Gabriel

Gabriel (/ˈɡeɪbriəl/; Hebrew: גַּבְרִיאֵל‎, lit. 'Gavri'el "God is my strength"', Ancient Greek: Γαβριήλ, lit. 'Gabriel', Coptic: Ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, Aramaic: ܓܒܪܝܝܠ‎, Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل Jibrāʾīl), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel. He was first described in the Hebrew Bible and was subsequently developed by other traditions.

In the Hebrew Bible, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel, to explain his visions (Daniel 8:15–26, 9:21–27). Gabriel the archangel is also a character in other ancient Jewish writings such as the Book of Enoch. Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations.[6]

In the Gospel of Luke, there is the story of the Annunciation, where the angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively (Luke 1:11–38). In many Christian traditions including Anglican, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, Gabriel is also referred to as a saint.[1][7]

In Islam, Gabriel is an archangel whom God sent with revelation to various prophets, including Muhammad.[8] The first five verses of the 96th chapter of the Quran, the Clot, is believed by Muslims to have been the first verses revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad.

In the Latter Day Saint movement, the angel Gabriel is the same individual as the prophet Noah in his mortal ministry.

In Yazidism, Gabriel is one of the Seven Mysteries, the Heptad to which God entrusted the world and sometimes identified with Melek Taus.[9]

Gabriel
Pinturicchio - The Annunciation (detail) - WGA17770
Detail of Gabriel from Pinturicchio's The Annunciation (1501)
Archangel, Angel of Revelation
Venerated inJudaism
Christianity
Islam
Yazidism
Bahá'í Faith
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Feast
AttributesArchangel;[1] Clothed in blue or white garments;[2] Carrying a lily,[2][3] a trumpet,[2] a shining lantern,[2] a branch from Paradise,[2] a scroll,[3] and a scepter.[3]
PatronageTelecommunication Workers,[4][5] Radio Broadcasters,[5] Messengers,[5] Postal Workers,[5] Clerics,[5] Diplomats,[5] Stamp Collectors,[5] Portugal, Santander, Cebu, ambassadors
Annunciation (van Eyck, Washington) Gabriel
Annunciation of Gabriel by Jan van Eyck, 1434.

Judaism

Jewish rabbis interpreted the "man in linen" as Gabriel in the Book of Daniel and the Book of Ezekiel. In the Book of Daniel, Gabriel is responsible for interpreting Daniel's visions. Gabriel's main function in Daniel is that of revealer, a role he continues in later literature. In the Book of Ezekiel, Gabriel is understood to be the angel that was sent to destroy Jerusalem. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Gabriel takes the form of a man, and stands at the left hand of God.[10] Shimon ben Lakish (Syria Palaestina, 3rd century) concluded that the angelic names of Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel came out of the Babylonian exile (Gen. Rab. 48:9).[11] Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations.[6]

In Kabbalah, Gabriel is identified with the sephirah of Yesod. Gabriel also has a prominent role as one of God's archangels in the Kabbalah literature. There, Gabriel is portrayed as working in concert with Michael as part of God's court. Gabriel is not to be prayed to because only God can answer prayers and sends Gabriel as his agent.[10]

According to Jewish mythology, in the Garden of Eden there is a tree of life or the "tree of souls"[12] that blossoms and produces new souls, which fall into the Guf, the Treasury of Souls. Gabriel reaches into the treasury and takes out the first soul that comes into his hand. Then Lailah, the Angel of Conception, watches over the embryo until it is born.[13]

Intertestamental literature

The intertestamental period (roughly 200 BC – 50 AD) produced a wealth of literature, much of it having an apocalyptic orientation. The names and ranks of angels and devils were greatly expanded, and each had particular duties and status before God.

In 1 Enoch 9:1–3, Gabriel, along with Michael, Uriel and Suriel, "saw much blood being shed upon the earth" (9:1) and heard the souls of men cry, "Bring our cause before the Most High." (9:3) In 1 Enoch 10:1, the reply came from "the Most High, the Holy and Great One" who sent forth agents, including Gabriel—

And the Lord said to Gabriel: "'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle: for length of days shall they not have." —1 Enoch 10:9

Gabriel is the fifth of the five angels who keep watch: "Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim." (1 Enoch 20:7)

When Enoch asked who the four figures were that he had seen: "And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those days." (Enoch 40:9)

Christianity

New Testament

Archangel Gabriel. Tsalenjikha fresco (Georgia, 14th c.)
Archangel Gabriel. A fresco from the Tsalenjikha Cathedral by Cyrus Emanuel Eugenicus. 14th century

First, concerning John the Baptist, an angel appeared to his father Zacharias, a priest of the course of Abia, (Luke 1:5-7) whose barren wife Elisabeth was of the daughters of Aaron, while he ministered in the temple:

Luke 1:10 And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.
11 And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
12 And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth.
15 For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb.
16 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
18 And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.
19 And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.
20 And, behold, thou shalt be dumb [deaf], and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.
(Luke 1:10-20 KJV) (other versions: Luke 1:1-25)

Gabriel Archangel Hajdudorog
Gabriel on the southern deacons' door of the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Hajdúdorog, Hungary.

