GOES 14, known as GOES-O prior to reaching its operational orbit, is an American weather satellite, which is part of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system. The spacecraft was built by Boeing and is based on the BSS-601 bus. It is the second of three GOES satellites to use the BSS-601 bus, after GOES 13, which was launched in May 2006.

It was launched by United Launch Alliance aboard a Delta IV-M+(4,2) rocket at 22:51 GMT on 27 June 2009, from Space Launch Complex 37B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Upon reaching geostationary orbit, on 7 July, it was redesignated GOES 14. It underwent a 6-month series of post-launch tests[2] before completing its "check-out" phase and then was placed into "orbital storage mode" or stand-by.[3][4] Its first full disk image was sent on 27 July 2009[5]

GOES 14 was brought out of storage and began one-minute rapid scans of Tropical Storm Isaac on August 24, 2012. On September 24, 2012, it temporarily assumed the role of GOES-East after GOES 13 experienced technical difficulties.[6] On October 1, 2012 it began moving east at a rate of .9 degrees per day to an ultimate geosynchronous position of 75 degrees west longitude to better cover the Atlantic basin during troubleshooting and repair of GOES 13.[7] GOES 13 was returned to service on 18 October 2012.

GOES 14 was used to monitor Hurricane Sandy in parallel with the repaired GOES 13[8] and was returned to storage afterwards. GOES 14 was reactivated on May 23, 2013 following another anomaly with GOES 13.[1]

GOES-O before oxidizer and hydrazine loading
GOES 14 during pre-launch processing
Mission typeWeather satellite
OperatorNOAA / NASA
COSPAR ID2009-033A
SATCAT no.35491
Mission duration10 years
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeGOES-N series
ManufacturerBoeing, ITT Corporation
Launch mass3,133 kilograms (6,907 lb)
Power2.3 kilowatts from solar array
Start of mission
Launch date27 June 2009, 22:51 UTC
RocketDelta IV-M+(4,2)
Launch siteCape Canaveral SLC-37B
ContractorUnited Launch Alliance
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
Longitude105° West[1]
Perigee35,773 kilometres (22,228 mi)
Apogee35,800 kilometres (22,200 mi)
Period1,437 minutes


GOES-O launch
Launch of GOES-O.
Hurricane Bill in First Full Disk Thermal Image from GOES 14
This is the first full-disk thermal infra-red (IR) image taken by GOES 14.

The first attempt to launch GOES-O was made on 26 June 2009, during a launch window running from 22:14-23:14 UTC (18:14-19:14 EDT). Due to rain and lightning at the launch site, the launch was delayed from the start of the window to 22:44 GMT, and once this passed, it was reset to the end of the window. At 22:59 GMT, the launch was scrubbed after field mills detected an unacceptably strong electrical field in the atmosphere, and fifteen minutes would have been required from this clearing in order to launch - longer than remained of the launch window.[9] The weather satellite was eventually launched on 27 June 2009 22:51 UTC (16:51 EDT).[10]

Attempt Planned Result Turnaround Reason Decision point Weather go (%) Notes
1 26 Jun 2009, 6:14:00 pm scrubbed weather (lightning) 26 Jun 2009, 6:44 pm [9]
2 27 Jun 2009, 6:51:00 pm success 1 day, 0 hours, 37 minutes [10]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Product Outage/Anomaly: GOES-13 (GOES-East) Data Outage". NOAA. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  2. ^ Hillger, Don (27 July 2009). "GOES-14 NOAA/Science Post Launch Test (PLT)". NOAA. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  3. ^ "New NOAA Satellite Reaches Orbit". NOAA. 27 June 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  4. ^ "GOES-14 (O) Moving Into on-Orbit Storage Around Earth". Science Daily. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  5. ^ "GOES-14 first full disk image" (JPEG (75k)). NOAA. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
    Standard file type 389K at http://www.osei.noaa.gov/Events/Current/UNIgoes208_G14.jpg.
  6. ^ "GOES-14 Replaces GOES-13 as the GOES East Satellite". NOAA. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  7. ^ "GOES-14 satellite drifts eastward to replace malfunctioning GOES-13 - EarthSky.org". earthsky.org.
  8. ^ "Hurricane Sandy Life Cycle from GOES-13 and GOES-14 «  CIMSS Satellite Blog". cimss.ssec.wisc.edu.
  9. ^ a b GOES-O Launch Coverage (Webcast). Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: NASA TV. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  10. ^ a b "Weather Scrub statement for Delta IV GOES-O launch". Spaceref.com. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2009.

External links

Earth Observing System

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans. The satellite component of the program was launched in 1997. The program is centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE).


