In Greek mythology, Galanthis or Galinthias was the woman who interfered with Hera's plan to hinder the birth of Heracles in favor of Eurystheus, and was changed into a weasel or cat as punishment for being so insolent as to deceive the goddesses of birth that were acting on Hera's behalf.
In the version followed by Ovid in Metamorphoses, Galanthis was the red-gold haired servant of Alcmene, who assisted her during the birth of Heracles. When Alcmene was in labor, she was having difficulty giving birth to a child so large. After seven days she called for assistance from Lucina, the goddess of childbirth (that is, the Greek Eileithyia). However, Lucina did not help her due to the wishes of Hera. Instead, she clasped her hands and crossed her legs, preventing the child from being born. Alcmene struggled in pain, cursed the heavens, and became close to death. Galanthis noticed Lucina and deduced Hera's plans. She told the goddess that the baby was born; this so startled her that she jumped up and unclasped her hands. This freed Alcmene, and she was able to give birth. Galanthis laughed and ridiculed Lucina, and as a punishment was turned into a weasel or cat. She continued to live with Alcmene after her transformation, thus initiating the practice of weasels being kept as household animals.
The account of Antoninus Liberalis makes Galinthias a daughter of the Theban Proetus, and a playmate of Alcmene. In his version, Eileithyia and the Moerae came to Alcmene and held her tight to make her labor pains last longer, so as to please Hera. Galinthias confused them by telling that Alcmene had given birth by the will of Zeus, and accordingly all the rites in honor of the birth goddesses had been cancelled. The goddesses were taken aback and loosened their grip so Alcmene delivered. The Moerae, enraged by the fact that a mortal was able to deceive them, changed Galinthias into a weasel, an animal that in ancient times was believed to conceive through the ear and give birth through the mouth via the curse of the scorned deities. Hecate, however, took pity on her and made the weasel her own sacred animal. When Heracles grew up, he built a sanctuary to Galinthias and sacrificed to her; the practice of honoring Galinthias in Thebes lasted down to late times.
The myth of Galanthis is also briefly mentioned by Pausanias: he recounts the Theban version of the story, which referred to the heroine as Historis, called her a daughter of Tiresias, and made no mention of her transformation. In this version, she deceived the female agents of Hera known as the Pharmacides ("Herbalists" or "Sorceresses") who had been keeping Alcmene from giving birth, by announcing the birth of the child, which made the Pharmacides leave and let Alcmene be delivered.
In Greek mythology, Alcmene () or Alcmena (; Ancient Greek: Ἀλκμήνη or Doric: Ἀλκμάνα, Latin: Alcumena means "strong in wrath") was the wife of Amphitryon by whom she bore two children, Iphicles and Laonome. She is, however, better known as the mother of Heracles whose father was the god Zeus. Alcmene was also called Electryone (Ἠλεκτρυώνην), a patronymic name as a daughter of Electryon.Babylonia (gastropod)
Babylonia is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Babyloniidae.Babyloniidae
Babyloniidae is a taxonomic family of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks within the superfamily Muricoidea.Enantia lina
Enantia lina, the white mimic white or lina mimic white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found from Mexico to most of South America.Hera
Hera (; Greek: Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus. She is the daughter of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. Hera rules over Mount Olympus as queen of the gods. A matronly figure, Hera served as both the patroness and protectress of married women, presiding over weddings and blessing marital unions. One of Hera's defining characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus' numerous lovers and illegitimate offspring, as well as the mortals who cross her.
Hera is commonly seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cow, lion and the peacock. Portrayed as majestic and solemn, often enthroned, and crowned with the polos (a high cylindrical crown worn by several of the Great Goddesses), Hera may hold a pomegranate in her hand, emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy. Scholar of Greek mythology Walter Burkert writes in Greek Religion, "Nevertheless, there are memories of an earlier aniconic representation, as a pillar in Argos and as a plank in Samos."Her Roman counterpart is Juno.Heracles
Heracles ( HERR-ə-kleez; Greek: Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) () or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs) () was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon. He was a great-grandson and half-brother (as they are both sired by the god Zeus) of Perseus. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι), and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the later Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian, often identified themselves. The Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works essentially unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well.List of Lepidoptera of Cuba
Lepidoptera of Cuba consist of both the butterflies and moths recorded from the island of Cuba.
According to a recent estimate, there are about of 1,557 Lepidoptera species present on the island.List of Lepidoptera of Hispaniola
The Lepidoptera of Hispaniola consist of both the butterflies and moths recorded from the island of Hispaniola, comprising the two sovereign nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
According to a recent estimate, there are about of 1,180 Lepidoptera species present on the island.List of Lepidoptera of Honduras
The Lepidoptera of Honduras consist of both the butterflies and moths recorded from Honduras.
According to a recent estimate, there are a total of 861 butterfly and 1,441 moth species present in Honduras.
Note: the abbreviation sp. nr. means "species near".List of Metamorphoses characters
This is a list of characters in the poem Metamorphoses by Ovid. It contains more than 200 characters, summaries of their roles, and information on where they appear. The descriptions vary in length and comprehensiveness, upgrading characters who were actually metamorphosed, who play a significant role, or about whom a certain background knowledge is required to understand the Metamorphoses. The major Roman gods in general play significant roles in all of the stories, but only their attributes are listed under their own name—their specific roles are summarized under the individual involved characters' names (e.g. Apollo's role in the myth of Hyacinthus is listed under Hyacinthus).List of butterflies of Mexico
This is a list of butterflies of Mexico. According to this list, there are 2,045 butterfly species present in Mexico.List of butterflies of the Amazon River basin and the Andes
This is a list of butterflies of the Amazon River basin and the Andes.