After completing his week[14] of ministry, Zacharias returned to his house (in Hebron)[15] and his wife Elizabeth conceived. After she completed "five months" (Luke 1:21-25) of her pregnancy, Gabriel is mentioned again:

Luke 1:26 ¶ And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,
27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.
28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.
29 And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.
30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
37 For with God nothing shall be impossible.
38 And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.
(Luke 1:26-38 KJV) (other versions: Luke 1:26-38)

Gabriel only appears by name in those two passages in Luke. In the first passage the angel identified himself as Gabriel, but in the second it is Luke who identified him as Gabriel. The only other named angels in the New Testament are Michael the Archangel (in Jude 1:9) and Abaddon (in Revelation 9:11). Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible. Believers are expressly warned not to worship angels (in Colossians 2:18-19 and Revelation 19:10).[16]

Gabriel's horn

The trope of Gabriel blowing a trumpet blast to indicate the Lord's return to Earth is especially familiar in Spirituals. However, though the Bible mentions a trumpet blast preceding the resurrection of the dead, it never specifies Gabriel as the trumpeter. Different passages state different things: the angels of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:31); the voice of the Son of God (John 5:25-29); God's trumpet (I Thessalonians 4:16); seven angels sounding a series of blasts (Revelation 8-11); or simply "a trumpet will sound" (I Corinthians 15:52).[17]

In related traditions, Gabriel is again not identified as the trumpeter. In Judaism, trumpets are prominent, and they seem to be blown by God himself, or sometimes Michael. In Zoroastrianism, there is no trumpeter at the last judgement. In Islamic tradition, it is Israfil who blows the trumpet, though he is not named in the Qur'an. The Christian Church Fathers do not mention Gabriel as the trumpeter; early English literature similarly does not.[17]

The earliest known identification of Gabriel as the trumpeter comes in John Wycliffe's 1382 tract, De Ecclesiæ Dominio.[18] In the year 1455, in Armenian art, there is an illustration in an Armenian manuscript showing Gabriel sounding his trumpet as the dead climb out of their graves.[19] Two centuries later, Gabriel is identified as the trumpeter, in John Milton's Paradise Lost (1667):[17][20]

Betwixt these rockie pillars Gabriel sat
Chief of the Angelic guards (IV.545f)...
He ended, and the Son gave signal high
To the bright minister that watch'd, he blew
His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps
When God descended, and perhaps once more
To sound at general doom. (XI.72ff).

Later, Gabriel's horn is omnipresent in Negro spirituals, but it is unclear how the Byzantine conception inspired Milton and the spirituals, though they presumably have a common source.[17]

Gabriel's horn also makes an appearance in The Eyes of Texas (1903) where it signifies the rapture.[21]

In Marc Connelly's play based on spirituals, The Green Pastures (1930), Gabriel has his beloved trumpet constantly with him, and the Lord has to warn him not to blow it too soon.[17] Four years later "Blow, Gabriel, Blow" was introduced by Ethel Merman in Cole Porter's Anything Goes (1934).

Feast days

Gabriel from Vysotsky chin (14c, Tretyakov gallery)
Icon of Gabriel, Byzantine, ca. 1387–1395 (Tretyakov Gallery)

Saint Gabriel Archangel's festivity day was exclusively celebrated the 18th of March as of many sources dating between the years 1588 and 1921, except for a source published in 1856,[22] where the feast was celebrated on April 7 for unknown reasons (a parentheses notes that the day is normally celebrated on 18 March). Writer Elizabeth Drayson mentions the feast being celebrated in March 18 the year of 1588 in her 2013 book: "The Lead Books of Granada". Drayson, Elizabeth (January 13, 2016). The Lead Books of Granada. Palgrave Macmillan - 2013 edition. p. 3. ISBN 113735884X.

One of the oldest out of print sources pronouncing the feast for 18 March, was first published in 1608 and has the name "Flos sanctorum: historia general de la vida y hechos de Jesu-Christo ... y de los santos de que reza y haze fiesta la Iglesia Catholica ..." by the Spanish writer Alonso de Villegas, a newer edition of this book was published in the year 1794.[23] Another source published in Ireland in 1886 «The Irish Ecclesiastical Record» also mentions March 18.[24] There is a painting from 1886 by the Italian artist Diodore Rahoult, the 18th of March appears on the painting as well.[25]

The feast of Saint Gabriel was included by Pope Benedict XV in the General Roman Calendar in 1921, for celebration on 24 March.[26] It is unknown whether this was a temporary change, however there is no recent mention of the feast commemoration between the years 1921 and 1969. In 1969 the day was officially transferred to 29 September for celebration in conjunction with the feast of St. Michael and St. Raphael.[27] The Church of England has also adopted the 29 September date, known as Michaelmas.

The Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite celebrate his feast day on 8 November (for those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 8 November currently falls on 21 November of the modern Gregorian Calendar, a difference of 13 days). Eastern Orthodox commemorate him, not only on his November feast, but also on two other days: 26 March is the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel" and celebrates his role in the Annunciation.

13 July is also known as the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel", and celebrates all the appearances and miracles attributed to Gabriel throughout history. The feast was first established on Mount Athos when, in the 9th century, during the reign of Emperor Basil II and the Empress Constantina Porphyrogenitus and while Nicholas Chrysoverges was Patriarch of Constantinople, the Archangel appeared in a cell[28] near Karyes, where he wrote with his finger on a stone tablet the hymn to the Theotokos, "It is truly meet...".[29]

The Coptic Orthodox Church celebrates his feast on 13 Paoni,[30] 22 Koiak and 26 Paoni.[31]

The Ethiopian Church celebrates his feast on 28 December, with a sizeable number of its believers making a pilgrimage to a church dedicated to "Saint Gabriel" in Kulubi on that day.[32]

Additionally, Gabriel is the patron saint of messengers, those who work for broadcasting and telecommunications such as radio and television, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.[5]

Latter-day Saint teachings

In Latter-day Saint theology, Gabriel is believed to have lived a mortal life as the prophet Noah. The two are regarded as the same individual; Noah being his mortal name and Gabriel being his heavenly name.[33]

Islam

Mohammed receiving revelation from the angel Gabriel
Mohammed receiving revelation from the archangel Gabriel

Gabriel (Arabic: جبرائيل Jibrāʾīl[34] or جبريل, Jibrīl in Modern Cairo Edition[35]) is venerated as one of the primary archangels and as the Angel of Revelation in Islam. Exegesis narrates that Muhammad saw Gabriel in his full angelic splendor only twice, the first time being when he received his first revelation.[36] As the Bible portrays Gabriel as a celestial messenger sent to Daniel,[37] Mary,[38] and Zechariah,[39] so too Islamic tradition holds that Gabriel was sent to numerous pre-Islamic prophets with revelation and divine injunctions, including Adam, whom Muslims believe was consoled by Gabriel some time after the Fall.[40] He is known by many names in Islam, such as "keeper of holiness", "peacock of paradise".[41]

Gabriel is commonly identified as the Holy Spirit. Though alternate theories exist, thus whether the occurrence of the Holy spirit in the Quran refers to Gabriel or not, remains an issue of scholarly debate. In the Quran, Gabriel appears named in 2:92-96, 2:97 and 66:4. In 2:92-96, the Quran mentions Gabriel along with Michael.

