G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union. Founded in 1999 with the aim to discuss policy pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability,[3] the G20 has expanded its agenda since 2008 and heads of government or heads of state, as well as finance ministers and foreign ministers, have periodically conferred at summits ever since. It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.[3]

Membership of the G20 consists of 19 individual countries plus the European Union (EU). The EU is represented by the European Commission and by the European Central Bank. Collectively, the G20 economies account for around 90% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of world trade (or, if excluding EU intra-trade, 75%), two-thirds of the world population,[2] and approximately half of the world land area.

With the G20 growing in stature[4] after its inaugural leaders' summit in 2008, its leaders announced on 25 September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations.[5] Since its inception, the G20's membership policies have been criticized by numerous intellectuals,[6][7] and its summits have been a focus for major protests by left-wing groups and anarchists.[8]

The heads of the G20 nations met semi-annually at G20 summits between 2009 and 2010. Since the November 2011 Cannes summit, all G20 summits have been held annually.[2]

G20
Group of Twenty
G20
Formation26 September 1999
2008 (Heads of State/Heads of Government Summits)
PurposeBring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy.[1]
Membership
Chairman
Japan Shinzō Abe (2019)
Staff
None[2]
WebsiteG20.org

History

Founding

The G20 is the latest in a series of post–World War 2 initiatives aimed at international coordination of economic policy, which include institutions such as the "Bretton Woods twins", the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and what is now the World Trade Organization.[9]

The G20 was foreshadowed at the Cologne Summit of the G7 in June 1999, and formally established at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on 26 September 1999 with an inaugural meeting on 15–16 December 1999 in Berlin. Canadian finance minister Paul Martin was chosen as the first chairman and German finance minister Hans Eichel hosted the inaugural meeting.[10]

A 2004 report by Colin I. Bradford and Johannes F. Linn of the Brookings Institution asserted the group was founded primarily at the initiative of Eichel, the concurrent chair of the G7.[11] However, Bradford later described then-Finance Minister of Canada (and future Prime Minister of Canada) Paul Martin as "the crucial architect of the formation of the G-20 at finance minister level", and as the one who later "proposed that the G-20 countries move to leaders level summits".[12] Canadian academic and journalistic sources have also identified the G20 a project initiated by Martin and then-US Treasury Secretary Larry Summers.[13][14][15][16] All acknowledge, however, that Germany and the United States played a key role in bringing their vision into reality.

Martin and Summers conceived of the G20 in response to the series of massive debt crises that had spread across emerging markets in the late 1990s, beginning with the Mexican peso crisis and followed by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the 1998 Russian financial crisis, and eventually impacting the United States, most prominently in the form of the collapse of the prominent hedge fund Long-Term Capital Management in the autumn of 1998.[13][14][15] It illustrated to them that in a rapidly globalizing world, the G7, G8, and the Bretton Woods system would be unable to provide financial stability, and they conceived of a new, broader permanent group of major world economies that would give a voice and new responsibilities in providing it.[13][15]

The G20 membership was decided by Eichel's deputy Caio Koch-Weser and Summers' deputy Timothy Geithner. According to the political economist Robert Wade:

Geithner and Koch-Weser went down the list of countries saying, Canada in, Portugal out, South Africa in, Nigeria and Egypt out, and so on; they sent their list to the other G7 finance ministries; and the invitations to the first meeting went out.[17]

Early topics

The G20's primary focus has been governance of the global economy. Summit themes have varied from year to year. The theme of the 2006 G20 ministerial meeting was "Building and Sustaining Prosperity". The issues discussed included domestic reforms to achieve "sustained growth", global energy and resource commodity markets, reform of the World Bank and IMF, and the impact of demographic changes due to an aging world population.

In 2007, South Africa hosted the secretariat with Trevor A. Manuel, South African Minister of Finance as chairperson of the G20.

In 2008, Guido Mantega, Brazil's Minister of Finance, was the G20 chairperson and proposed dialogue on competition in financial markets, clean energy, economic development and fiscal elements of growth and development.

On 11 October 2008 after a meeting of G7 finance ministers, US President George W. Bush stated that the next meeting of the G20 would be important in finding solutions to the burgeoning economic crisis of 2008.