GOES 13, known as GOES-N before becoming operational, is an American weather satellite which forms part of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system. On April 14, 2010, GOES-13 became the operational weather satellite for GOES-EAST. It was replaced by GOES-16 on December 18, 2017 and on January 8, 2018 its instruments were shut off and it began its three week drift to 60 degrees west longitude, arriving on January 31st.


GOES 15, previously known as GOES-P, is an American weather satellite, which forms part of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system operated by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The spacecraft was constructed by Boeing, and is the last of three GOES satellites to be based on the BSS-601 bus. It was launched in 2010, while the other BSS-601 GOES satellites -- GOES 13 and GOES 14 -- were launched in May 2006 and June 2009 respectively. It was the sixteenth GOES satellite to be launched.

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), operated by the United States' National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service division, supports weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorology research. Spacecraft and ground-based elements of the system work together to provide a continuous stream of environmental data. The National Weather Service (NWS) and the Meteorological Service of Canada use the GOES system for their North American weather monitoring and forecasting operations, and scientific researchers use the data to better understand land, atmosphere, ocean, and climate interactions.

The GOES system uses geosynchronous satellites that, since the launch of SMS-1 in 1974, have been a basic element of U.S. weather monitoring and forecasting.

The procurement, design, and manufacture of GOES satellites is overseen by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NOAA is the official provider of both GOES terrestrial data and GOES space weather data. Data can also be accessed using the SPEDAS software.

Intertropical Convergence Zone

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums or the calms, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.

The ITCZ was originally identified from the 1920s to the 1940s as the "Intertropical Front" ("ITF"), but after the recognition in the 1940s and the 1950s of the significance of wind field convergence in tropical weather production, the term ITCZ was then applied. When it lies near the Equator, it is called the near-equatorial trough. Where the ITCZ is drawn into and merges with a monsoonal circulation, it is sometimes referred to as a monsoon trough, a usage more common in Australia and parts of Asia. In the seamen's speech, the zone is referred to as the doldrums because of its erratic (monotonous) weather patterns with stagnant calms and violent thunderstorms.

The ITCZ appears as a band of clouds, usually thunderstorms, that encircle the globe near the Equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds move in a southwestward direction from the northeast, while in the Southern Hemisphere, they move northwestward from the southeast. When the ITCZ is positioned north or south of the Equator, these directions change according to the Coriolis effect imparted by Earth's rotation. For instance, when the ITCZ is situated north of the Equator, the southeast trade wind changes to a southwest wind as it crosses the Equator. The ITCZ is formed by vertical motion largely appearing as convective activity of thunderstorms driven by solar heating, which effectively draw air in; these are the trade winds. The ITCZ is effectively a tracer of the ascending branch of the Hadley cell and is wet. The dry descending branch is the horse latitudes.

The location of the ITCZ gradually varies with the seasons, roughly corresponding with the location of the thermal equator. As the heat capacity of the oceans is greater than air over land, migration is more prominent over land. Over the oceans, where the convergence zone is better defined, the seasonal cycle is more subtle, as the convection is constrained by the distribution of ocean temperatures. Sometimes, a double ITCZ forms, with one located north and another south of the Equator, one of which is usually stronger than the other. When this occurs, a narrow ridge of high pressure forms between the two convergence zones.

Launch Control Center

The Launch Control Center (LCC) is a four-story building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, used to manage launches of spacecraft from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39. The LCC handles all American space flights with human crews. Attached to the southeast corner of the Vehicle Assembly Building, the LCC contains offices; telemetry, tracking, and instrumentation equipment; the automated Launch Processing System; and four firing rooms.

LCC has conducted launches since the unmanned Apollo 4 (Apollo-Saturn 501) launch on November 9, 1967. LCC's first launch with a human crew was Apollo 8 on December 21, 1968. NASA's Space Shuttle program also used LCC. NASA has renovated the center for the upcoming Space Launch System (SLS) missions, which are scheduled to begin in 2020 with Exploration Mission-1.

Mars Scout Program

The Mars Scout Program was a NASA initiative to send a series of small, low-cost robotic missions to Mars, competitively selected from innovative proposals by the scientific community. The program had an array of missions destined to reach Mars, and study it at relatively low costs. Each Scout project was to cost less than US$485 million. The Phoenix lander and MAVEN orbiter were selected and developed before the program was retired in 2010.


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, ) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches.

NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System; advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics Research Program; exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft missions such as New Horizons; and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.

NASA Astronaut Corps

The NASA Astronaut Corps is a unit of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for U.S. and international space missions. It is based at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

NASA insignia

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three main official designs, although the one with stylized red curved text (the "worm") has been retired from official use since 1992. The three logos include the NASA insignia (also known as the "meatball"), the NASA logotype (also known as the "worm"), and the NASA seal.The NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President Kennedy in 1961.

Near Earth Network

The Near Earth Network (NEN, formerly GN or Ground Network) provides orbital communications support for near-Earth orbiting customer platforms via various NASA ground stations.