Muslims also revere Gabriel for a number of historical events predating the first revelation. Muslims believe that Gabriel was the angel who informed Zachariah of John's birth as well as Mary of the future nativity of Jesus,[42] and that Gabriel was one of three angels who had earlier informed Abraham of the birth of Isaac.[43] All of these events can be found also in the Quran. Gabriel also makes a famous appearance in the Hadith of Gabriel, where he questions Muhammad on the core tenets of Islam.

Contrary to Christian tradition, Islamic traditions depict Gabriel as the warring angel, instead of Michael. Accordingly, he aided Muhammed to overcome his adversaries, significantly during the Battle of Badr and against a demon during the Mi'raj.[44][45] Further, similar to Gabriel in Judaism, Gabriel is also an angel responsible for the acts of destruction of people God wants to be annihilated.[46]

Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith sees Gabriel as a messenger of God who delivered messages to Muhammad. He is mentioned in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baha'i religion.[47]

Art, entertainment, and media

Henry Ossawa Tanner - The Annunciation
The Annunciation, Henry Ossawa Tanner (1898)

Angels are described as pure spirits.[48][49] The lack of a defined form allows artists wide latitude in depicting them.[50] Amelia R. Brown draws comparisons in Byzantine iconography between portrayals of angels and the conventions used to depict court eunuchs. Mainly from the Caucasus, they tended to have light eyes, hair, and skin; and those "castrated in childhood developed a distinctive skeletal structure, lacked full masculine musculature, body hair and beards...." As officials, they would wear a white tunic decorated with gold. Brown suggests that "Byzantine artists drew, consciously or not, on this iconography of the court eunuch".[51] Some recent popular works on angels consider Gabriel to be female or androgynous.[52][53]

Gabriel sculptures

Gabor arkangyal

Archangel Gabriel Millennium Monument at Heroes' Square in Budapest

Bermatingen St Georg Heiligenfigur

Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Georg in Bermatingen

Waldburg Pfarrkirche Verkündigung Engel

Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Magnus in Waldburg

Annonciation portail Reims

Archangel Gabriel at the facade of the Cathedral of Reims

To the victims of the german occupation

Archangel Gabriel at the Liberty square, Budapest

Festivals

  • Baltimore's "Little Italy" has for over 80 years hosted an annual "end of summer" St. Gabriel Festival that features a procession with a statue of the saint carried through the streets.[54][55]
Llanbeblig Hours (f. 1r.) The Annunciation, Gabriel kneeling on one knee
The Annunciation, Gabriel kneeling on one knee. Llanbeblig Book of Hours (f. 1r.)

Film

Games

  • 2005: Spanish role-playing game Anima: Beyond Fantasy - Gabriel is as the humans know one of the seven "Beryls" (godlike beings of light) and is identified with the archangel of the same name. She has associated love, friendship, arts, and peace.
  • In the Japanese role-playing game Shin Megami Tensei - Gabriel is one of the Demons the player can summon to assist in battle.
  • In the video game El Shaddai: Ascension of the Metatron, based on the Book of Enoch, Gabriel is featured alongside Michael, Raphael and Uriel as a guide for Enoch on his quest. All four archangels take the form of swans while on Earth. Gabriel is depicted as female in this interpretation, and implied to be an angel of wisdom. She is associated with the Veil weapon Enoch uses.

Literature

  • In his epic poem Paradise Lost, John Milton made Gabriel chief of the angelic guards placed over Paradise
  • The Hebrew poem "Elifelet" (אליפלט) by Nathan Alterman, put to music and often heard on the Israeli Radio, tells of a heroic, self-sacrificing Israeli soldier being killed in battle. Upon the protagonist's death, the angel Gabriel descends to Earth, in order to comfort the spirit of the fallen hero and take him up to Heaven[57][58]
  • The main character of Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses (1988) believes that he is the modern incarnation of Gabriel
  • 2012: Japanese light novel series No Game No Life, Jibril is a member of the Flügel race and was a member of the Council of 18 Wings, a prominent section in the government. She is depicted as loving knowledge and books.
  • In the volume 3 of the Japanese light novel series The Devil Is a Part-Timer!, an archangel named Gabriel appeared and is the guardian of the Sephirah Yesod.
  • In the Japanese light novel High School DxD features Gabriel, alongside the rest of the Seraph. In High School DxD, Gabriel is depicted as a female and is given the titles of "The Strongest Woman in Heaven" and "The Most Beautiful Woman in Heaven".
  • In August Wilson's Fences (1986), the mentally handicapped character Gabriel believes with every fibre of his soul that he is the Archangel Gabriel. He carries around a trumpet on him always, and strives to chase away the "hellhounds". In the last scene of the play, he calls for Saint Peter to open up the gates.

Music

The eccentric English hagiographer and antiquarian, Sabine Baring-Gould (1834–1924), wrote the English lyrics to Gabriel's Message, which he translated from the Basque Christmas carol Birjina gaztetto bat zegoen, which was probably related to the 13th or 14th-century Latin chant Angelus Ad Virginem, which itself is based on the biblical account of the Annunciation in the Gospel of Luke. In Creed's song, "My Own Prison", Gabriel is mentioned deciphering the visions to the main character in the song. "Sugar Baby", the last track on Bob Dylan's Love and Theft album, contains this reference: "Just as sure as we're living, just as sure as we're born/ Look up, look up - seek your Maker - 'fore Gabriel blows his horn."