Summits

The Summit of G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, who prepare the leaders' summit and implement their decisions, was created as a response both to the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and to a growing recognition that key emerging countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Additionally, the G20 Summits of heads of state or government were held.

After the 2008 debut summit in Washington, DC, G20 leaders met twice a year: in London and Pittsburgh in 2009, and in Toronto and Seoul in 2010.[18]

Since 2011, when France chaired and hosted the G20, the summits have been held only once a year.[19] The 2016 summit was held in Hangzhou, China,[20] and 2017 summit was held in Hamburg, Germany.

A number of other ministerial-level G20 meetings have been held since 2010. Agriculture ministerial meetings were conducted in 2011 and 2012; meetings of foreign ministers were held in 2012 and 2013; trade ministers met in 2012 and 2014, and employment ministerial meetings have taken place annually since 2010.[21]

In March 2014, the former Australian foreign minister Julie Bishop, when Australia was hosting the 2014 G20 summit in Brisbane, proposed to ban Russia from the summit over its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.[22] The BRICS foreign ministers subsequently reminded Bishop that "the custodianship of the G20 belongs to all Member States equally and no one Member State can unilaterally determine its nature and character."[23]

In 2018, Argentina hosted the 2018 Summit.[24] The 2019 Summit will be in Japan[25] 2020 in Saudi Arabia[26]and 2022 in India.[27]

Chair rotation

To decide which member nation gets to chair the G20 leaders' meeting for a given year, all members, except the European Union, are assigned to one of five different groupings, with each group having four nations, except one having three. Nations from the same region are placed in the same group, except Group 1 and Group 2. All countries within a group are eligible to take over the G20 Presidency when it is their group’s turn. Therefore, the states within the relevant group need to negotiate among themselves to select the next G20 President. Each year, a different G20 member country assumes the presidency starting from 1 December until 30 November. This system has been in place since 2010, when South Korea, which is in Group 5, held the G20 chair. The table below lists the nations' groupings:[28][29]

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5

To ensure continuity, the presidency is supported by a "troika" made up of the current, immediate past and next host countries.[30]

Organization

The G20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The group's chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The current chair of the G20 is Argentina, which took over the chair on 1 December 2017.[31] The 2017 chair was Germany, which hosted the 2017 Summit in Hamburg. The 2019 chair will be Japan, which will host the 2019 G20 Osaka summit.2020 summit will going to be in Saudi Arabia

Proposed permanent secretariat

In 2010, President of France Nicolas Sarkozy proposed the establishment of a permanent G20 secretariat, similar to the United Nations. Seoul and Paris were suggested as possible locations for its headquarters.[32] Brazil and China supported the establishment of a secretariat, while Italy and Japan expressed opposition to the proposal.[32] South Korea proposed a "cyber secretariat" as an alternative.[32] It has been argued that the G20 has been using the OECD as a secretariat.[33]

List of members

As of 2017 there are 20 members of the group: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Spain is a permanent guest invitee.[34][35]

Representative include, at the leaders' summits, the leaders of 19 countries and of the European Union, and, at the ministerial-level meetings, the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and of the European Union.

In addition each year, the G20's guests include Spain; the Chair of ASEAN; two African countries (the chair of the African Union and a representative of the New Partnership for Africa's Development) and a country (sometimes more than one) invited by the presidency, usually from its own region.[2][36][37]

The first of the tables below lists the member entities and their heads of government, finance ministers and central bank governors. The second table lists relevant statistics such as population and GDP figures for each member, as well as detailing memberships of other international organizations, such as the G7, BRICS and MIKTA. Total GDP figures are given in millions of US dollars.

