was the center of the branch of Orthodox Judaism known as Hasidism.
The new state borders cut Galicia off from many of its traditional trade routes and markets of the Polish sphere, resulting in stagnation of economic life and decline of Galician towns. Lviv lost its status as a significant trade centre. After a short period of limited investments, the Austrian government started the fiscal exploitation of Galicia and drained the region of manpower through conscription to the imperial army. The Austrians decided that Galicia should not develop industrially but remain an agricultural area that would serve as a supplier of food products and raw materials to other Habsburg provinces. New taxes were instituted, investments were discouraged, and cities and towns were neglected. The result was significant poverty in Austrian Galicia. Galicia was the poorest province of Austro-Hungary, and according to Norman Davies, could be considered "the poorest province in Europe".
Near Drohobych and Boryslav in Galicia, significant oil reserves were discovered and developed during the mid 19th and early 20th centuries. The first European attempt to drill for oil was in Bóbrka in western Galicia in 1854. By 1867, a well at Kleczany, in Western Galicia, was drilled using steam to about 200 meters. On 31 December 1872, a railway line linking Borysław (now Boryslav) with the nearby city of Drohobycz (now Drohobych) was opened. British engineer John Simeon Bergheim and Canadian William Henry McGarvey came to Galicia in 1882.[b] In 1883, their company, MacGarvey and Bergheim, bored holes of 700 to 1,000 meters and found large oil deposits. In 1885, they renamed their oil developing enterprise the Galician-Karpathian Petroleum Company (German: Galizisch-Karpathische Petroleum Aktien-Gesellschaft), headquartered in Vienna, with McGarvey as the chief administrator and Bergheim as field engineer,[c] and built a huge refinery at Maryampole near Gorlice, south of Tarnow. Considered the biggest, most efficient enterprise in Austro-Hungary, Maryampole was built in six months and employed 1000 men.[d] Subsequently, investors from Britain, Belgium, and Germany established companies to develop the oil and natural gas industries in Galicia. This influx of capital caused the number of petroleum enterprises to shrink from 900 to 484 by 1884, and to 285 companies manned by 3,700 workers by 1890. However, the number of oil refineries increased from thirty-one in 1880 to fifty-four in 1904. By 1904, there were thirty boreholes in Borysław of over 1,000 meters. Production increased by 50% between 1905 and 1906 and then trebled between 1906 and 1909 because of unexpected discoveries of vast oil reserves of which many were gushers. By 1909, production reached its peak at 2,076,000 tons or 4% of worldwide production. Often called the "Polish Baku", the oil fields of Borysław and nearby Tustanowice accounted for over 90% of the national oil output of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From 500 residents in the 1860s, Borysław had swollen to 12,000 by 1898. At the turn of the century, Galicia was ranked fourth in the world as an oil producer.[e] This significant increase in oil production also caused a slump in oil prices. A very rapid decrease in oil production in Galicia occurred just before the Balkan Wars of 1912–13.
[...] the 'Austro-Hungarian "pedigree" of Galicia becomes the passport to genuine, non-Eastern Europe.' [...] Otto von Habsburg [...] expressed clearly that all of Ukraine belongs to Central Europe, which is the ideological construction differing from Russia-dominated Eastern Europe.
Um welchen Preis er dies that, wird nicht überliefert, aber seit dieser Zeit, das ist seit dem Jahre 1206 findet sich in seinen Urkunden der Titel: "Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae"
Galician poverty became proverbial in the second half of the nineteenth century
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(Central Europe) at Wikimedia Commons
Amalia Nathansohn Freud (18 August 1835 – 12 September 1930) was the third wife of Jacob Freud and mother of Sigmund Freud. She was born Amalia Nathansohn in Brody, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and grew up in Odessa, Kherson Governorate where her mother was from (both cities located in modern Ukraine since 1939).
Amalia Freud died in Vienna, First Austrian Republic at the age of 95 from tuberculosis.Andrew of Galicia
Andriy II Yuriyevych or Andrew of Galicia (Ukrainian: Андрій II Юрієвич) (unknown – 1323) was the last Rus' king of Galicia-Volhynia in 1308–1323 (according to other sources since 1315). He was the son of Yuriy I (1252–1308) whom he succeeded on the royal throne of Galicia. His mother was Euphemia of Kuyavia. After the death of his father, he ruled the kingdom together with his brother Lev II. Though the kingdom was one being managed together, there are sources informing that Andrew was seated in Volodymyr-Volynskyi and Lev II in Galicia.Bolesław-Jerzy II
Bolesław-Jerzy II (1305/1310 – April 7, 1340) was a ruler of the Polish Piast dynasty who ruled the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia. After his death started the Galicia–Volhynia Wars over succession of Galicia and Volhynia.