Visual art

See also Gabriel gallery in Commons.
Leonardo da Vinci Annunciazione (dettaglio)
Detail of Gabriel from Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation (c. 1472-1475)
Titian - Polyptych of the Resurrection - Archangel Gabriel - WGA22785
Angel of the Annunciation by Titian (1520-1522)

Daniel 8:15 describes Gabriel as appearing in the "likeness of man" and in Daniel 9:21 he is referred to as "the man Gabriel." David Everson observes that "such anthropomorphic descriptions of an angel are consistent with previous ... descriptions of angels," as in Genesis 19:5.[11]

Gabriel is most often portrayed in the context of scenes of the Annunciation. In 2008 a 16th-century drawing by Lucas van Leyden of the Netherlands was discovered. George R. Goldner, chairman of the department of prints and drawings at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, suggests that the sketch was for a stained glass window. "The fact that the archangel is an ordinary-looking person and not an idealized boy is typical of the artist", said Goldner.[59]

In chronological order (to see each item, follow the link in the footnote):[60]

The Military Order of Saint Gabriel was established to recognize "individuals who have made significant contributions to the U.S. Army Public Affairs community and practice." The medallion depicts St. Gabriel sounding a trumpet, while the obverse displays the Army Public Affairs emblem.[61]

Television

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Zimmerman, Julie. "Friar Jack's Catechism Quiz: Test Your Knowledge on Angels". AmericanCatholic.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e OrthodoxWiki. "Archangel Gabriel" (Internet). OrthodoxWiki. Retrieved 2013-11-15. Because the Angels are incorporeal beings, though they nevertheless take on human form when appearing to mankind, it can be difficult to differentiate one from another in icons. However, Gabriel is usually portrayed with certain distinguishing characteristics. He typically wears blue or white garments; he holds either a lily (representing the Theotokos), a trumpet, a shining lantern, a branch from Paradise presented to him by the Theotokos, or a spear in his right hand and often a mirror—made of jasper and with a Χ (the first letter of Christ (Χριστος) in Greek)—in his left hand. He should not be confused with the Archangel Michael, who carries a sword, shield, date-tree branch, and in the other hand a spear, white banner (possibly with scarlet cross) and tends to wear red. Michael's specific mission is to suppress enemies of the true Church (hence the military theme), while Gabriel's is to announce mankind's salvation.
  3. ^ a b c Ronner, John (March 1993). Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More!. Murfreesboro, TN: Mamre Press. pp. 70–72, 73. ISBN 9780932945402. LCCN 93020336. OCLC 27726648. Retrieved 2013-11-15. Artists like to show Gabriel carrying a lily (Mary's flower), a scroll and a scepter.
  4. ^ Catholic Online. "St. Gabriel, the Archangel". Catholic.org. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Guiley, Rosemary (2004). Encyclopedia of Angels (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc. p. 140. ISBN 9780816050239. OCLC 718132289. Retrieved 2013-11-15. He is the patron saint to telecommunication workers, radio broadcasters, messengers, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.
  6. ^ a b Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : The Creation of The World - The First Things Created (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
  7. ^ For example, Book of Common Prayer 1662, Calendar (29 September) "S. Michael and all Angels", page xxix; or propers, page 227, "Saint Michael and All Angels".
  8. ^ Ali, Maulana Muhammad; Gallegos, Christopher (1936). The Religion of Islam. Lahore: eBookIt.com. p. 69. ISBN 9781934271186.
  9. ^ Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft5. Jahrgang 1997 diagonal-Verlag Ursula Spuler-Stegemann Der Engel Pfau zum Selbstvertändnis der Yezidi p. 14 (german)
  10. ^ a b Gabriel. Jewish Encyclopedia. 5. 1906. pp. 540–543. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  11. ^ a b Student. "Everson, David. "Gabriel Blow Your Horn! - A Short History of Gabriel within Jewish Literature", Xavier University, December 2009". Bibleinterp.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  12. ^ Origins of the Kabbalah. Books.google.com. 1990. ISBN 0691020477. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  13. ^ "200_ THE TREASURY OF SOULS for Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism". Scribd. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  14. ^ THE Dedication (Jesus' birth) "The priests serve 4 weeks per year: 1 week twice a year in courses, and the two week-long feasts, unleavened bread and tabernacles. Pentecost is a one-day observance, which would have come before Zacharias' (the 8th) course began, or at the latest, the 1st day of his course, which was from 12 thru 18 Sivan, or noon on the 19th, if Josephus is correct that courses changed at noon on the sabbaths." Josephus Antiquities b.7 ch.14 s.7 "eight days, from sabbath to sabbath." Josephus against Apion b.2 sect.8 "mid-day"
  15. ^ Joshua 21:9-11 with Luke 1:39-40
  16. ^ See also Easton's Bible Dictionary angel entry
  17. ^ a b c d e S. Vernon McCasland, "Gabriel's Trumpet", Journal of Bible and Religion 9:3:159–161 (August 1941) JSTOR 1456405
  18. ^ Vaughn, Robert (1845). Tracts & Treatises of John De Wycliffe, D.D. Wycliffe Society. p. 79.
  19. ^ Walters MS 543, fol. 14.
  20. ^ Milton, Paradise Lost, XI.72ff
  21. ^ Nicar, Jim. "The Origins of "The Eyes of Texas"". Longhorn Band. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  22. ^ "The Catholic Directory, Ecclasiastical Register, and Almanac". Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  23. ^ de Villegas, Alonso (1794). Flos sanctorum: historia general de la vida y hechos de Jesu-Christo... Spain: Imprenta de Isidro Aguasvivas. p. 250.
  24. ^ The Irish Ecclesiastical Record. Browne and Nolan, 1886. 1886. p. 1112.
  25. ^ "Archangel Gabriel, divine messenger; commemoration on 18 March, 1886". Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  26. ^ Butler's Lives of the saints, vol. 1, (Herbert Thurston, Donald Attwater, eds.) Christian Classics, 1981 ISBN 9780870610455
  27. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 119
  28. ^ "The miracle of "Axion Estin"".
  29. ^ Velimirovic, Bishop Nikolai (1985). "July 13: The Holy Archangel Gabriel". Prologue from Ochrid. Birmingham, UK: Lazarica Press. ISBN 978-0-948298-05-9. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
  30. ^ "تذكار رئيس الملائكة الجليل جبرائيل "غبريال" - عيد سنكسار يوم 13 بؤونة، شهر بؤونة، الشهر القبطي". st-takla.org.
  31. ^ Alex, Michael Ghaly -. "رئيس الملائكة الجليل جبرائيل - كتاب الملائكة". st-takla.org.
  32. ^ Nega Mezlekia, Notes from the Hyena's Belly: An Ethiopian Childhood (New York: Picador, 2000), p. 266. ISBN 0-312-28914-6.
  33. ^ Skinner, Andrew C (1992), "Noah", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1016–1017, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140.
  34. ^ Nader, M. The Holy Spirit in the Quran. Submission.org. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  35. ^ Christoph Luxenberg he Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran Verlag Hans Schiler 2007 ISBN 9783899300888 p. 39
  36. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Djabrail
  37. ^ Daniel 8.16, 9.21.
  38. ^ Luke 1.26.
  39. ^ Luke 1.19.
  40. ^ Glasse, Cyril (2000). The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Lahore: Suhail Academy. p. 136. ISBN 969-519-018-9.
  41. ^ Josef von Hammer-Purgstall Die Geisterlehre der Moslimen (the doctrin of spirits of muslims) 1852 original: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek digitalized: 22. July 2010 (german)
  42. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Zachariah; Story of Jesus
  43. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Ishmael
  44. ^ Al-qadi 'Iyad al-Yahsubi Ash - Shifa- Healing through defining The rights of Prophet Muhammad: الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى (ص) [عربي/انكليزي] ترجمة Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah 2013 ISBN 978-2-745-16073-7
  45. ^ Islam Issa Milton in the Arab-Muslim World Taylor & Francis 2016 ISBN 978-1-317-09592-7 page 111
  46. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 page 204
  47. ^ "The Kitáb-i-Íqán PART ONE". reference.bahai.org. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
  48. ^ Gorgievski, Sandra. Face to Face with Angels: Images in Medieval Art and in Film, McFarland (2010) ISBN 9780786457564
  49. ^ Dr. Christopher Evan Longhurst (1970-01-01). "Longhurst S.T.D., Christopher Evan. "The Science of Angelology in the Modern World: The Revival of Angels in Contemporary Culture", ''The Catholic Response'', Volume IX, No.2, September/October 2012 (pp. 32-36) ISSN 1553-0221". Academia.edu. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  50. ^ "Angels Exist But Have No Wings, Says Church". News.sky.com. 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  51. ^ Brown, Amelia (1970-01-01). "Brown, Amelia R., Painting the Bodiless: Angels and Eunuchs in Byzantine Art and Culture, University of Queensland (2007)". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  52. ^ Giovetti, Paola (1993). Angels: The Role of Celestial Guardians and Beings of Light. Translated by Toby McCormick. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser. ISBN 978-0877287797. OCLC 27173025. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
  53. ^ Godwin, Malcolm (1990). Angels An Endangered Species. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. p. 43. ISBN 0671706500. OCLC 21227232. Retrieved 2013-11-13. But Gabri-el is unique amongst an otherwise male or androgynous host, for it is almost certain that this great Archangel is the only female in the higher echelons.
  54. ^ "Little Italy Hosts 83rd Annual St. Gabriel Festival". Baltimore.cbslocal.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  55. ^ "Little Italy celebrates the Feast of Saint Gabriel in style". Baltimoreguide.com. 2011-08-17. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  56. ^ "Van Helsing (2004)" – via www.imdb.com.
  57. ^ "התרנגולים - אליפלט - שירונט". Shiron.net. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  58. ^ "אין לו אופי אפילו במיל". Haayal.co.il. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  59. ^ Vogel, Carol. "Angels Appear, and Museums Rejoice", New York Times, 25 July 2008
  60. ^ "Links to images of Gabriel". The Text This Week. Retrieved 2007-02-12.
  61. ^ Military Order of Saint Gabriel
  62. ^ TV.com (2011-11-22). "A Passage for Trumpet - the Twilight Zone". Tv.com. Retrieved 2014-05-01.

