GHS hazard pictograms

Hazard pictograms form part of the international Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Two sets of pictograms are included within the GHS: one for the labelling of containers and for workplace hazard warnings, and a second for use during the transport of dangerous goods. Either one or the other is chosen, depending on the target audience, but the two are not used together.[1] The two sets of pictograms use the same symbols for the same hazards, although certain symbols are not required for transport pictograms. Transport pictograms come in wider variety of colors and may contain additional information such as a subcategory number.

Hazard pictograms are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:[2]

  • an identification of the product;
  • a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary
  • hazard statements, indicating the nature and degree of the risks posed by the product
  • precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment)
  • the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)

The GHS chemical hazard pictograms are intended to provide the basis for or to replace national systems of hazard pictograms. It has still to be implemented by the European Union (CLP regulation) in 2009.

The GHS transport pictograms are the same as those recommended in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, widely implemented in national regulations such as the U.S. Federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 5101–5128) and D.O.T. regulations at 49 C.F.R. 100–185.

Physical hazards pictograms

GHS-pictogram-explos   Usage
  • Unstable explosives
  • Explosives, divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6
  • Self-reactive substances and mixtures, types A, B
  • Organic peroxides, types A, B
GHS01: Explosive
GHS-pictogram-flamme   Usage
  • Flammable gases, category 1
  • Flammable aerosols, categories 1, 2
  • Flammable liquids, categories 1, 2, 3
  • Flammable solids, categories 1, 2
  • Self-reactive substances and mixtures, types B, C, D, E, F
  • Pyrophoric liquids, category 1
  • Pyrophoric solids, category 1
  • Combustible solids, category 3
  • Combustible liquids, category 3
  • Self-heating substances and mixtures, categories 1, 2
  • Substances and mixtures, which in contact with water, emit flammable gases, categories 1, 2, 3
  • Organic peroxides, types B, C, D, E, F
GHS02: Flammable
GHS-pictogram-rondflam   Usage
  • Oxidizing gases, category 1
  • Oxidizing liquids, categories 1, 2, 3
  • Oxidizing solids, categories 1, 2, 3
GHS03: Oxidizing
GHS-pictogram-bottle   Usage
GHS04: Compressed Gas
GHS-pictogram-acid   Usage
  • Corrosive to metals, category 1
GHS05: Corrosive
    Usage
no pictogram required

Health hazards pictograms

GHS-pictogram-skull   Usage
  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), categories 1, 2, 3
GHS06: Toxic
GHS-pictogram-exclam   Usage
  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 4
  • Skin irritation, categories 2, 3
  • Eye irritation, category 2A
  • Skin sensitization, category 1
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, category 3
    • Respiratory tract irritation
    • Narcotic effects
Not used[3]
  • with the "skull and crossbones" pictogram
  • for skin or eye irritation if:
    • the "corrosion" pictogram also appears
    • the "health hazard" pictogram is used to indicate respiratory sensitization
GHS07: Harmful
GHS-pictogram-silhouette   Usage
  • Respiratory sensitization, category 1
  • Germ cell mutagenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Carcinogenicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Reproductive toxicity, categories 1A, 1B, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following single exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Specific target organ toxicity following repeated exposure, categories 1, 2
  • Aspiration hazard, categories 1, 2
GHS08: Health hazard
    Usage
  • Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation), category 5
  • Eye irritation, category 2B
  • Reproductive toxicity – effects on or via lactation
no pictogram required

Physical and health hazard pictograms

  GHS-pictogram-acid   Usage
Corrosive

Environmental hazards pictograms

GHS-pictogram-pollu   Usage
  • Acute hazards to the aquatic environment, category 1
  • Chronic hazards to the aquatic environment, categories 1, 2
  • Environmental toxicity, categories 1, 2
GHS09: Environmental hazard
    Usage
  • Acute hazards to the aquatic environment, categories 2, 3
  • Chronic hazards to the aquatic environment, categories 3, 4
no pictogram required

Transport pictograms

Class 1: Explosives

ADR 1   Usage
Explosives
Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
Note

The asterisks are replaced by the class number and compatibility code

Divisions 1.1–1.3
ADR 1.4   Usage
Explosives

Substances and articles which are classified as explosives but which present no significant hazard

Note

The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

Division 1.4
ADR 1.5   Usage
Explosives

Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard

Note

The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

Division 1.5
ADR 1.6   Usage
Explosives

No hazard statement

Note

The asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code

Division 1.6

Class 2: Gases

ADR 2.1   Usage
Flammable gases

Gases which at 20 °C and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa:

  • are ignitable when in a mixture of 13 per cent or less by volume with air; or
  • have a flammable range with air of at least 12 percentage points regardless of the lower flammable limit.