Leaders

Member Leader position State leader Finance portfolio Portfolio minister Central bank governor
 Argentina President Mauricio Macri Minister of the Treasury Nicolás Dujovne Guido Sandleris
 Australia Prime Minister Scott Morrison Treasurer Josh Frydenberg Philip Lowe
 Brazil President Jair Bolsonaro Minister of Economy Paulo Guedes Roberto Campos Neto
 Canada Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Minister of Finance Bill Morneau Stephen Poloz
 China President[note 1] Xi Jinping[note 1] Minister of Finance Liu Kun Yi Gang
 France President Emmanuel Macron Minister of the Economy Bruno Le Maire François Villeroy de Galhau
 Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel Minister of Finance Olaf Scholz Jens Weidmann
 India Prime Minister Narendra Modi Minister of Finance Arun Jaitley Shaktikanta Das
 Indonesia President Joko Widodo Minister of Finance Sri Mulyani Perry Warjiyo
 Italy Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte Minister of Economy and Finance Giovanni Tria Ignazio Visco
 Japan Prime Minister Shinzō Abe Minister of Finance Tarō Asō Haruhiko Kuroda
 Mexico President Andrés Manuel López Obrador Secretary of Finance Carlos Manuel Urzúa Macías Alejandro Díaz de León
 Russia President Vladimir Putin Minister of Finance Anton Siluanov Elvira Nabiullina
 Saudi Arabia King Salman Minister of Finance Mohammed Al-Jadaan Ahmed Abdulkarim Al-Khulaifi
 South Africa President Cyril Ramaphosa Minister of Finance Tito Mboweni Lesetja Kganyago
 South Korea President Moon Jae-in Minister of Economy and Finance Hong Nam-ki Lee Ju-yeol
 Turkey President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Minister of Finance Berat Albayrak Murat Çetinkaya
 United Kingdom Prime Minister Theresa May Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond Mark Carney
 United States President Donald Trump Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin Jerome Powell
 European Union[38] President of the European Council Donald Tusk Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs Pierre Moscovici Mario Draghi
President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker

Member country data

Member Trade
mil. USD (2014)
Nom. GDP
mil. USD (2019)[39][40]
PPP GDP
mil. USD (2019)[41]
Nom. GDP per capita
USD (2019)[39][40]
PPP GDP per capita
USD (2019)[41]
HDI
(2017)
Population
(2018)[42]
Area
km2
P5 G4 G7 BRICS MIKTA DAC OECD C'wth N11 OPEC CIVETS IMF economy classification[43][44]
 Argentina 142,370 477,743 920,209 10,667 20,047 0.825 44,570,000 2,780,400 Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Emerging
 Australia 496,700 1,417,003 1,369,392 56,698 48,899 0.939 25,182,000 7,692,024 Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 Brazil 954,000 3,453,000 4,455,009 16,396 21,153 0.828 210,400,000 8,515,767 Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Emerging
 Canada 947,200 1,739,110 1,896,725 46,733 46,437 0.926 37,078,000 9,984,670 Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 China 4,201,000 14,216,503 27,331,166 9,633 15,399 0.752 1,396,982,000 9,572,900 Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Emerging
 France 1,212,300 2,761,633 3,054,599 42,931 42,314 0.901 65,098,000 640,679 Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 Germany 2,866,600 3,963,880 4,467,238 48,670 48,111 0.936 82,786,000 357,114 Red XN Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 India 850,600 2,971,996 11,468,022 2,016 6,616 0.640 1,334,221,000 3,287,263 Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Emerging
 Indonesia 346,100 1,100,911 3,743,159 3,789 11,720 0.694 265,316,000 1,904,569 Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Emerging
 Italy 948,600 2,025,866 2,442,144 34,349 36,833 0.880 60,756,000 301,336 Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 Japan 1,522,400 5,176,205 5,749,550 40,106 41,275 0.909 126,431,000 377,930 Red XN Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 South Korea 1,170,900 1,656,674 2,229,779 32,046 37,740 0.903 51,665,000 100,210 Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Advanced
 Mexico 813,500 1,241,450 2,658,041 9,614 18,938 0.774 124,738,000 1,964,375 Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Emerging
 Russia 844,200 1,610,381 4,357,759 10,950 28,918 0.816 143,965,088 17,098,242 Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Emerging
 Saudi Arabia 521,600 762,259 1,924,253 23,187 55,158 0.853 33,203,000 2,149,690 Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Emerging/Developing
 South Africa 200,100 371,298 813,100 6,560 13,225 0.699 57,420,000 1,221,037 Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Emerging/Developing
 Turkey 417,000 706,237 2,274,072 8,716 24,912 0.791 71,867,000 783,562 Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Green tick Emerging
 United Kingdom 1,189,400 2,829,163 3,128,185 42,261 42,481 0.922 66,466,000 242,495 Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 United States 3,944,000 21,344,667 21,344,667 62,517 57,436 0.924 328,116,000 9,526,468 Green tick Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Advanced
 European Union 4,485,000 18,705,132 22,761,233 33,715 39,317 0.899 512,600,000 4,422,773 Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Green tick Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN Red XN N/A

In addition to these 20 members, the chief executive officers of several other international forums and institutions participate in meetings of the G20.[2] These include the managing director and Chairman of the International Monetary Fund, the President of the World Bank, the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee.