Bibliography

External links

Al Capone

Alphonse Gabriel Capone (; Italian: [ˈal kaˈpoːne]; January 17, 1899 – January 25, 1947), sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American gangster and businessman who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he was 33.

Capone was born in New York City, to Italian immigrants. He was a Five Points Gang member who became a bouncer in organized crime premises such as brothels. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capone's rise and fall. Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen almost killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone expanded the bootlegging business through increasingly violent means, but his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city's police meant he seemed safe from law enforcement.

Capone apparently reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games. He made donations to various charities and was viewed by many as "modern-day Robin Hood". However, the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven gang rivals were murdered in broad daylight, damaged Chicago's and Capone's image, leading influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub Capone "Public Enemy No. 1".

The federal authorities became intent on jailing Capone and prosecuted him in 1931 for tax evasion. During a highly publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capone's admissions of his income and unpaid taxes during prior (and ultimately abortive) negotiations to pay the government taxes he owed. He was convicted and sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his defense team with experts in tax law, and his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling, but his appeal ultimately failed. Capone showed signs of neurosyphilis early in his sentence and became increasingly debilitated before being released after almost eight years of incarceration. On January 25, 1947, Capone died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke.

Annunciation

The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox celebration of the announcement by the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking His Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yeshua, meaning "YHWH is salvation".According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy with John the Baptist. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus.

The Annunciation is a key topic in Christian art in general, as well as in Marian art in the Catholic Church, particularly during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A work of art depicting the Annunciation is sometimes itself called an Annunciation.

Archangel

An archangel is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is usually associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are very similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions.

The English word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος (arch- + angel, literally "chief angel" or "angel of origin"). It appears only twice in the New Testament in the phrase "with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet call of God" (1 Thessalonians 4:16) and in relation to 'the archangel Michael' (Jude 9). The corresponding but different Hebrew word in the Hebrew Scripture (Old Testament) is found in two places as in "Michael, one of the chief princes" (Dan 10:13) and in "Michael, the great prince" (Dan 12:1).

