Gale (publisher)

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan,[2] west of Detroit. Since 2007 it has been a division of Cengage Learning.

The company, formerly known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for public, academic, and school libraries, and businesses. The company is known for its full-text magazine and newspaper databases, InfoTrac, and other online databases subscribed by libraries, as well as multi-volume reference works, especially in the areas of religion, history, and social science.

Founded in Detroit, Michigan in 1954 by Frederick Gale Ruffner, the company was acquired by the Thomson Corporation (as a part of the Thomson Learning division) in 1985[3] before its 2007 sale to Cengage.

Parent companyCengage Learning
Founded1954 (as Gale Group)
FounderFrederick Gale Ruffner[1]
Country of originUnited States
Headquarters locationFarmington Hills, Michigan
Publication typesBooks, Databases
Gale Cengage at the School of Advanced Study History Day Oct 2017
Gale at the University of London School of Advanced Study History Day, October 2017.
Gale Cengage Headquarters Building Farmington Hills Michigan
Gale Cengage headquarters building, Farmington Hills


In 1999, Thomson Gale acquired Macmillan Library Reference (including Scribner's Reference, Thorndike Press, Schirmer, Twayne Publishers, and G. K. Hall) from Pearson (which had acquired it from Simon & Schuster in 1998; Macmillan USA was purchased by Simon & Schuster in 1994).[4] In 2000 it acquired the Munich-based K. G. Saur Verlag, but then sold it to Walter de Gruyter in 2006.

On October 25, 2006 Thomson Corporation announced that it intended to wholly divest the Thomson Learning division, because, in the words of Thomson CEO Richard Harrington, "it does not fit with our long-term strategic vision". Thomson has said that it expected this sale to generate approximately $5 billion. Thomson Learning was bought by a private equity consortium consisting of Apax Partners and OMERS Capital Partners for $7.75 billion and the name was changed from Thomson Learning to Cengage Learning on July 24, 2007.[5]

Patrick C. Sommers was president of Gale from October 22, 2007,[6] until he retired in 2010.


Gale produces hundreds of products, such as Academic OneFile,[7] Biography and Genealogy Master Index,[8] General OneFile, General Reference Center, Sabin Americana (based on Sabin's Bibliotheca Americana), and World History Collection.[9]

Gale print imprints include the reference brands Primary Source Media, Scholarly Resources Inc., Schirmer Reference, St. James Press, The TAFT Group and Twayne Publishers, among others. Five Star Publishing is Gale's fiction imprint, with hundreds of books in print in the Western, Romance, Mystery and Science Fiction & Fantasy genres. Gale also sells into the K–12 market with several imprints, including U·X·L, Greenhaven Press, KidHaven Press, Lucent Books, and others.[10] Gale also owns large print publishers Christian Large Print and Wheeler Publishing.

See also


  1. ^ Gale – Helping Libraries Prepare for the 21st Century – – Retrieved February 23, 2009
  2. ^ "Privacy Statement and Terms of Use." Gale. Retrieved on July 8, 2010.
  3. ^ McCracken, Jeffrey. "Gale Research to merge. (merger between Gale Research Co. and The Thompson Group)." Crain's Detroit Business. Crain Communications, Inc. September 21, 1998. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
  4. ^ Hane, Paula J. (1999-06-21). "Thomson's Gale Group Acquires MacMillan Library Reference USA". Retrieved 2018-05-13.
  5. ^ "Thomson Gale Part of Larger Sale" by Norman Oder, Library Journal, June 1, 2007
  6. ^ Cengage Learning Names Patrick C. Sommers President of Gale
  7. ^ "Databases: Academic OneFile". Austin TX: University of Texas Libraries. Archived from the original on October 10, 2014.
  8. ^ "eReviews: Biography: Biography and Genealogy Master Index", Library Journal, April 15, 2012, BGMI is a throwback to another era
  9. ^ Cengage Learning. "Database Title Lists". Gale: Title Lists. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  10. ^ "Gale". Retrieved 6 February 2013.

External links

Gale-owned sites and services
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