Gabriel Naudé

Gabriel Naudé (2 February 1600 – 10 July 1653) was a French librarian and scholar. He was a prolific writer who produced works on many subjects including politics, religion, history and the supernatural. An influential work on library science was the 1627 book Advice on Establishing a Library. Naudé was later able to put into practice all the ideas he put forth in Advice, when he was given the opportunity to build and maintain the library of Cardinal Jules Mazarin.

Naudé is a precursor of Pierre Bayle and Fontenelle.

Gabriel Naudé
Gabriel Naude
Born2 February 1600
Paris, France
Died10 July 1653 (aged 53)
Abbeville, now Hauts-de-France, France
Occupationlibrarian, scholar, prolific writer, physician


Naudé was born in Paris in early 1600 to a family of modest means. His father was a lowly official and his mother was a young illiterate woman.[1] He was described by his teachers as tenacious and passionate about his education. Naudé entered college at a young age where he studied philosophy and grammar.[2] Later he studied medicine at Paris and Padua (where he attended Cesare Cremonini's lessons), and became physician to Louis XIII.

At the age of twenty, Naudé published his first book Le Marfore ou Discours Contre les Lisbelles.[3] The work would bring him to the attention of Henri de Mesme, President of the Paris Parlement. Mesme offered Naudé the job of librarian to his personal collection. Mesmes had a large library for the period (about 8,000 volumes) and it was open to scholars who had the appropriate references.[4] Naudé's service in Mesme's library would give him experience which he would use later to write the book Advice on Establishing a Library. Naudé wrote Advice for Mesme as a guide for building and maintaining his library. In 1629 he became librarian to Cardinal Guidi di Bagno at Rome, and on Bagni's death in 1641 librarian to Cardinal Francesco Barberini.

At the desire of Cardinal Richelieu he began a controversy with the Benedictines, denying Jean Gerson's authorship of De Imitatione Christi. Richelieu intended to make Naudé his librarian, and on his death Naudé accepted a similar offer from Cardinal Mazarin. For the next ten years he devoted himself to bringing together from all parts of Europe the assemblage of books known as the Bibliothèque Mazarine. Mazarin had brought with him to Paris a collection numbering over 5,000 volumes.[5] Like Naudé, he believed in an open library to be used by the public for the public good. In 1642 he purchased a building to house his library and he instructed Naudé to build up the finest collection possible.

The fastest way was to absorb entire libraries into the collection, advice that Naudé included in his book. Naudé plundered second hand book sellers, and Mazarin instructed his ambassadors, government officials and generals to collect books for him. Naudé was able to travel Europe, and during one trip that lasted several months he collected over 14,000 volumes.[6] By 1648 the library had built up to an estimated at 40,000 volumes.[5] It was open on a regular basis and had built up a sizable number (almost 100) of regular patrons, and several staff members to keep it functioning properly. It became the first in France to be open for all, without references.

Mazarin's library was sold by the parlement of Paris during the troubles of the Fronde, and Queen Christina invited Naudé to Stockholm. He was not happy in Sweden, and on Mazarin's appeal that he should re-form his scattered library Naudé returned at once. But his health was broken, and he died on the journey in Abbeville on 10 July 1653.

The friend of Gui Patin, of Pierre Gassendi and all the liberal thinkers of his time, Naudé was no mere bookworm; his books show traces of the critical spirit which made him a worthy colleague of the humorists and scholars who prepared the way for the better known writers of the siècle de Louis XIV.

Career as a Librarian

Naudé, in his career as a librarian, “opposed censorship, and encouraged library owners to allow others to use their books, a practice he considered a great honor for the owner – an honor equal to that of having the opportunity to build a fine library."[7] Naudé found it favorable to collect original format of books and to keep the volumes collected in tact. He was a true believer of considering the needs of those that would access them and felt strong consideration to be sought from the experts in each particular field. He was adamant about collecting in all languages, about all religions, subject matters, and literature.

During his career in librarianship, Naudé helped instruct collectors and libraries in the selection and acquisition of their titles and how to create catalogs for their libraries. He was a major proponent of scouring secondhand bookshops and print shops for valuable and hard to find literary works. “When Naudé has been in town, the booksellers' shops seem devastated as by a whirlwind. Having bought up in every last one of them all the books, whether in manuscript or in print, dealing in any language whatever with any subject or division of learning no matter what, he has left the stores stripped and bare.”[8]

Naudé also had interesting ideas on the locale where a library should be located. “While centrally located within the community it serves, a library should be at some distance from the noisiest streets. It should, if possible, be situated between some spacious court and a pleasant garden, from which it may enjoy good light, a wide and agreeable prospect, and pure air, unpolluted by marshes, sinks, or dunghills; the whole arrangement so well planned and ordered that it is compelled to share nothing unpleasant or obviously inconvenient.”[8]

