Gagae

Several ancient authors (Pliny the Elder, Pedanius Dioscorides, Galenos, Oribasius and Aetios) mention "the stone of Gagates" (λίθος γαγάτης, translit. líthos gagátis) as being able to drive serpents away, diagnose epilepsy, calm the women down in their hysterias, evacuate worms, ease heart problems and heal the gynaecological diseases. It was also used in jewellery. The stone was found by the estuary of a river called Gages, near to Gagai, and named after the river. It is described as a modern jet stone, which fits perfectly with ancient descriptions. Although it is a form of lignite, containing bitumen and petroleum, it is not used for heating. However, there has been no evidence concerning the location of Gages River and Gagates mine, though there are suggestions for Gages as it may be the ancient name of the Alakır Çay ("Alakir River") or Gavur Kayı. [4]

Coordinates: 36°17′56.4″N 30°21′17.3″E / 36.299000°N 30.354806°E Gagae or Gagai (Ancient Greek: Γάγαι) was a town on the southeast coast of ancient Lycia, in what is now the province of Antalya, from which the Gagates lapis derived its name.[1][2] The ruins are located in Kumluca district, Antalya Province, Turkey. Excavations in 2007 revealed an upper and lower acropolis and evidence of Rhodian colonization.[3]

References

  1. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 5.18, 36.34.
  2. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s. v.
  3. ^ Çevik, Nevzat ; Bulut, Süleyman. The rediscovery of GAGAE / ‘GAXE’ in the south-east corner of Lycia. New finds from the total surface surveys. Adalya - The Annual of the Suna & İnan Kıraç Research Center for Mediterranean Civilizations # XI. Istanbul, 2008, p. 63-98.
  4. ^ Onur, Fatih. Gagates: θαυμάσιος λίθος. Antikçağ’da Meşhur bir Taşın Kullanım Alanları ve Yataklarının Yeriyle İlgili Bir Değerlendirme (abstract in English). Adalya - The Annual of the Suna & İnan Kıraç Research Center for Mediterranean Civilizations # XIV. Istanbul, January 2011, p 103-118.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Gagae" . Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Antalya Province

Antalya Province (Turkish: Antalya ili) is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea.

Antalya Province is the centre of Turkey's tourism industry, attracting 30% of foreign tourists visiting Turkey. Its capital city of the same name was the world's third most visited city by number of international arrivals in 2011, displacing New York. Antalya is Turkey's biggest international sea resort. The province of Antalya corresponds to the lands of ancient Pamphylia to the east and Lycia to the west. It features a shoreline of 657 km (408 mi) with beaches, ports, and ancient cities scattered throughout, including the World Heritage Site Xanthos. The provincial capital is Antalya city with a population of 1,001,318.

Antalya is the fastest-growing province in Turkey; with a 4.17% yearly population growth rate between years 1990–2000, compared with the national rate of 1.83%. This growth is due to a fast rate of urbanization, particularly driven by tourism and other service sectors on the coast.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Corydala

Corydala or Corydalla or Korydalla or Korydala (Ancient Greek: Κορύδαλλα) was a city of ancient Lycia. Anciently, it belonged to the Rhodians, according to Hecataeus, quoted by Stephanus. But it was not in Rhodes, nor was it one of the Rhodian possessions in the Peraea, Caria. The Tabula Peutingeriana marks Corydala (spelt Coridallo) on the road from Phaselis to Patara, and makes the distance between these two places 29 Roman miles (43 km; 27 mi) Pliny places Corydalla in the interior of Lycia, and Ptolemy mentions it with Sagalassus, Rhodia, Phellus, Myra, and other places, as about Mons Massicytus.

There are coins of Corydala of the imperial period, with the epigraph Κορυδαλλεων.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Cyaneae

Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Hisarlik

Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

Jet (lignite)

Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone. Jet is not a mineral, but rather a mineraloid. It has an organic origin, being derived from wood that has decayed under extreme pressure.

The English noun "jet" derives from the French word for the same material, jaiet (modern French jais), ultimately referring to the ancient town of Gagae. Jet is either black or dark brown, but may contain pyrite inclusions, which are of brassy colour and metallic lustre. The adjective "jet-black", meaning as dark a black as possible, derives from this material.

Lycia et Pamphylia

Lycia et Pamphylia was the name of a province of the Roman empire, located in southern Anatolia. It was created by the emperor Vespasian (reigned AD 69- 79), who merged Lycia and Pamphylia into a single administrative unit. In 43 AD, the emperor Claudius had annexed Lycia. Pamphylia had been a part of the province of Galatia.

The borders drawn by Vespasian ran west of the River Indus (which flowed from its upper valley in Caria) from the Pisidian plateau up to Lake Ascanius (Burdur Gölü), to the south of Apamea. In the north and east it formed a line which followed the shores of the lakes Limna (Hoyran Gölü) and Caralis (Beyşehir Gölü), turned south towards the Gulf of Adalla (mare Pamphylium) and followed the Taurus Mountains (Toros Daǧlari) for some ten miles towards east up to Isauria. It then followed Cilicia Trachea to reach the sea to the west of Iotape. The borders were dawn taking into account geographical and economic factors. The whole of the basins of the rivers Xanthus, Cestrus (Ak Su) and Eurymedon (Köprü Irmak) were included. The main cities were at the mouth of the latter two rivers. In Pisidia e in Pamphylia they were in part followed by the few roads into the interior of Anatolia. The most important one was the road from Attalea (Antalya) to Apamea. In Lycia the road from Patara towards Laodicea on the Lycus followed the coast. Important cities were Side, Ptolemais, Gagae and Myra on the coast, Seleucia, inland and Cremna, Colbhasa and Comama,on the Pisidian Plateau, where Augustus had founded Roman colonies (settlements). on the Milyas plateau there were Oenoanda, Tlos, Nisa, Podalia, Termessus and Trebenna. Other important cities in Lycia were Pednelissus, Ariassus e Sagalassus; along the Eurymedon, Aspendus and Perge, which had a sanctuary of Artemis. The most important city in the region was Patara, at the mouth of the Xanthus.

Under the administrative reforms of emperor Diocletian (reigned AD 284-305), which doubled the number of Roman provinces by reducing their size, the Lycia et Pamphylia province was split into two separate provinces. The provinces were grouped into twelve dioceses which were under the four Praetorian prefectures of the empire. Lycia and Pamphylia were under of Diocese of Asia (Dioecesis Asiana), of the Praetorian Prefecture of Oriens (the East).

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Melanippe (Lycia)

Melanippe (Ancient Greek: Μελανίππη), or Melanippium or Melanippion (Μελανίππιον), was a small town on the coast of ancient Lycia, on the western slope of Mount Phoenicus, about 30 stadia from Cape Hieron, and 60 stadia south of Gagae, of which William Martin Leake wrote it was the port town.The site is on the Karaöz Limanı.

Phellus

Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tyana

Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Yagaria language

Yagaria is a Papuan language spoken in the Goroka District of Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Named dialects are Kami-Kulaka, Move, Ologuti, Dagenava, Kamate, Hira, Hua (Huva) and Kotom. Yagaria has a total number of 21,116 speakers.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.