The G20's membership does not reflect exactly the 19 largest national economies of the world in any given year. The organization states:[1]

In a forum such as the G20, it is particularly important for the number of countries involved to be restricted and fixed to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of its activity. There are no formal criteria for G20 membership and the composition of the group has remained unchanged since it was established. In view of the objectives of the G20, it was considered important that countries and regions of systemic significance for the international financial system be included. Aspects such as geographical balance and population representation also played a major part.

All 19 member nations are among the top 32 economies as measured in GDP at nominal prices in a list published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for 2018.[45] Not represented by membership in the G20 are Switzerland (ranked 20th by the IMF), Taiwan (21), Thailand (25), Norway (28), the United Arab Emirates (29), Iran (30) and Nigeria (31). even though they rank higher than some members. The Netherlands (17), Sweden (22), Poland (23), Belgium (24), and Austria (27) are included only as part of the EU, and not independently. Spain (13) is a permanent guest invitee.

When the countries' GDP is measured at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates,[46][47] all 19 members are among the top 30 in the world for the year of 2017, according to the IMF. Iran (18), Thailand (20), Egypt (21), Taiwan (22), Nigeria (24), Pakistan (25), Malaysia (26) and Philippines (29) are not G20 members, while Poland (23) and the Netherlands (28) are only included by virtue of being EU members, and Spain (15), is a permanent guest invetee. However, in a list of average GDP, calculated for the years since the group's creation (1999–2008) at both nominal and PPP rates, only Spain, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Taiwan, Iran and Thailand appear above any G20 member in both lists simultaneously.

Spain, being the 14th largest economy in the world and 5th in the European Union in terms of nominal GDP, has been a "permanent guest" of the organization, and the Spanish government's policy is to not request official membership.[48][49] A Spanish delegation has been invited to, and has attended, every G20 heads of state summit since the G20's inception.

Role of Asian countries

A 2011 report released by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) predicted that large Asian economies such as China and India would play a more important role in global economic governance in the future. The report claimed that the rise of emerging market economies heralded a new world order, in which the G20 would become the global economic steering committee.[50] The ADB furthermore noted that Asian countries had led the global recovery following the late-2000s recession. It predicted that the region would have a greater presence on the global stage, shaping the G20's agenda for balanced and sustainable growth through strengthening intraregional trade and stimulating domestic demand.[50]

Invitees

G20 members and invited states
G20 members (blue) and invited states (pink) as of 2016

Typically, several participants that are not permanent members of the G20 are extended invitations to participate in the summits. Each year, the Chair of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations; the Chair of the African Union; and a representative of the New Partnership for Africa's Development are invited in their capacities as leaders of their organisations and as heads of government of their home states.[51] Additionally, the leaders of the Financial Stability Board, the International Labour Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, the World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization are invited and participate in pre-summit planning within the policy purview of their respective organisation.[52] Spain is a permanent non-member invitee.[51]

Other invitees are chosen by the host country, usually one or two countries from its own region.[51] For example, South Korea invited Singapore. International organisations which have been invited in the past include the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC), the European Central Bank (ECB), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Global Governance Group (3G) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Previously, the Netherlands had a similar status to Spain while the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union would also receive an invitation, but only in that capacity and not as their own state's leader (such as the Czech premiers Mirek Topolánek and Jan Fischer during the 2009 summits).