Probably the most famous library that Naudé helped shape, and in which he served as librarian, was the Bibliothéque Mazarine in Paris, the library of Cardinal Jules Mazarin. Naudé spent ten years of his life improving and shaping the Bibliothéque. It became the first public library in France because of Naudé’s insistence and was open to the public as early as 1644.[9]


Including works edited by him, a list of ninety-two pieces is given in the Naudaeana. The principal ones are:

  • Le Marfore, ou discours contre les libelles (Paris, 1620), very rare, reprinted 1868;
  • Instruction à la France sur la vérité de l'histoire des Frères de la Roze-Croix (1623, 1624), displaying their impostures;
  • Apologie pour tous les grands personages faussement soupçonnez de magie (1625, 1653, 1669, 1712), Pythagoras, Socrates, Thomas Aquinas Jerome Cardan and Solomon are among those defended;
  • Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627, 1644, 1676; translated by John Evelyn, 1661), full of sound and liberal views on librarianship and considered as a founding stone of library science;
  • Addition à l'histoire de Louys XI (1630), this includes an account of the origin of printing;
  • Bibliographia politica (Venice, 1633, etc.; in French, 1642);
  • De studio liberali syntagma (1632, 1654), a practical treatise found in most collections of directions for studies;
  • De studio militari syntagma (1637), esteemed in its day;
  • Considérations politiques sur les coups d'état. A disciple of Machiavelli, he considered that politics must be rendered "autonomous from morality, sovereign in relation to religion"[10]

A Bibliotheca Pontificia was completed and seen into print by Louis Jacob.[11]

Advice on establishing a library

Advice, written as a set of instructions for a private collector and was based on Naudé's own experience and research. In the introduction of his book, Naudé wrote that he is not an expert in the field of librarianship but he presented what he believed to be the most important ideas. He based some of the opinions in Advice on his own experience in Mesme's library, and wrote out for Mesme the accepted practices and principles of librarians of the time. Chapters covered topics such as number of books, selecting the books, procuring the books, etc.

Naudé's first chapter poses the question, "Why establish a library?" He answers the question with a simple message; there is no greater honor than building a great library and sharing it with the public. Naudé believes libraries should model themselves after the best libraries of the world. The first task is to create a plan. Before a person can erect a library, he must educate himself on the subject of collecting and organizing books. A person must also seek the guidance of those who have already built their own libraries or are in the process. He suggests studying and copying the catalogues of other libraries.

Naudé devotes an entire chapter to book selection, remarked upon throughout. The first authors who need to be purchased are those considered experts in their respective fields. No matter whether they are ancient or modern works, if a book is held in high regard by practitioners of a particular field then it should be present in any collection. In addition, any well known interpretations or commentaries that exist are a necessity. Naudé suggested purchasing books in the original languages because meaning can often be lost in translation. He is strongly against censorship of any kind. Naudé believes that every book has a reader regardless of the subject; and that information should be free and available. Readers could always find use of a book, even if it is to refute the ideas presented on its pages. Certain books are popular at times but later forgotten; he argued that it would be beneficial to a library if there were multiple copies of these books to accommodate the popular tastes of the times.

In his chapter on book acquisition, Naudé gave tips. The easiest way is to purchase another library in its entirety. Naudé went on to praise second-hand book sellers who often provided good books at cheap prices. Naudé himself browsed book-binding and printing shops for used paper, and had once discovered a rare manuscript that a book binder was using as scrap paper.

Naudé included a chapter in Advice for arranging the books. In discussing arrangement he quoted Cicero, "It is order that gives light to memory." He gave instructions that he considered logical. His subject headings included: theology, philosophy, jurisprudence, medicine, history, mathematics and humanities. Naudé would add other subject heading in later years but these categories best represented the known body of knowledge in the world. Each section should be divided into subheadings and begin with the principal authors followed by the commentaries.