Dante Gabriel Rossetti

Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and a member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement.

Rossetti's art was characterised by its sensuality and its medieval revivalism. His early poetry was influenced by John Keats. His later poetry was characterised by the complex interlinking of thought and feeling, especially in his sonnet sequence, The House of Life. Poetry and image are closely entwined in Rossetti's work. He frequently wrote sonnets to accompany his pictures, spanning from The Girlhood of Mary Virgin (1849) and Astarte Syriaca (1877), while also creating art to illustrate poems such as Goblin Market by the celebrated poet Christina Rossetti, his sister.

Rossetti's personal life was closely linked to his work, especially his relationships with his models and muses Elizabeth Siddal, Fanny Cornforth and Jane Morris.

Gabriel Batistuta

Gabriel Omar Batistuta (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡaˈβɾjel oˈmaɾ βatisˈtuta]; born 1 February 1969) is an Argentine retired professional footballer. After beginning his career in Argentina in 1988 with Newell's Old Boys, followed by River Plate and Boca Juniors where he won titles, the prolific striker played most of his club football with Fiorentina in Italy; he is their all-time top scorer in Serie A with 152 goals.When Fiorentina was relegated to Serie B in 1993, Batistuta stayed with the club and helped it return to the top-flight league a year later. He became an icon in Florence; the Fiorentina fans erected a life-size bronze statue of him in 1996, in recognition of his performances for the club. Despite winning the Coppa Italia and the Supercoppa Italiana with the club in 1996, he never won the Italian league with Fiorentina, but when he moved to Roma in 2000 for €36 million – then the highest fee ever paid for a player over the age of 30 – he finally won the Serie A title to crown his career in Italy. After a brief loan spell with Inter Milan in 2003, he played his last two seasons in Qatar with Al-Arabi before he retired in 2005.At international level, Batistuta was Argentina's all-time leading goalscorer with 54 goals in 77 official matches, a record he held until 21 June 2016, when he was surpassed by Lionel Messi. He participated in three FIFA World Cups, scoring 10 goals, making him Argentina's all-time top scorer in the competition, and the joint eighth-highest World Cup goalscorer of all time. Batistuta is the only player in football history to score two hat-tricks in different World Cups. With the Argentina national team he won two consecutive Copa América titles (1991 and 1993), the 1993 Artemio Franchi Trophy, and the 1992 FIFA Confederations Cup.

Regarded as one of the best strikers of his generation, noted in particular for powerful strikes from volleys or from distance while on the run, in 1999, Batistuta placed third for the FIFA World Player of the Year award. In 2004 he was named by Pelé in the FIFA 100 list of the world's greatest living players. During his playing career, Batistuta was nicknamed Batigol ([batiˈɣol]) as well as El Ángel Gabriel ([el ˌaŋxel ɣaˈβɾjel]; Spanish for Angel Gabriel).

Gabriel Byrne

Gabriel James Byrne (born 12 May 1950) is an Irish actor, film director, film producer, writer, cultural ambassador and audiobook narrator. His acting career began in the Focus Theatre before he joined London's Royal Court Theatre in 1979. Byrne's screen debut came in the Irish drama serial The Riordans and the spin-off show Bracken.

He has starred in over 70 films for some of cinemas best known directors. On Broadway he received 3 Tony nominations for his roles in the work of Eugene O'Neill as well as the Outer Critics Circle Award for A touch of the poet. On television Byrne has been nominated for 3 Emmys. He won a Golden Globe for his performance in HBO's In Treatment (2008–2011) and the role of Paul Weston in this american drama is one of Byrne's most identifiable one, for which he won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for two Emmy Awards and two Satellite Awards.

He starred in many films, including: Excalibur (1981), Miller's Crossing (1990), The Usual Suspects (1995), Stigmata (1999), End of Days (1999), Spider (2002), Jindabyne (2006), Vampire Academy (2014), The 33 (2015), and Hereditary (2018), and co-wrote The Last of the High Kings (1996). Byrne has also produced several films, including the Academy Award–nominated In the Name of the Father (1993).

In 2018, Gabriel Byrne was awarded the Irish Film and Television Academy Lifetime Achievement Award for his contribution to Irish cinema.

Gabriel Elorde

Gabriel "Flash" Elorde (March 25, 1935 – January 2, 1985) was a Filipino professional boxer. He won the lineal super featherweight title in 1960. In 1963, he won the inauguratal as WBC and WBA super featherweight title. He holds the super featherweight division record for the longest title reign, spanning seven years. Elorde is considered one of the best Filipino boxers of all time along with eight-division champion Manny Pacquiao and Pancho Villa, flyweight champion in the 1920s. He was much beloved in the Philippines as a sports and cultural icon, being the first Filipino international boxing champion since middleweight champion Ceferino Garcia.

Gabriel Fauré

Gabriel Urbain Fauré (French: [ɡabʁiɛl yʁbɛ̃ fɔʁe]; 12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher. He was one of the foremost French composers of his generation, and his musical style influenced many 20th-century composers. Among his best-known works are his Pavane, Requiem, Sicilienne, nocturnes for piano and the songs "Après un rêve" and "Clair de lune". Although his best-known and most accessible compositions are generally his earlier ones, Fauré composed many of his most highly regarded works in his later years, in a more harmonically and melodically complex style.

Fauré was born into a cultured but not especially musical family. His talent became clear when he was a small boy. At the age of nine, he was sent to a music college in Paris, where he was trained to be a church organist and choirmaster. Among his teachers was Camille Saint-Saëns, who became a lifelong friend. After graduating from the college in 1865, Fauré earned a modest living as an organist and teacher, leaving him little time for composition. When he became successful in his middle age, holding the important posts of organist of the Église de la Madeleine and director of the Paris Conservatoire, he still lacked time for composing; he retreated to the countryside in the summer holidays to concentrate on composition. By his last years, Fauré was recognised in France as the leading French composer of his day. An unprecedented national musical tribute was held for him in Paris in 1922, headed by the president of the French Republic. Outside France, Fauré's music took decades to become widely accepted, except in Britain, where he had many admirers during his lifetime.