UN transport pictogram - 2 (white)
Alternative sign

Division 2.1
ADR 2.2   Usage
Non-flammable non-toxic gases

Gases which:

  • are asphyxiant – gases which dilute or replace the oxygen normally in the atmosphere; or
  • are oxidizing – gases which may, generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does; or
  • do not come under the other divisions;

UN transport pictogram - 2 (gas-white)
Alternative sign

Division 2.2
ADR 2.3   Usage
Toxic gases

Gases which:

  • are known to be so toxic or corrosive to humans as to pose a hazard to health; or
  • are presumed to be toxic or corrosive to humans because they have an LC50 value equal to or less than 5000 ml/m3 (ppm).
Division 2.3

Classes 3 and 4: Flammable liquids and solids

ADR 3   Usage
Flammable liquids

Liquids which have a flash point of less than 60 °C and which are capable of sustaining combustion

UN transport pictogram - 3 (white)
Alternative sign

Class 3
ADR 4.1   Usage
Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives

Solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive substances which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid desensitized explosives which may explode if not diluted sufficiently

Division 4.1
ADR 4.2   Usage
Substances liable to spontaneous combustion

Substances which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire

Division 4.2
ADR 4.3   Usage
Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases

Substances which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities

UN transport pictogram - 4 (white)
Alternative sign

Division 4.3

Other GHS transport classes

ADR 5.1   Usage
Oxidizing substances

Substances which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other material

Division 5.1
UN transport pictogram - 5.2 (black)   Usage
Organic peroxides

Organic substances which contain the bivalent –O–O– structure and may be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals

UN transport pictogram - 5.2 (white)
Alternative sign

Division 5.2
Dangclass6 1   Usage
Toxic substances

Substances with an LD50 value ≤ 300 mg/kg (oral) or ≤ 1000 mg/kg (dermal) or an LC50 value ≤ 4000 ml/m3 (inhalation of dusts or mists)

Division 6.1
UN transport pictogram - 8   Usage
Corrosive substances

Substances which:

  • cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue on exposure time of less than 4 hours; or
  • exhibit a corrosion rate of more than 6.25 mm per year on either steel or aluminium surfaces at 55 °C
Class 8

Non-GHS transport pictograms

The following pictograms are included in the UN Model Regulations but have not been incorporated into the GHS because of the nature of the hazards.

ADR 6.2 ADR 7A ADR 7B ADR 7C ADR 7E ADR 9
Class 6.2 Class 7 Class 9
Infectious substances Radioactive material Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

Notes

  1. ^ Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.1, GHS Rev.2
  2. ^ Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.2, GHS Rev.2
  3. ^ Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.3.1, GHS Rev.2

References

  • Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (Second revised ed.), New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-116957-7, ST/SG/AC.10/30/Rev.2 ("GHS Rev.2")
  • "Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006", OJCE (L353): 1–1355, 2008-12-31 (the "CLP Regulation")
  • UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Model Regulations (Fifteenth ed.), New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-139120-6, ST/SG/AC.10/1/Rev.15 ("UN Model Regulations Rev.15")
  • UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Manual of Tests and Criteria (Fourth revised ed.), New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2002, ISBN 92-1-139087-7, ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.4 ("UN Manual of Tests and Criteria Rev.4")

External links

Chloroprene

Chloroprene is the common name for 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene (IUPAC name) with the chemical formula CH2=CCl−CH=CH2. Chloroprene is a colorless volatile liquid, almost exclusively used as a monomer for the production of the polymer polychloroprene, a type of synthetic rubber. Polychloroprene is better known as Neoprene, the trade name given by DuPont.

Dibromophenol

Dibromophenols form a group of aromatic chemical compounds which are both phenols and bromobenzenes. The structure consists of a benzene ring with an attached hydroxy group (-OH) and two bromine atoms (-Br) as substituents. There are six structural isomers, each with the molecular formula C6H4Br2O, which differ by arrangement of the substituents.