See also


  1. ^ Jack Clarke, Gabriel Naudé (Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1970), 3.
  2. ^ Clarke, 3.
  3. ^ Clarke, 4.
  4. ^ Clarke, 8.
  5. ^ a b World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services, 3rd Ed., s.v. "Gabriel Naude".
  6. ^ Clarke, 76.
  7. ^ Murray, Stuart A.P. (2012). The Library: an Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 122.
  8. ^ a b Lemke, Antje Bultmann (1991). "Gabriel Naudé and the Ideal Library". Surface Scholarly Journal: 37.
  9. ^ Boitano, John F. "Naudé's Advis Pour Dresser Une Bibliothèque: A Window into The Past". Seventeenth-Century French Studies (18): 8.
  10. ^ French : « abolir toute idée de droits autres que ceux du chef » et rendre « la politique autonome par rapport à la morale, souveraine par rapport à la religion ».
  11. ^ Wikisource:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Ludovicus a S. Carolo

Original source

Further reading

  • Gabriel Naudé (1627; 1644, 2nd edition, reprinted 1876). Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (Advice on Establishing a Library). Paris: Isidore Liseux (2nd ed. reprint). Copies 1 & 2 at Internet Archive.
  • Gabriel Naudé (1950). Advice on Establishing a Library (translation of Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque). Berkeley: University of California Press. OCLC 573923. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press (1976 reprint). OCLC 2020512.
  • James V. Rice. Gabriel Naudé, 1600-1653 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1939).
  • Rovelstad, Mathilde V. (2000). "Two Seventeenth-century Library Handbooks, Two Different Library Theories." Libraries & Culture, 35(4). 540-556.
  • Sidney L. Jackson. "Gabriel Naude: 'Most Erudite and Most Zealous for the Common Good,'" Stechert-Hafner Book News 23 (5 January 1969)

External links

1600 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1600.


1653 (MDCLIII)

was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1653rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 653rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 53rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1653, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1653 in France

Events from the year 1653 in France.

1653 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1653.

Arnoldus Clapmarius

Arnoldus Clapmarius (real surname Klapmeier, also known as Arnold Clapmar) (1574–1604) was a German academic, jurist and humanist, known for his writings on statecraft.

August Buchner

August Buchner (2 November 1591 – 12 February 1661) was a German philologist, poet and literary scholar, an influential professor of poetry and rhetoric at the University of Wittenberg.

Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)

Cesare Cremonini, sometimes Cesare Cremonino (Italian: [ˈtʃeːzare kremoˈniːni]; 22 December 1550 – 19 July 1631) was an Italian professor of natural philosophy, working rationalism (against revelation) and Aristotelian materialism (against the dualist immortality of the soul) inside scholasticism. His Latinized name was Cæsar Cremoninus. or Cæsar Cremonius.Considered one of the greatest philosophers in his time, patronized by Alfonso II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, corresponding with kings and princes who had his portrait, paid twice the salary of Galileo Galilei, he is now more remembered as an infamous side actor of the Galileo affair, being one of the two scholars who refused to look through Galileo's telescope.

Claude Favre de Vaugelas

Claude Favre de Vaugelas (6 January 1585 – 26 February 1650) was a Savoyard grammarian and man of letters. Although a lifelong courtier, Claude Favre was widely known by the name of one of the landed estates he owned as seigneur of Vaugelas and baron of Peroges.Born at Meximieux, in the Duchy of Savoy, he became gentleman-in-waiting to Gaston, Duke of Orléans, and continued faithful to this prince in his disgrace, although his fidelity cost him a pension from the crown on which he was largely dependent. His father was the distinguished president Favre and his mother bore the same name than his husband (Favre). She got the Vaugelas's estate, by birth.

His thorough knowledge of the French language and the correctness of his speech won him a place among the original members of the Académie française in 1634. On the representation of his colleagues his pension was restored so that he might have leisure to pursue his Remarques sur la langue française (1647). In this work he maintained that words and expressions were to be judged by the current usage of the best society, of which, as a regular of the Hôtel de Rambouillet, Vaugelas was a competent judge. He shares with François de Malherbe the credit of having purified French diction. His book fixed the current usage, and the classical writers of the 17th century regulated their practice by it.Protests against the academical doctrine were not lacking. Scipion Dupleix in his Liberté de la langue française dans sa pureté (1651) pleaded for the richer and freer language of the 16th century, and François de La Mothe-Le-Vayer took a similar standpoint in his Lettres à Gabriel Naudé tombant les Remarques sur la langue française.Towards the end of his life Vaugelas became tutor to the sons of Thomas Francis of Savoy, Prince of Carignano. He died in Paris in February 1650.His translation from Quintus Curtius, La Vie d'Alexandre (posthumously published in 1653), deserves notice as an application of the author's own rules.

Gian Vittorio Rossi

Gian Vittorio Rossi, also known as Giano Nicio Eritreo, (1577–1647) was an Italian poet, philologist, and historian.

Giovanni Francesco Guidi di Bagno

Giovanni Francesco Guidi di Bagno (1578–1641) (also known as Gian Francesco Guidi di Bagno, Gianfrancesco Guidi di Bagno, Giovanni Francesco Bagni or Gianfrancesco de' Conti Guidi di Bagno) was an Italian cardinal, brother of cardinal Nicola Guidi di Bagno and nephew of cardinal Girolamo Colonna.