Fauré's music has been described as linking the end of Romanticism with the modernism of the second quarter of the 20th century. When he was born, Chopin was still composing, and by the time of Fauré's death, jazz and the atonal music of the Second Viennese School were being heard. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, which describes him as the most advanced composer of his generation in France, notes that his harmonic and melodic innovations influenced the teaching of harmony for later generations. During the last twenty years of his life, he suffered from increasing deafness. In contrast with the charm of his earlier music, his works from this period are sometimes elusive and withdrawn in character, and at other times turbulent and impassioned.

Gabriel García Márquez

Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (American Spanish: [ɡaˈβɾjel ɣaɾˈsi.a ˈmaɾkes] (listen); 6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo [ˈɡaβo] or Gabito [ɡaˈβito] throughout Latin America. Considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century and one of the best in the Spanish language, he was awarded the 1972 Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. He pursued a self-directed education that resulted in his leaving law school for a career in journalism. From early on, he showed no inhibitions in his criticism of Colombian and foreign politics. In 1958, he married Mercedes Barcha; they had two sons, Rodrigo and Gonzalo.García Márquez started as a journalist, and wrote many acclaimed non-fiction works and short stories, but is best known for his novels, such as One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967), The Autumn of the Patriarch (1975), and Love in the Time of Cholera (1985). His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary style known as magic realism, which uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and realistic situations. Some of his works are set in the fictional village of Macondo (mainly inspired by his birthplace, Aracataca), and most of them explore the theme of solitude.

Upon García Márquez’s death in April 2014, Juan Manuel Santos, the President of Colombia, called him "the greatest Colombian who ever lived."

Gabriel Iglesias

Gabriel Jesus Iglesias (born July 15, 1976), known comically as Fluffy, is an American comedian and actor. He is known for his shows I'm Not Fat… I'm Fluffy and Hot & Fluffy.

Gabriel Jesus

Gabriel Fernando de Jesus (born 3 April 1997), commonly known as Gabriel Jesus (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɡabɾiˈɛw ʒeˈzus]), is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a forward for Premier League club Manchester City and the Brazil national team.

Jesus began his career at Palmeiras. He was voted the best newcomer of the 2015 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, a year in which he also helped his team win the Copa do Brasil. The following year he was named the player of the season as Palmeiras won their first national league title in 22 years. He joined Manchester City in January 2017 for a transfer fee of €32 million, and won the Premier League and EFL Cup in 2018 and 2019, as well as the FA Cup in 2019.

After winning 21 caps and scoring seven goals at youth level, including reaching the final of the 2015 FIFA U-20 World Cup and winning an Olympic gold medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics, Jesus made his senior debut for Brazil in September 2016.

Genesis (band)

Genesis were an English rock band formed at Charterhouse School, Godalming, Surrey, in 1967. The most successful and longest-lasting line-up consisted of keyboardist Tony Banks, bassist/guitarist Mike Rutherford and drummer/singer Phil Collins. Significant former members were original lead singer Peter Gabriel and guitarist Steve Hackett. The band moved from folk music to progressive rock in the 1970s, before moving towards pop at the end of the decade. They have sold 21.5 million copies of their albums in the United States, with worldwide sales of between 100 million and 150 million.

Formed by five Charterhouse pupils including Banks, Rutherford, Gabriel, and Anthony Phillips, Genesis were named by former pupil Jonathan King, who arranged for them to record several unsuccessful singles and their debut album From Genesis to Revelation in 1968. After splitting with King, the group began to tour professionally, signed with Charisma Records and recorded Trespass (1970) in the progressive rock style. Following the departure of Phillips, Genesis recruited Collins and Hackett and recorded Nursery Cryme (1971). Their live shows also began to be centred on Gabriel's theatrical costumes and performances. They were first successful in mainland Europe, before entering the UK charts with Foxtrot (1972). In 1973, they released Selling England by the Pound (1973), which featured their first UK top 30 single "I Know What I Like (In Your Wardrobe)". The concept album The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway followed in 1974, and was promoted with a transatlantic tour featuring an elaborate stage show. Following the Lamb tour, Gabriel left Genesis in August 1975 to begin a solo career.

After an unsuccessful search for a replacement, Collins took over as lead singer, while Genesis gained popularity in the UK and the US. Following A Trick of the Tail and Wind & Wuthering (both 1976), Hackett left, reducing the band to Banks, Rutherford, and Collins. Genesis' next album ...And Then There Were Three... produced their first UK top ten and US top 30 single in 1978 with "Follow You Follow Me", and they continued to gain success with Duke (1980), Abacab (1981), and Genesis (1983), reaching a peak with Invisible Touch (1986), which featured five US top five singles. Its title track reached number one in the US. After the tour for We Can't Dance (1991), Collins left Genesis in 1996 to focus on his solo career. Banks and Rutherford recruited Ray Wilson for Calling All Stations (1997), but a lack of success in the US led to a group hiatus. Banks, Rutherford and Collins reunited for the Turn It On Again Tour in 2007, and with Gabriel and Hackett were interviewed for the 2014 BBC documentary Genesis: Together and Apart.