Dinitroaniline

Dinitroanilines are a class of chemical compounds with the chemical formula C6H5N3O4. They are derived from both aniline and dinitrobenzenes. There are six isomers: 2,3-dinitroaniline, 2,4-dinitroaniline, 2,5-dinitroaniline, 2,6-dinitroaniline, 3,4-dinitroaniline, and 3,5-dinitroaniline.

Dinitroanilines are intermediates in the preparation of various industrially important chemicals including dyes and pesticides. Herbicides which are derivatives of dinitroanilines include benfluralin, butralin, chlornidine, dinitramine, dipropalin, ethalfluralin, fluchloralin, isopropalin, methalpropalin, nitralin, oryzalin, pendimethalin, prodiamine, profluralin, and trifluralin.

2,4-Dinitroaniline can be prepared by reaction of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with ammonia or by acid hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitroacetanilide.Dinitroanilines are explosive and flammable with heat or friction.

Dinitroanilines were developed prior to 2015 by, among others, the Dow Chemical Company, who then sold their business to privately-held Gowan Company.

European hazard symbols

European hazard symbols for chemicals are pictograms defined by the European Union for labelling chemical packaging (for storage and workplace) and containers (for transportation). They are standardised currently by the CLP/GHS classification.

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world. Core elements of the GHS include standardized hazard testing criteria, universal warning pictograms, and harmonized safety data sheets which provide users of dangerous goods with a host of information. The system acts as a complement to the UN Numbered system of regulated hazmat transport. Implementation is managed through the UN Secretariat. Although adoption has taken time, as of 2017, the system has been enacted to significant extents in most major countries of the world. This includes the European Union, which has implemented the United Nations' GHS into EU law as the CLP Regulation, and United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

Hazard

A possible source of danger is called hazard.

A hazard is an agent which has the potential to cause harm to a vulnerable target.

The terms "hazard" and "risk" are often used interchangeably. However, in terms of risk assessment, they are two very distinct terms. A hazard is any agent that can cause harm or damage to humans, property, or the environment. Risk is defined as the probability that exposure to a hazard will lead to a negative consequence, or more simply, a hazard poses no risk if there is no exposure to that hazard.

Hazards can be dormant or potential, with only a theoretical probability of harm. An event that is caused by interaction with a hazard is called an incident. The likely severity of the undesirable consequences of an incident associated with a hazard, combined with the probability of this occurring, constitute the associated risk. If there is no possibility of a hazard contributing towards an incident, there is no risk.

Hazards can be classified as different types in several ways. One of these ways is by specifying the origin of the hazard. One key concept in identifying a hazard is the presence of stored energy that, when released, can cause damage. Stored energy can occur in many forms: chemical, mechanical, thermal, radioactive, electrical, etc. Another class of hazard does not involve release of stored energy, rather it involves the presence of hazardous situations. Examples include confined or limited egress spaces, oxygen-depleted atmospheres, awkward positions, repetitive motions, low-hanging or protruding objects, etc. Hazards may also be classified as natural, anthropogenic, or technological. They may also be classified as health or safety hazards, by the populations that may be affected, and the severity of the associated risk. In most cases a hazard may affect a range of targets, and have little or no effect on others.

Identification of hazards assumes that the potential targets are defined, and is the first step in performing a risk assessment.

Hazard symbol

Hazard symbols or warning symbols are recognisable symbols designed to warn about hazardous or dangerous materials, locations, or objects, including electric currents, poisons, and radioactivity. The use of hazard symbols is often regulated by law and directed by standards organisations. Hazard symbols may appear with different colors, backgrounds, borders and supplemental information in order to specify the type of hazard and the level of threat (for example, toxicity classes). Warning symbols are used in many places in lieu of or addition to written warnings as they are quickly recognized (faster than reading a written warning) and more commonly understood (the same symbol can be recognized as having the same meaning to speakers of different languages).

Iodophenol

Iodophenol is a substitution product of phenol in which one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by iodine.

Monobromophenol

The monobromophenols are chemical compounds consisting of phenol substituted with a bromine atom. There are three isomers, 2-bromophenol, 3-bromophenol, and 4-bromophenol.

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