Bolesław was born between 1305 and 1310 to Trojden I of Masovia from the Piast dynasty, Duke of Czersk and Maria, daughter of Yuri I, prince of Galicia. Since his father was still a ruler of the family's Masovian lands, in 1323 Bolesław, renamed Jerzy, became Prince of Galicia. He also received the Duchy of Belz after the childless death of Andrew of Galicia. In 1331 he married daughter of Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas and sister of Aldona of Lithuania, wife of Casimir III of Poland. Name of Bolesław's wife is disputed. T. Narbutt wrote that her pagan name was Eufemia and her Christian name was Maria. Oswald Balzer supposed that her Christian name was Eufemia. Kazimierz Jasiński supposed that whole Narbutt's account was fabrication.In a treaty of 1338 Bolesław Jerzy offered Casimir III of Poland succession to the throne of Galicia-Volhynia. Duke Boleslaw was supported by the many townspeople living there. In 1324 Boleslaw located the towns of Volodymyr-Volynskyi on Magdeburg law, and Sanok in 1339. He was poisoned in 1340 by orthodox boyars and died without an heir, before his father who continued rule Masovian principality.
After Bolesław Jerzy's death the Kingdom of Galicia was gradually annexed by the kingdom of Poland between 1340 and 1366, during the reign of Casimir III of Poland.Daniel of Galicia
Daniel of Galicia (Ukrainian: Данило Романович (Галицький): Danylo Romanovych (Halytskyi); Old Ruthenian: Данило Романовичъ: Danylo Romanovyčъ; Polish: Daniel I Romanowicz Halicki; 1201 – 1264) was a King of Ruthenia, Prince (Knyaz) of Galicia (Halych) (1205–1255), Peremyshl (1211), and Volodymyr (1212–1231). He was crowned by a papal archbishop in Dorohochyn 1253 as the first King of Ruthenia (1253–1264).
Daniel of Galicia is mentioned as King Daniel of Rus' by Giovanni da Pian del Carpine in his History of Mongols whom we call Tatars (Ystoria Mongalorum quos nos Tartaros appellamus).Efraim Racker
Efraim Racker (June 28, 1913 – September 9, 1991) was an Austrian biochemist who was responsible for identifying and purifying Factor 1 (F1), the first part of the ATP synthase enzyme to be characterised. F1 is only a part of a larger ATP synthase complex known as Complex V. It is a peripheral membrane protein attached to component Fo, which is integral to the membrane.Emanuel Ax
Emanuel Ax (born 8 June 1949) is a Grammy-winning American classical pianist. He is a teacher on the faculty of the Juilliard School.Galician
Galician may refer to:
Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain)
Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Eastern Europe)
SS Galician a liner later renamed the HMHS Glenart CastleGalician Jews
Galician Jews or Galitzianers are a subdivision of the Ashkenazim geographically originating from Galicia, from western Ukraine (current Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, and Ternopil regions) and from the south-eastern corner of Poland (Podkarpackie and Lesser Poland voivodeships). Galicia proper, which was inhabited by Ukrainians, Poles and Jews, was a royal province within the Austro-Hungarian empire. Galician Jews primarily spoke Yiddish.Henryk Friedman
Henryk Friedman (Friedmann) (1903–1942) was a Polish chess master.
He lived in Lviv (Lwów, Lemberg). In 1926–1934, Friedman won seven times in succession the Championship of Lviv but 1930, when he took 2nd place behind Stepan Popel. Friedman played in four Polish championships. In 1926, he took 14th in Warsaw (1st POL-ch). The event was won by Dawid Przepiórka. In 1927, he took 13th in Łódź (2nd POL-ch). The event was won by Akiba Rubinstein. In 1935, he tied for 2nd-4th with Mieczysław Najdorf and Paulin Frydman, behind Ksawery Tartakower in Warsaw (3rd POL-ch). In 1936, he won in Vienna (19th Trebitsch-Turnier). In 1937, he took 12th in Jurata (4 th POL-ch). The event was won by Tartakower.
Henryk Friedman played for Poland at fourth board (+5 –2 =5) in the 6th Chess Olympiad at Warsaw 1935. He won team bronze medal there. He also played at fifth board (+11 –0 =9) in unofficial Olympiad at Munich 1936, where he won two silver medals (team and individual).
Henryk Friedman died probably in a German Nazi camp.Jacob Freud
Jacob Koloman Freud (1815–1896) was the father of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis.
Born in town of Tysmenytsia in Austrian Galicia, and from a Hasidic background though himself an enlightened Jew of the Haskalah, he mainly earned his living as a wool merchant.Leo I of Galicia
Leo I of Galicia (Ukrainian: Лев Дани́лович, Lev Danylovych) (c. 1228 – c. 1301) was a Knyaz (prince) of Belz (1245–1264), Peremyshl, Halych (1264–1269), Grand Prince of Kiev (1271–1301) and King of Galicia-Volhynia.