NASA's NEN consists of ground stations in:

Merritt Island Launch Annex (MILA) and Ponce de Leon Ground Station (PDL), Florida[1]

McMurdo, Antarctica

Wallops Island, VirginiaAlso under contract are operators at Svalbard Satellite Station, Norway; Poker Flat Research Range and the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) in Fairbanks, Alaska; Santiago, Chile; South Point, Hawaii; North Pole, Alaska; and Dongara, Australia. Additionally, the MILA and Wallops stations provide pre-launch, launch, and landing communications support for the Space Shuttle program. The NEN and SN combined were previously referred to as the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN).

New Millennium Program

New Millennium Program (NMP) was a NASA project with focus on engineering validation of new technologies for space applications. Funding for the program was eliminated from the FY2009 budget by the 110th United States Congress, effectively leading to its cancellation.The spacecraft in the New Millennium Program were originally named "Deep Space" (for missions demonstrating technology for planetary missions) and "Earth Observing" (for missions demonstrating technology for Earth orbiting missions). With a refocussing of the program in 2000, the Deep Space series was renamed "Space Technology".

Sojourner (rover)

Sojourner is the Mars Pathfinder robotic Mars rover that landed on July 4, 1997 in the Ares Vallis region, and explored Mars for around three months. It has front and rear cameras and hardware to conduct several scientific experiments. Designed for a mission lasting 7 sols, with possible extension to 30 sols, it was in fact active for 83 sols. The base station had its last communication session with Earth at 3:23 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time on September 27, 1997. The rover needed the base station to communicate with Earth, despite still functioning at the time communications ended.Sojourner traveled a distance of just over 100 meters (330 ft) by the time communication was lost. It was instructed to stay stationary until October 5, 1997 (sol 91) and then drive around the lander.

Solar Terrestrial Probes program

NASA's Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) is a series of missions focused on study the Sun-Earth system. It is part of NASA's Heliophysics Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate.

Space Communications and Navigation Program

The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program places the three prime NASA space communications networks, Space Network (SN), Near Earth Network (NEN) (previously known as the Ground Network or GN), and the Deep Space Network (DSN), under one Management and Systems Engineering umbrella. It was established in 2006. It was previously known as the Space Communications & Data Systems (SCDS) Program.

Space Network

Space Network (SN) is a NASA program that combines space and ground elements to support spacecraft communications in Earth vicinity. The SN Project Office at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) manages the SN, which consists of:

The geosynchronous Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS),

Supporting ground terminal systems,

The Bilateration Ranging and Transponder System (BRTS),

Merritt Island Launch Annex (MILA) relay,

Network Control Center Data System (NCCDS).

Space Task Group

The Space Task Group was a working group of NASA engineers created in 1958, tasked with managing America's manned spaceflight programs. Headed by Robert Gilruth and based at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, it managed Project Mercury and follow-on plans. After President John F. Kennedy set the goal in 1961 for the Apollo Program to land men on the Moon, NASA decided a much larger organization and a new facility was required to perform the Task Group's function, and it was transformed into the Manned Spacecraft Center (now the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center), located in Houston, Texas.

In later years, the term Space Task Group was ambiguously reused to refer to an ad hoc committee appointed by the President to recommend manned spaceflight programs, usually chaired by the Vice President. For instance, President Richard Nixon appointed such a group in February 1969 to outline a post-Apollo spaceflight strategy, chaired by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew.

The Astronaut Monument

The Astronaut Monument is a monument about the training of Apollo astronauts in northern Iceland during the 1960s, located outside The Exploration Museum in Húsavík. The monument contains the names of 32 Apollo astronauts that were sent to Iceland for training in geology for manned lunar missions, and has two steel globes on top of two basalt columns, representing the Earth and the Moon. The monument was unveiled on July 15, 2015, by the grandchildren of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong.

The Day the Earth Smiled

The Day the Earth Smiled refers to July 19, 2013, the date on which the Cassini spacecraft turned to image Saturn, most of its visible ring system, and Earth, during an eclipse of the Sun. The spacecraft had done this twice before (in 2006 and 2012) in its previous nine years in orbit. The name is also used to refer to the activities associated with the event, as well as to the photographic mosaic created from it.Conceived by the planetary scientist Carolyn Porco, who was the imaging team leader for Cassini, the concept called for the people of the world to reflect on their place in the cosmos, to marvel at life on Earth, and, at the time the pictures were taken, to look up and smile in celebration.The final mosaic from July 19, processed at the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS), was released to the public on November 12, 2013. The Day the Earth Smiled photograph includes Earth, Mars, Venus, and many Saturnian moons. A higher-resolution image, which depicts Earth and its moon as distinct points of light, was taken with the Cassini narrow-angle camera and was released shortly afterwards.

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