As of 2017, leaders from the following nations have been invited to the G20 summits: Azerbaijan, Benin, Brunei, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Myanmar, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.[51]

Permanent guest invitees

Invitee Officeholder State Official title
African Union (AU) Abdel Fattah el-Sisi  Egypt President
(Chairperson)
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Sebastián Piñera  Chile President
(2019 host)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Prayut Chan-o-cha  Thailand Prime Minister
(2019 Chair)
Lim Jock Hoi N/A Secretary-General
Financial Stability Board (FSB) Randal K. Quarles N/A Chairperson
International Labour Organization (ILO) Guy Ryder N/A Director General
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Christine Lagarde N/A Managing Director
 Spain Pedro Sánchez  Spain Prime Minister
New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) Macky Sall  Senegal President
(Chair)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) José Ángel Gurría N/A Secretary-General
 United Nations (UN) António Guterres N/A Secretary-General
World Bank Group (WBG) Kristalina Georgieva N/A Acting President
World Trade Organization (WTO) Roberto Azevêdo N/A Director General

G20 Agenda

Financial focus

The initial G20 agenda, as conceived by US, Canadian and German policy makers, was very much focused on the sustainability of sovereign debt and global financial stability, in an inclusive format that would bring in the largest developing economies as equal partners. During a summit in November 2008, the leaders of the group pledged to contribute trillions to international finance organizations, including the World Bank and IMF, mainly for reestablishing the global financial system.[53][54]

Since inception, the recurring themes covered by G20 summit participants have related in priority to global economic growth, international trade and financial market regulation.[55]

Inclusive growth

After the adoption of the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, more "issues of global significance"[55][56] were added to the G20 agenda: migration, digitisation, employment, healthcare, the economic empowerment of women and development aid.[57]

Interrelated themes

Wolfgang Schäuble, German Federal Minister of Finance, has insisted on the interconnected nature of the issues facing G20 nations, be they purely financial or developmental, and the need to reach effective, cross-cutting policy measures: "Globalization has lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty, but there is also a growing rise in frustration in some quarters […] development, [national] security and migration are all interlinked"[56]

Criticisms

Exclusivity of membership

Although the G20 has stated that the group's "economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system",[58] its legitimacy has been challenged. A 2011 report for the Danish Institute for International Studies criticised the G20's exclusivity, particularly highlighting its underrepresentation of African countries and its practice of inviting observers from non-member states as a mere "concession at the margins", which does not grant the organisation representational legitimacy.[59] With respect to the membership issue, former US President Barack Obama noted the difficulty of pleasing everyone: "Everybody wants the smallest possible group that includes them. So, if they're the 21st largest nation in the world, they want the G21, and think it's highly unfair if they have been cut out."[60] Others stated in 2011 that the exclusivity is not an insurmountable problem, and proposed mechanisms by which it could become more inclusive.[61]

Norwegian perspective

In line with Norway's emphasis on inclusive international processes, the United Nations and the UN-system, in a 2010 interview with Der Spiegel, a former Norwegian foreign minister Jonas Gahr Støre called the G20 "one of the greatest setbacks since World War II".[6] as 173 nations who are all members of the UN are not among the G-20. This includes Norway, a major developed economy and the seventh-largest contributor to UN international development programs,[62] it is not a member of the EU, and thus is not represented in the G20 even indirectly.[6] Norway, like the other, has little or no voice within the group. Støre characterized the G20 as a "self-appointed group", arguing that it undermines the legitimacy of international organizations set up in the aftermath of World War II, such as the IMF, World Bank and United Nations:

The G20 is a self-appointed group. Its composition is determined by the major countries and powers. It may be more representative than the G7 or the G8, in which only the richest countries are represented, but it is still arbitrary. We no longer live in the 19th century, a time when the major powers met and redrew the map of the world. No one needs a new Congress of Vienna.[6]

Norway, under the government of Erna Solberg, attended the 2017 G20 Summit in Hamburg, Germany.[63] and participates in working-groups and sub-working groups, for instance on research. The Norwegian Minister of Elderly will participate under the Japan presidency of the G20 2019.

Spanish position on membership

The Spanish government's policy is to not request official membership. Despite being hit hard by the economic crisis after 2008, Spain is still the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP (the 5th in the European Union) and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity, clearly exceeding the numbers of several current members of the G20 such as Argentina or South Africa. In addition, since the 1990s several Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America, where Spain is the second biggest foreign investor after the United States and keeps an important influence. These facts have reinforced the idea that Spain should seek permanent membership of the G20.