He was a son of King Daniel of Galicia and his first wife, Anna Mstislavna Smolenskaya (daughter of Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold). As his father, Lev was a member of the senior branch of Vladimir II Monomakh descendants. He was a third cousin of Alexander Nevsky.Maurice Goldhaber
Maurice Goldhaber (April 18, 1911 – May 11, 2011) was an Austrian-born American physicist, who in 1957 (with Lee Grodzins and Andrew Sunyar) established that neutrinos have negative helicity.Oscar Chajes
Oscar Chajes (pronounced "HA-yes") (December 14, 1873 – February 28, 1928) was an American chess player.Pinhas Lavon
Pinhas Lavon (Hebrew: פנחס לבון, 12 July 1904 – 24 January 1976) was an Israeli politician, minister and labor leader, best known for the Lavon Affair.Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport
Solomon Judah Löb HaKohen Rapoport (Hebrew: שלמה יהודה כהן רפאפורט; June 1, 1786 – October 15, 1867) was a Galician rabbi and Jewish scholar. He was born in Lemberg, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. He married in 1810 Franziska Freide Heller, the daughter of the well-known Aryeh Leib Heller, and was instrumental in publishing the work Avnei Miluim of his father in law. He wrote both the index, sources and numerous comments.
After various experiences in business, Rapoport became rabbi of Tarnopol (1837) and of Prague (1840). He was one of the founders of the new Wissenschaft des Judentums movement. His chief work was the first part of an (unfinished) encyclopaedia ("Erekh Millin", 1852). Equally notable were his biographies of Saadia Gaon, Nathan ben Jehiel (author of the Arukh), Hai Gaon, Eleazar Kalir, and others.
Thrown upon his own resources about 1817, Rapoport became the collector of the meat-tax on farmers. He had already given evidence of marked critical ability, though his writings previously published were of a light character—poems and translations. His critical talent, however, soon revealed itself. In 1824 he wrote an article for Bikkure ha-'Ittim on the independent Jewish tribes of Arabia and Abyssinia. Though this article gained him some recognition, a more permanent impression was made by his work on Saadia Gaon and his times (published in the same journal in 1829), the first of a series of biographical works on the medieval Jewish sages. Because of this work he received recognition in the scholarly world and gained many enthusiastic friends, especially S. D. Luzzatto.After the fashion in rabbinic circles, Rapoport was known by an acronym "Shir", formed by the initial letters of his Hebrew name "Sh"elomo "Y"ehuda "R"apoport. Shir literally means "song" in Hebrew.
Leopold Greenwald quotes a letter from Mendel Mahr to Moses Sofer, regarding Sofer's attitude towards Rapoport. Mahr criticized what he felt was an overly moderate stance by Sofer, and mentioned that it was well known in Lemberg that Rapoport had had an affair with a married woman which lasted around two and a half years.Rapoport died in Prague.Vernacular architecture of the Carpathians
The vernacular architecture of the Carpathians draws on environmental and cultural sources to create unique designs.
Vernacular architecture refers to non-professional, folk architecture, including that of the peasants. In the Carpathian Mountains and the surrounding foothills, wood and clay are the primary traditional building materials.Walddeutsche
Walddeutsche (German: Walddeutsche ("Forest Germans") or Taubdeutsche ("Deaf Germans"); Polish: Głuchoniemcy ("deaf-mutes", a pun)), is the name for a group of people, mostly of German origin, who settled during the 14th–17th century on the territory of present-day Sanockie Pits, Poland, a region which was previously only sparsely inhabited because the land was difficult to farm.Yuri I of Galicia
Yuri I of Galicia (Ukrainian: Юрій I Львович, 24 April 1252 (1257?) – 18 March 1308) was a King of Rus', Prince of Volhynia (Latin: Regis Rusie, Princeps Ladimerie). His full title was Yuri I, King of Ruthenia, Grand Prince of Kiev, Volydymyr-Volhynia, Halych, Lutsk, Dorohochyn.
Timeline of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
|before 1769||Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth||Moldavia|
|1769–1772||to Austria, ca. 1769|
|1772–1775||First Partition of Poland, 1772||First Partition of Poland, 1772|
|1775–1789||Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
including the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator;
part of the Habsburg Empire, 1772–1804; of the Austrian Empire, 1804–1867; of Cisleithania, Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918
|Bukovina Military District, 1775–1789|
|1789–1795||Bukovina District, 1789–1849|
|1795–1803||Third Partition of Poland, 1795 |
New Galicia (or West Galicia)
|1803–1809||New Galicia merged into Galicia, 1803|
|1809–1815||Duchy of Warsaw, 1809–1815||to Russia, 1809–1815|
|1815–1846||"Congress" Kingdom of Poland, 1815–1918||Free City of Cracow, 1815–1846|
|1846–1849||Grand Duchy of Cracow, 1846–1918|
|1849–1918||Duchy of Bukovina, 1849–1918|
|1918–1919||Poland, 1918||WUPR, Lemko,