Their discography includes fifteen studio and six live albums, six of which topped the UK chart. They have won numerous awards and nominations, including a Grammy Award for Best Concept Music Video with "Land of Confusion", and inspired a number of tribute bands recreating Genesis shows from various stages of the band's career. In 2010, Genesis were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Juan Gabriel

Alberto Aguilera Valadez (Spanish pronunciation: [alˈbeɾto aɣiˈleɾa βalaˈðes]; January 7, 1950 – August 28, 2016), known professionally as Juan Gabriel (pronounced [ˈxwaŋ ɡaˈβɾjel] pronunciation ), was a Mexican singer, songwriter and actor. Colloquially nicknamed as Juanga (pronounced [ˈxwaŋɡa]) and El Divo de Juárez, Gabriel was known for his flamboyant style, which broke barriers within the Latin music market. Widely considered one of the best and most prolific Mexican composers and singers of all time, he has been called a pop icon.Having sold over 200 million copies worldwide, Juan Gabriel was among Latin America's best selling singer-songwriters. His nineteenth studio album, Recuerdos, Vol. II, is reportedly the best-selling album of all time in Mexico, with over eight million copies sold. During his career, Juan Gabriel wrote around 1,800 songs. Among his most recognized penned songs are "Amor eterno", "Querida", "Yo no nací para amar", "Hasta que te conocí", "El Noa Noa", "No tengo dinero", "Abrázame muy fuerte", "Te lo pido por favor", "En esta primavera", "Pero qué necesidad", "Te sigo amando", "Siempre en mi mente, "De mí enamórate", and "Lo pasado, pasado", among others; all of them, performed by him and many other artists.

Michaelmas

Michaelmas (; also known as the Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, the Feast of the Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels) is a Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September. In some denominations a reference to a fourth angel, usually Uriel, is also added. Michaelmas has been one of the four quarter days of the financial year. The Serbian Orthodox Church observes the feast, whereas most Eastern Orthodox Churches do not. The Greek and Romanian Orthodox honour the archangels on 8 November instead, honouring the Cherubim and Seraphim also.

In Christian angelology, the Archangel Michael is the greatest of all the Archangels and is honored for defeating Satan in the war in heaven.

Peter Gabriel

Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950) is an English singer, songwriter, and record producer who rose to fame as the original lead singer and flautist of the progressive rock band Genesis. After leaving Genesis in 1975, Gabriel launched a successful solo career with "Solsbury Hill" as his first single. His 1986 album, So, is his best-selling release and is certified triple platinum in the UK and five times platinum in the U.S. The album's most successful single, "Sledgehammer", won a record nine MTV Awards at the 1987 MTV Video Music Awards and, according to a report in 2011, it was MTV's most played music video of all time.Gabriel has been a champion of world music for much of his career. He co-founded the WOMAD festival in 1982. He has continued to focus on producing and promoting world music through his Real World Records label. He has also pioneered digital distribution methods for music, co-founding OD2, one of the first online music download services. Gabriel has also been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts. In 1980, he released the anti-apartheid single "Biko". He has participated in several human rights benefit concerts, including Amnesty International's Human Rights Now! tour in 1988, and co-founded the Witness human rights organisation in 1992. Gabriel developed The Elders with Richard Branson, which was launched by Nelson Mandela in 2007.Gabriel has won three Brit Awards—winning Best British Male in 1987, six Grammy Awards, thirteen MTV Video Music Awards, the first Pioneer Award at the BT Digital Music Awards, the Q magazine Lifetime Achievement, the Ivor Novello Award for Lifetime Achievement, and the Polar Music Prize. He was made a BMI Icon at the 57th annual BMI London Awards for his "influence on generations of music makers".In recognition of his many years of human rights activism, he received the Man of Peace award from the Nobel Peace Prize laureates, and Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world. AllMusic has described Gabriel as "one of rock's most ambitious, innovative musicians, as well as one of its most political". He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Genesis in 2010, followed by his induction as a solo artist in 2014. In March 2015, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of South Australia in recognition of his achievements in music.

Robert Mugabe

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (; Shona: [muɡaɓe]; born 21 February 1924) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017. He chaired the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) group from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), from 1980 to 2017. Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist, although after the 1990s self-identified only as a socialist. His policies have been described as Mugabeism.

Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Following an education at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered that Southern Rhodesia was a colony of the British Empire governed by its white minority, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalist protests calling for an independent state led by representatives of the black majority. After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. On release, he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw ZANU's role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's predominantly white government. He reluctantly took part in the peace negotiations brokered by the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. The agreement ended the war and resulted in the 1980 general election, at which Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory. As Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe, Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed Marxist desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to mainstream, conservative economic policies.

Mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also declined. In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1985, Mugabe's Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians. Internationally, he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16). Pursuing decolonisation, Mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. Food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, drastic economic decline, and international sanctions. Opposition to Mugabe grew, although he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. In 2017, members of his own party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa.

Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe is a controversial figure. He has been praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped to free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white minority rule. Conversely, in governance he has been accused of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, widespread corruption, anti-white racism, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity.

San Gabriel Mountains

The San Gabriel Mountains are a mountain range located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, United States. The mountain range is part of the Transverse Ranges and lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east. This range lies in, and is surrounded by, the Angeles National Forest, with the San Andreas Fault as the northern border of the range.

The highest peak in the range is Mount San Antonio, commonly referred to as Mt. Baldy. Mount Wilson is another famous peak, famed for the Mount Wilson Observatory and the antenna farm that houses many of the transmitters for local media. The observatory may be visited by the public. On October 10, 2014, President Obama designated the area the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument. To date, The Trust for Public Land has protected more than 3,800 acres of land in the San Gabriel Mountains, its foothills and the Angeles National Forest.

San Gabriel Valley

The San Gabriel Valley (Spanish: Valle de San Gabriel) is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, lying generally to the east of the city of Los Angeles. Surrounding features include:

San Gabriel Mountains on the north,

San Rafael Hills to the west, with Los Angeles Basin beyond; San Fernando Valley and Crescenta Valley farther to the northwest,

Puente Hills to the south, with the coastal plain of Orange County beyond,

Chino Hills and San Jose Hills to the east, with the Pomona Valley and Inland Empire beyond.The valley derives its name from the San Gabriel River that flows southward through the center of the valley, which itself was named for the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel originally built in the Whittier Narrows in 1771.

At one time predominantly agricultural, the San Gabriel Valley is today almost entirely urbanized and is an integral part of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the country. About 200 square miles (520 km2) in size, the valley includes thirty-one cities and five unincorporated communities.In 1886, Pasadena was the first independent incorporated city still located in Los Angeles County (both Anaheim and Santa Ana are now located in Orange County).

Seven Archangels

The concept of Seven Archangels is found in some works of early Jewish literature.

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