Galaxy cluster

A galaxy cluster, or cluster of galaxies, is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies that are bound together by gravity[1] with typical masses ranging from 1014–1015 solar masses. They are the largest known gravitationally bound structures in the universe and were believed to be the largest known structures in the universe until the 1980s, when superclusters were discovered.[2] One of the key features of clusters is the intracluster medium (ICM). The ICM consists of heated gas between the galaxies and has a peak temperature between 2–15 keV that is dependent on the total mass of the cluster. Galaxy clusters should not be confused with star clusters, such as open clusters, which are structures of stars within galaxies, or with globular clusters, which typically orbit galaxies. Small aggregates of galaxies are referred to as galaxy groups rather than clusters of galaxies. The galaxy groups and clusters can themselves cluster together to form superclusters.

Notable galaxy clusters in the relatively nearby Universe include the Virgo Cluster, Fornax Cluster, Hercules Cluster, and the Coma Cluster. A very large aggregation of galaxies known as the Great Attractor, dominated by the Norma Cluster, is massive enough to affect the local expansion of the Universe. Notable galaxy clusters in the distant, high-redshift Universe include SPT-CL J0546-5345 and SPT-CL J2106-5844, the most massive galaxy clusters found in the early Universe. In the last few decades, they are also found to be relevant sites of particle acceleration, a feature that has been discovered by observing non-thermal diffuse radio emissions, such as radio halos and radio relics. Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, structures such as cold fronts and shock waves have also been found in many galaxy clusters.

BoRG-58
Composite image of five galaxies clustered together just 600 million years after the Universe's birth[1]

Basic properties

Galaxy cluster IDCS J1426
Galaxy cluster IDCS J1426 is located 10 billion light-years from Earth and weighs almost 500 trillion suns.[3]

Galaxy clusters typically have the following properties:

  • They contain 100 to 1,000 galaxies, hot X-ray emitting gas and large amounts of dark matter.[4] Details are described in the "Composition" section.
  • The distribution of the three components is approximately the same in the cluster.
  • They have total masses of 1014 to 1015 solar masses.
  • They typically have a diameter from 2 to 10 Mpc (see 1023 m for distance comparisons).
  • The spread of velocities for the individual galaxies is about 800–1000 km/s.

Composition

There are three main components of a galaxy cluster. They are tabulated below:

Name of the components Mass fraction Description
Galaxies 1% In optical observations, only galaxies are visible
Intergalactic gas in intracluster medium 9% Plasma between the galaxies at high temperature and emit x-ray radiation by thermal bremsstrahlung
Dark matter 90% Most massive component but cannot be detected optically and is inferred through gravitational interactions

Classification

Stars, Star clusters, Galaxies, Galaxy clusters, Super clusters

List

Notable clusters
Cluster Notes
Virgo Cluster The nearest massive galaxy cluster
Laniakea Supercluster The cluster the Milky Way is said to be a part of.
Norma Cluster The cluster at the heart of the Great Attractor
Bullet Cluster A cluster merger with the first observed separation between dark matter and normal matter
This lists some of the most notable clusters; for more clusters, see the list article.

Gallery

Abell 2744 galaxy cluster – extremely distant galaxies revealed by gravitational lensing (16 October 2014).
Abell 2744 galaxy cluster – extremely distant galaxies revealed by gravitational lensing (16 October 2014).[5][6]

Images

Strings of homeless stars RXC J0232.2-4420

Galaxy cluster RXC J0232.2-4420.[7]

From toddlers to babies RXC J0032.1+1808

Galaxy cluster RXC J0032.1+1808 as part of the RELICS program.[8]

Approaching the Universe's origins PSZ2 G138.61-10.84

Massive galaxy cluster PSZ2 G138.61-10.84 is about six billion light-years away.[9]

HAWK-I and Hubble Explore a Cluster with the Mass of two Quadrillion Suns

HAWK-I and Hubble explore RCS2 J2327 cluster with the mass of two quadrillion Suns.[10]

Streaks and stripes Abell 2537

Abell 2537 is useful in probing cosmic phenomena like dark matter and dark energy.[11]

Cosmic RELICS Abell 1300

Abell 1300 acts like a lens, bending the very fabric of space around it.[12]

Cosmic archaeology WHL J24.3324-8.477

Galaxy cluster WHL J24.3324-8.477.[13]

Hubble pushed beyond limits to spot clumps of new stars in distant galaxy

Background galaxy has been gravitationally lensed by the intervening galaxy cluster.[14]

HST-Smiling-GalaxyClusterSDSS-J1038+4849-20150210

"Smiley" image – galaxy cluster (SDSS J1038+4849) & gravitational lensing (an Einstein ring) (HST).[15]

Image of the galaxy cluster SpARCS1049

Galaxy cluster SpARCS1049 taken by Spitzer and the Hubble Space Telescope.[16]

PIA20052-GalaxyCluster-MOO-J1142+1527-20151103

Galaxy cluster MOO J1142+1527 discovered by the MaDCoWS survey

Heic1401a-Abell2744-20140107

Abell 2744 galaxy cluster (HST).[5]

Magnifying the distant Universe

Magnifying the distant universe through MACS J0454.1-0300.[17]

14-296-GalaxyClusters-PerseusVirgo-ChandraXRay-20141027

Turbulence may prevent galaxy clusters from cooling ; illustrated: Perseus Cluster and Virgo Cluster (Chandra X-ray).

Color image of galaxy cluster MCS J0416.1–2403

MACS0416.1-2403 imaged by the HST

Videos

Video: Formation of galaxy cluster MRC 1138-262 (artist's concept).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Hubble Pinpoints Furthest Protocluster of Galaxies Ever Seen". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  2. ^ Kravtsov, A. V.; Borgani, S. (2012). "Formation of Galaxy Clusters". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 50: 353–409. arXiv:1205.5556. Bibcode:2012ARA&A..50..353K. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-081811-125502.
  3. ^ "Galaxy cluster IDCS J1426". Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Chandra :: Field Guide to X-ray Sources :: Groups & Clusters of Galaxies".
  5. ^ a b Clavin, Whitney; Jenkins, Ann; Villard, Ray (7 January 2014). "NASA's Hubble and Spitzer Team up to Probe Faraway Galaxies". NASA. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  6. ^ Chou, Felecia; Weaver, Donna (16 October 2014). "RELEASE 14-283 – NASA's Hubble Finds Extremely Distant Galaxy through Cosmic Magnifying Glass". NASA. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  7. ^ "Strings of homeless stars". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  8. ^ "From toddlers to babies". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Approaching the Universe's origins". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  10. ^ "HAWK-I and Hubble Explore a Cluster with the Mass of two Quadrillion Suns". www.eso.org. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Streaks and stripes". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  12. ^ "Cosmic RELICS". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  13. ^ "Cosmic archaeology". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  14. ^ "Hubble pushed beyond limits to spot clumps of new stars in distant galaxy". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  15. ^ Loff, Sarah; Dunbar, Brian (10 February 2015). "Hubble Sees A Smiling Lens". NASA. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  16. ^ "Image of the galaxy cluster SpARCS1049". Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  17. ^ "Magnifying the distant Universe". ESA/Hubble Picture of the Week. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
Morphology
Structure
Active nuclei
Energetic galaxies
Low activity
Interaction
Lists
See also

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