The Amazon River basin may be the most speciose region for butterflies. Nine countries have territory in the Amazon River basin or immediately adjoin this region: Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. The Andes extends from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. The fauna of the Andes is also diverse. Both regions have many endemic species. South America as a whole constitutes the Neotropical realm. Habitats in these two regions are very various and include Amazon rainforest, Atlantic forest, Los Llanos grasslands, Puna grassland and Valdivian temperate rain forest. Peru east of the Andes is regarded as the most important biodiversity hotspot in the world. The two regions (Amazon and Andes) are South America proper excluding the pampas plains of Uruguay and Paraguay which have a distinct butterfly fauna.
Isolation has led to the evolution of endemic higher taxa. Instances are Ithomiinae, Dismorphiinae, Phyciodina, Pyrrhopygini, Eumaeini (over 1,000 species), Pronophilina and Eudaminae. Endemic genera (among very many) include Morpho, Agrias, Prepona Caligo, Cithaerias, Catagramma, Parides, Hamadryas, Nessaea, Marpesia, Melanis Mesosemia, Symmachia, Evenus, Memphis, Pierella, and Astraptes. Other higher taxa are most speciose in the Neotropics, for instance Riodininae. Many species, notably Heliconius, are members of complex mimicry rings. Adaptive radiation has led to many species being geographically diverse. Examples are Consul fabius and Mechanitis lysimnia.
Notable entomologists associated with Neotropical butterflies are Jean Baptiste Godart, Henry Walter Bates, William Chapman Hewitson, Hans Fruhstorfer, Otto Staudinger, Karl Jordan and Walter Rothschild, Anton Hermann Fassl, Hermann Burmeister, William Schaus, Eugène Le Moult, Richard Haensch, Gustav Weymer, Ferdinand Heinrich Hermann Strecker, Andrey Avinoff, Carlos Berg, and Vladimir Nabokov.List of minor Greek mythological figures
This list contains persons named in Greek mythology of minor notability, about whom either nothing or very little is known, aside from any family connections.Proetus
In Greek mythology, Proetus (; Ancient Greek: Προῖτος Proitos) may refer to the following personages:
Proetus, king of Argos and Tiryns, son of Abas and twin brother of Acrisius.Proetus, son of Thersander, son of Sisyphus. He was the father of Maera who died a maiden. Scholiasts on the Odyssey confound him with the Argive Proetus.
Proetus of Thebes, eponym of the Proetid Gates, and father of Galanthis.
Proetus, a son of Nauplius I and father of Lernus. His mother was either Clymene, or Philyra, or Hesione.
Proetus, a son of Agenor (?). It is unclear whether Stephanus is referring to a son of Agenor named Proetus, or to the Argive Proetus as a descendant of Agenor.Shapeshifting
In mythology, folklore and speculative fiction, shapeshifting is the ability of a being or creature to transform its physical form or shape. This is usually achieved through an inherent ability of a mythological creature, divine intervention or the use of magic. The idea of shapeshifting is present in the oldest forms of totemism and shamanism, as well as the oldest extant literature and epic poems, including works such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Iliad, where the shapeshifting is usually induced by the act of a deity.
The idea persisted through the Middle Ages, where the agency causing shapeshifting is usually a sorcerer or witch, and into the modern period. It remains a common trope in modern fantasy, children's literature and works of popular culture. The most common form of shapeshifting myths is that of therianthropy, which is the transformation of a human being into an animal (i.e. werewolves or vampires) or conversely, of an animal into human form. Legends allow for transformations into plants and objects and the assumption of another human countenance (e.g. fair to ugly).Siderone
Siderone is a Neotropical nymphalid butterfly genus in the subfamily Charaxinae.Siderone galanthis
Siderone galanthis, the scarlet leafwing or red-striped leafwing, is a species of butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found from Mexico to southern Brazil. The habitat consists deciduous and evergreen forests at altitudes up to 900 meters.
Adults have been recorded imbibing mineralised moisture from the ground.The larvae have been recorded feeding on Casearia sylvestris and Zuelania quidonia.Weasel word
A weasel word, or anonymous authority, is an informal term for words and phrases such as "researchers believe" and "most people think" which make arguments appear specific or meaningful, even though these terms are at best ambiguous and vague. Using weasel words may allow someone to later deny any specific meaning if the statement is challenged, because the statement was never specific in the first place. Weasel words can be a form of tergiversation, and may be used in advertising and political statements to mislead.
Weasel words can soften or under-state a biased or otherwise controversial statement. An example of this is using terms like "somewhat" or "in most respects", which make a sentence more ambiguous than it would be without them.Willie's Lady
Willie's Lady is Child ballad number 6 and Roud #220. The earliest known copy of the ballad is from a recitation transcribed in 1783.A variant of this ballad was one of 25 traditional works included in Ballads Weird and Wonderful (1912) and illustrated by Vernon Hill.