Guy Patin

Guy (or Gui) Patin (1601 in Hodenc-en-Bray, Oise – 30 August 1672 in Paris) was a French doctor and man of letters.

Patin was doyen (or dean) of the Faculty of Medicine in Paris (1650–1652) and professor in the Collège de France starting in 1655. His scientific and medical works are not considered particularly enlightened by modern medical scholars (he has sometimes been compared to the doctors in the works of Molière). He is most well known today for his extensive correspondence: his style was light and playful (he has been compared to early 17th century philosophical libertines) and his letters are an important document for historians of medicine. Patin and his son Charles were also dealers in clandestine books, and Patin wrote occasional poetry (such as a quatrain to honor Henric Piccardt (1636-1712) [1]).

On 22 March 1648 Patin wrote a famous letter commenting on the new rage of tea drinking in Paris, calling it "the impertinent novelty of the century", and mentioning the new book by

Dr. Philibert Morisset titled Ergo Thea Chinesium, Menti Confert (Does Chinese Tea Increase Mentality?), which praises tea as a panacea:

"One of our doctors, named Morisset, who is much more of a braggart than a skilful man... caused a thesis on tea to be published here. Everybody disapproved of it; there were some of our doctors who burned it, and protests were made to the dean for having approved the thesis.Naudaeana et Patiniana, ou, Singularitez Remarquables, recording conversations between Patin and his great friend Gabriel Naudé, librarian of the Bibliothèque Mazarine, was edited by Jean-Aymar Piganiol de La Force and published in Paris, 1701; a revised edition with a Preface by Pierre Bayle appeared in Amsterdam, 1703.


A libertine is one devoid of most moral principles, a sense of responsibility, or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society. Libertinism is described as an extreme form of hedonism. Libertines put value on physical pleasures, meaning those experienced through the senses. As a philosophy, libertinism gained new-found adherents in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, particularly in France and Great Britain. Notable among these were John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester and the Marquis de Sade.

Ludovicus a S. Carolo

Ludovicus a S. Carolo (secular name Louis Jacob, Latin form Ludovicus Jacob) (20 August 1608 – 10 March 1670) was a French Carmelite scholar, writer and bibliographer.

He published the first yearly lists of printed books.


Naudé may refer to:

Annelize Naudé (born 1977), a Dutch professional squash player

Alaric Naudé , a linguist and professor

Christiaan Frederick Beyers Naudé (1915-2004), a South African cleric, theologian and the leading Afrikaner

Elizna Naudé (born 1978), a South African discus thrower

Gabriel Naudé (1600-1653), a French librarian and scholar

Helmuth Naudé (1904-1943), a German modern pentathlete

Tom Naudé (1889-1969), an Acting State President of South Africa

Jozua Naudé (pastor), cofounder of the Afrikaner Broederbond, and father of Beyers Naudé

Peter Naudé (born 1950s), British organizational theorist

Theunis Johannes Naudé, an entomologist

Pierre Chanut

Pierre Hector Chanut (February 22, 1601 in Riom – July 3, 1662 in Livry-sur-Seine) was a civil servant in the Auvergne, a French ambassador in Sweden and the Dutch Republic, and state counsellor.

Pierre Petit (scholar)

Pierre Petit (French: [pəti]; 1617–1687) was a French scholar, physician, poet and Latin writer.

Born at Paris, Petit studied medicine at Montpellier, where he took the degree of MD, though he did not practice medicine afterwards. Returning to Paris, he resided for some time with the president Lamoignon, as tutor to his sons, and afterwards as a literary companion with Aymar de Nicolai, first president of the chamber of accounts. He died shortly after taking a wife.

Theophrastus redivivus

Theophrastus redivivus (meaning "The revived Theophrastus") is an anonymous Latin-language book published on an unknown date sometime between 1600 and 1700. The book has been described as "a compendium of old arguments against religion and belief in God" and "an anthology of free thought." It comprises materialist and skeptical treatises from classical sources as Pietro Pomponazzi, Lucilio Vanini, Michel de Montaigne, Machiavelli, Pierre Charron, and Gabriel Naudé.

Universal library

A universal library is a library with universal collections. This may be expressed in terms of it containing all existing information, useful information, all books, all works (regardless of format) or even all possible works. This ideal, although unrealizable, has influenced and continues to influence librarians and others and be a goal which is aspired to. Universal libraries are often assumed to have a complete set of useful features (such as finding aids, translation tools, alternative formats, etc.).

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