Gabal Elba

Gabal Elba (Arabic: جبل علبةGabal ʿElba  Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ˈɡæbæl ˈʕelbæ], "Mountain Box") or Elba Mountain is a peak and, in general, includes the associated mountainous area in the Hala'ib Triangle area. Despite being claimed by both Egypt and Sudan, the area is currently under Egyptian control.

Elba Mountain
Gabal Elba
Highest point
Elevation1,435 m (4,708 ft)
Coordinates22°11′16″N 36°22′14″E / 22.18778°N 36.37056°ECoordinates: 22°11′16″N 36°22′14″E / 22.18778°N 36.37056°E
Native nameجبل علبة  (Arabic)


The higher peaks in the area are Gabal Elba itself (1,435 m), Gabal Shellal (1,409 m), Gabal Shendib (1,910 m) and Gabal Shendodai (1,526 m).[1]

Average annual rainfall in the region is less than 50 mm, but orographic precipitation in and around Gabal Elba itself amounts to as much as 400 mm. in the upper areas.[2]

This phenomenon owes to the vicinity of the Red Sea coast (some 15–30 km east of the mountains) and also to the fact that the coast, slightly curved to the east at this point, presents an unusually broad front to the sea across a 20–25 km strip of relatively flat land[2] which facilitates interception of moisture-laden north-east sea winds.

This phenomenon is registered at its best in the northeast of the region, where Gabal Elba is located, which explains the fact that Gabal Elba receives higher precipitation than other coastal mountains in the range, including higher ones. Aridity gradually increases to the southwest of the area.[1]


Gabal Elba's summit is a “mist oasis” where much of the precipitation is contributed in the form of dew, mist and clouds, creating a unique ecosystem not found anywhere else in the country. Indeed, Gabal Elba is a "biodiversity hotspot",[3] with a biological diversity unparalleled in any terrestrial environment in Egypt proper. The relative abundance of moisture supports a diverse flora of some 458 plant species – almost 25% of plant species recorded for the entire country.

Many Afrotropical elements have their northern limits at Gabal Elba,[2] and the dense cover of acacias and other scrubs represents the only natural woodland in Egypt. There is at least one endemic species of plant (Biscutella elbensis).

Gabal Elba National Park

The Gabal Elba National Park,[4] declared by Egypt in 1986, covers some 3,560,000 hectares,[1] including most of the disputed Hala'ib Triangle (except its westernmost corner), and an area of comparable size just north of it. It is also known to potentially hold the last population of the Nubian wild ass. However, the purity of these animals is questionable. An African leopard was killed in the protected area of Elba in 2016.[5]


  1. ^ a b c "EG023: Gabal Elba". Sites - Important Bird Areas (IBAs). Birdlife International. 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  2. ^ a b c "Gebel Elba". Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs: Nature Conservation Sector. Archived from the original on 2011-02-01.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. ^ "Biodiversity Conservation Capacity Building in Egypt" (PDF). EEAA (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency). 2006. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  4. ^ Ghabbouri, Samir I., ed. (Sep 1997). Identification of Potential Natural Heritage Sites (PDF). National UNESCO Commission, Egypt. p. 27. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  5. ^ Soultan, A.; et al. (2016). "Recent observation for leopard Panthera pardus in Egypt". Mammalia. 81. doi:10.1515/mammalia-2015-0089.

External links

Dracaena (plant)

Dracaena (, derived from the romanized form of the Ancient Greek δράκαινα – drakaina, "female dragon") is a genus of about 120 species of trees and succulent shrubs. In the APG IV classification system, it is placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae (formerly the family Ruscaceae). It has also formerly been separated (sometimes with Cordyline) into the family Dracaenaceae or placed in the Agavaceae (now Agavoideae).

The majority of the species are native to Africa, with a few in southern Asia through to northern Australia with two species in tropical Central America. The segregate genus Pleomele is now generally included in Dracaena. The genus Sansevieria is closely related, and has recently been synonymized under Dracaena in the Kubitzki system.

Egyptian Protectorates

Law 102 of 1983 empowered the Prime Minister to designate certain areas to be declared as protectorates. A Prime Minister's decree defines the limits of each protected area and sets the basic principles for its management and for the preservation of its resources. Twenty four protectorates have been declared so far. Note that these are completely unrelated to colonial "protectorates".

Gabal Elba National Park

The Gabal Elba National Park, declared by Egypt in 1986, covers some 3,560,000 hectares, including most of the disputed Hala'ib Triangle (except its westernmost corner), and an area of comparable size just north of it. It is also known to potentially hold the last population of the Nubian wild ass. However, the purity of these animals is questionable.


Hala'ib, or Halayeb (Arabic: حلايب‎), is a Red Sea port and town, located in the Hala'ib Triangle, a 20,580 km2 (7,950 sq mi) area disputed between Sudan and Egypt. The town lies on the southern tip of what Egyptians refer to as the Red Sea Riviera and the north eastern corner of Sudan's Red Sea State and is near the ruins of medieval ‘Aydhab. De facto control of the area is held by the Egyptian government.

List of endangered plants

As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 3654 endangered plant species. 17% of all evaluated plant species are listed as endangered.

The IUCN also lists 99 subspecies and 101 varieties as endangered. No subpopulations of plants have been evaluated by the IUCN.

For a species to be considered endangered by the IUCN it must meet certain quantitative criteria which are designed to classify taxa facing "a very high risk of exintction". An even higher risk is faced by critically endangered species, which meet the quantitative criteria for endangered species. Critically endangered plants are listed separately. There are 6147 plant species which are endangered or critically endangered.

Additionally 1674 plant species (7.6% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status. As these species typically have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically likely to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of endangered plant species, subspecies and varieties evaluated by the IUCN.

List of national parks in Africa

This is a list of national parks in Africa. The nature of the parks varies considerably not only between countries but also within some nations – the degree of protection, accessibility and type of environment for which it is intended to deliver protection. Some parks have been cleared of their original human population, others have always been essentially uninhabited, while yet others contain significant population centers.

National parks can be found in a large majority of African countries, being most numerous in Gabon, Kenya and Tanzania. Some nations also have considerable areas designated as private parks, game reserves, forest reserves, marine reserves, national reserves and natural parks. These are not included in the list below, even though some of these may resemble some national parks. For more information on such zones, see the individual articles on each country.


Nogodinidae is a family of planthoppers. They have membranous wings with delicate venation and can be confused with members of other Fulgoroid families such as the Issidae and Tropiduchidae. Some authors treat it as a subfamily of the Issidae. Some of their key features are a frons ("face") that is longer than wide and a reticulate wing venation. They are less than 2 cm long. The antenna arises well below the eye, has the base clubbed and flagellum unsegmented. The lateral ocelli (simple eyes) are outside the margins of the face. The face has carinae (or keels) on the edge. On the hind leg, the second tarsal segment has an apical spine arising from it. The tibia of the hind leg also has spines towards the tip. An important family character is found in the shape of the male genital structure, a style that is longer than broad. Most members of this family are forest species.

Several fossil species have been described from Eocene Baltic and Miocene Chiapas amber. Additionally, a tribe, Celinapterixini, has been erected on the basis of an Argentinian fossil that could not be placed in any of the tribes of extant Nogodinid hoppers.

Resorts in Red Sea Riviera
On the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai's nearby islands
On the Western Red Sea shore
Red Sea islands

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