Four of the species have long been established:
|Image||Scientific name||Common Name||Distribution|
|Galerella flavescens||Angolan slender mongoose||Angola and Namibia.|
|Galerella ochracea||Somalian slender mongoose||Somalia|
|Galerella pulverulenta||Cape gray mongoose||South Africa, Lesotho and southern Namibia|
|Galerella sanguinea||Slender mongoose||sub-Saharan Africa|
A recent addition is the black mongoose, Galerella nigrata, which now is considered a separate species by many scientists, following genetic analysis. It was previously seen as a variant of Galerella sanguinea.
|Slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea)|
The Angolan slender mongoose (Galerella flavescens) is a mongoose that lives in southern Africa, specifically Angola and Namibia. It lives in the savannah and avoids desert and dense forests.
This animal has a long slim body and the males are around 15% bigger than the females. It has 38 teeth.
Males do not help in raising the young. The young open their eyes at 3 weeks and leave their mother at around 10 weeks and at 24 weeks get their adult teeth.Bengal mongoose
The Bengal mongoose (Herpestes javanicus palustris) is a subspecies of the small Asian mongoose. It is also known as the marsh mongoose, not to be confused with Atilax paludinosus, which is also called the marsh mongoose. Other synonyms include Indian marsh mongoose and Bengali water mongoose.Black mongoose
The black mongoose (Galerella nigrata) is a species of mongoose found in Namibia and Angola. Although originally described as a separate species by Thomas (1928), it was often been considered a subspecies of the slender mongoose. However, genetic analysis has confirmed its status as a separate species. Evidence suggests the two species diverged around four million years ago, likely due to some populations becoming separated as the habitat in southern Africa was changing. The black mongoose now occupies a distinct habitat in areas with large boulders and rocky outcrops known as inselbergs in the mountainous regions of northwest Namibia and southwest Angola. After remaining in these areas for millions of years, the black mongoose is highly specialized to survive in the harsh arid environment.Bolbitiaceae
The Bolbitiaceae are a family of mushroom-forming basidiomycete fungi. A 2008 estimate placed 17 genera and 287 species in the family. Bolbitiaceae was circumscribed by mycologist Rolf Singer in 1948.Cape gray mongoose
The Cape gray mongoose (Galerella pulverulenta), also called the small gray mongoose, is a small mammal native to South Africa, Lesotho and southern Namibia.Galerella (fungus)
Galerella is a genus of fungi in the Bolbitiaceae family. The widespread genus contains six species.List of Agaricales genera
This is a list of genera in the Agaricales order of mushroom-forming fungi.List of species in order Carnivora
This list contains the species in order Carnivora.Lutrogale
Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.Mongoose
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The other five species (all African) in the family are the four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus, and the species Suricata suricatta, commonly called meerkat in English.
Six species in the family Eupleridae are endemic to the island of Madagascar. These are called "mongoose" and were originally classified as a genus within the family Herpestidae, but genetic evidence has since shown that they are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae; they have been classified in the subfamily Galidiinae within Eupleridae since 2006.
Herpestidae is placed within the suborder Feliformia, together with the cat, hyena, and Viverridae families.Namaqua slender mongoose
The Namaqua slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea swalius), also known as the Namibian slender mongoose, is a subspecies of the slender mongoose. It is endemic to Namibia.Opisthacanthus capensis
Opisthacanthus capensis (Thorell, 1876) is a Cape Province and Zimbabwean species of scorpion with robust chelae, dark brown to black in colour, turning green when under cover for some time. Opisthacanthus is arboreal and ground-dwelling, and found mainly in moist habitats in dense vegetation, pine plantations and forests, hiding under bark and rocks. There are 32 species and subspecies in this genus, all occurring in Southern Africa.Its venom contains powerful neurotoxins and cytotoxins, including mucopolysaccharides, hyaluronidases, phospholipases, serotonins, histamines, enzyme inhibitors, and proteins such as neurotoxic peptides. The venom from O. capensis is largely composed of melittin which stimulates the release of the enzyme phospholipase A2 causing inflammation and pain. Phospholipase A2 cleaves the SN-2 acyl chain, releasing arachidonic acid.
This species features in the diets of the bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis (Canidae), the yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata, the small grey mongoose Galerella pulverulenta, and the water mongoose Atilax paludinosus (Viverridae).Pholiotina
Pholiotina is a genus of small agaric fungi. It was circumscribed by Swiss mycologist Victor Fayod in 1889 for Conocybe-like species with partial veils. The genus has since been expanded to include species lacking partial veils.Pholiotina cyanopus
Pholiotina cyanopus is a species of fungus currently assigned to the genus Pholiotina that contains the psychoactive compound psilocybin. Originally described as Galerula cyanopus by American mycologist George Francis Atkinson in 1918. It was transferred to Conocybe by Robert Kühner in 1935 before being transferred to Pholiotina by Rolf Singer in 1950. A 2013 molecular phylogenetics study found it to belong to a group of species currently assigned to Pholiotina that are more closely related to Galerella nigeriensis than to Pholiotina or Conocybe. It is likely that it will be moved to a different genus in the future, but this has not happened yet.It is very similar to Pholiotina smithii, a species known only from North America, from which it differs slightly in the color of its cap and gills and the width of its cheilocystidia. Some authors have speculated that the P. smithii could be a junior synonym of P. cyanopus, but this has not been confirmed.Slender mongoose
The slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea), also known as the black-tipped mongoose or the black-tailed mongoose, is a very common species of mongoose of sub-Saharan Africa.Somalian slender mongoose
The Somalian slender mongoose (Galerella ochracea) is a small mammal found in Somalia and adjacent regions. It is a small to medium-sized carnivoran, averaging about 0.6 kg (1.3 lbs) in weight.White-bellied sunbird
The white-bellied sunbird (Cinnyris talatala), also known as the white-breasted sunbird, is a species of bird in the Nectariniidae family.
It is found in Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Distribution and habitat
Occurs from Angola to southern Tanzania south to southern Africa, where it is common to locally abundant across northern Namibia, northern and south-eastern Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland and north-eastern South Africa. It generally prefers semi-arid savanna woodland, such as Acacia, bushwillow (Combretum) and riparian thickets, Zambezi teak (Baikiaea plurijuga) and mixed miombo (Brachystegia) woodland.
Predators and parasites
It has been recorded as prey of the following mammals:
Felis cattus (Domestic cat)
Galerella sanguinea (Slender mongoose)
It has been recorded as host of the Klaas's cuckoo.
It mainly eats nectar supplemented with arthropods, often joining mixed-species foraging flocks in the day, along with other sunbirds at large sources of nectar. In the late afternoon it regularly hawks insects aerially and gleans invertebrates from foliage.
The following food items have been recorded in its diet:
The nest (see image) is built solely by the female in about 5–8 days, consisting of an untidy oval-shaped structure made of dry material such as grass and leaves, bound together with spider web. The outside is decorated with bits of leaves and bark, while the interior is thickly lined with plant down, sometimes along with feathers and wool. It is typically attached to the branches or thorns of a plant, such as a Queen-of-the-night cactus (Cereus jamacaru), prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia) or a tree, sometimes alongside active paper wasp (Belanogaster) nests.
Egg-laying season is from June–March, peaking from September–December.
It lays 1-3 eggs, which are incubated solely by the female for 13–14 days.
The chicks are brooded solely by the female but fed by both parents, leaving the nest after about 14–15 days, after which they continue to roost at the nest for about 4-14 more days.
Not threatened, in fact it seems to have benefited from the fragmentation and disturbance of miombo (Bracystegia) woodland in Zimbabwe.
Extant Carnivora species