Polish aspirations

Contrary to the Spanish position, the Polish government has repeatedly asked to join the G20.

Before the 2009 G20 London summit, the Polish government expressed an interest in joining with Spain and the Netherlands and condemned an "organisational mess" in which a few European leaders speak in the name of all the EU without legitimate authorisation in cases which belong to the European Commission.

During a 2010 meeting with foreign diplomats, former Polish president Lech Kaczyński said:

Polish economy is according to our data an 18th world economy. The place of my country is among the members of the G20. This is a very simple postulate: firstly – it results from the size of Polish economy, secondly – it results from the fact that Poland is the biggest country in its region and the biggest country that has experienced a certain story. That story is a political and economic transformation.[64]

In 2012 Forbes wrote that swapping Argentina for Poland should be considered, claiming that the Polish economy was headed toward a leadership role in Europe and its membership would be more legitimate.[65] Similar opinions have been later expressed by American magazine Foreign Policy, Wall Street Journal and by Mamta Murthi from the World Bank.[66][67][68]

In 2014 consulting company Ernst & Young published its report about optimal members for G20. After analyzing trade, institutional and investment links Poland was included as one of the optimal members.[69]

G20 membership has been part of Poland's Law and Justice party and President Andrzej Duda political program.[70] In March 2017, Deputy Prime Minister of Poland Mateusz Morawiecki took part in a meeting of G20 financial ministers in Baden-Baden as the first Polish representative.[71][72]

In 2017, Poland's GDP is 483 billion dollars (less than Argentina's 620 billion dollars, more than South Africa's 326 billion dollars). In 2018 Poland's GDP is 614 billion dollars (less than Argentina's 625 billion dollars, more than South Africa's 370 billion dollars).

Global Governance Group (3G) response

In June 2010, Singapore's representative to the United Nations warned the G20 that its decisions would affect "all countries, big and small", and asserted that prominent non-G20 members should be included in financial reform discussions.[73] Singapore thereafter took a leading role in organizing the Global Governance Group (3G), an informal grouping of 30 non-G20 countries (including several microstates and many Third World countries) with the aim of collectively channelling their views into the G20 process more effectively.[74][75][76] Singapore's chairing of the 3G was cited as a rationale for inviting Singapore to the November 2010 G20 summit in South Korea, as well as the 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and the recently concluded 2017 summits.[77]

Foreign Policy critiques

The American magazine Foreign Policy has published articles condemning the G20, in terms of its principal function as an alternative to the supposedly exclusive G8. It questions the actions of some of the G20 members, and advances the notion that some nations should not have membership in the first place. Furthermore, with the effects of the Great Recession still ongoing, the magazine has criticized the G20's efforts to implement reforms of the world's financial institutions, branding such efforts as failed.[78]

Wider concerns

The G20's prominent membership gives it a strong input on global policy despite lacking any formal ability to enforce rules. There are disputes over the legitimacy of the G20,[79] and criticisms of its organisation and the efficacy of its declarations.[80]

The G20's transparency and accountability have been questioned by critics, who call attention to the absence of a formal charter and the fact that the most important G20 meetings are closed-door.[81] In 2001, the economist Frances Stewart proposed an Economic Security Council within the United Nations as an alternative to the G20. In such a council, members would be elected by the General Assembly based on their importance to the world economy, and the contribution they are willing to provide to world economic development.[82]

The cost and extent of summit-related security is often a contentious issue in the hosting country, and G20 summits have attracted protesters from a variety of backgrounds, including information activists, opponents of fractional-reserve banking and anti-capitalists. In 2010, the Toronto G20 summit sparked mass protests and rioting, leading to the largest mass arrest in Canada's history.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The de jure head of government of China is the Premier, whose current holder is Li Keqiang. The President of China is legally a ceremonial office, but the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (de facto leader) has always held this office since 1993 except for the months of transition, and the current paramount leader is President Xi Jinping.

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "FAQ #5: What are the criteria for G-20 membership?" Archived 16 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. G20.org. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e "G20 Members". G20.org. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b "G20 Finance Ministers Committed to Sustainable Development". IPS News. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  4. ^ "Global Politics". Andrew Heywood. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Officials: G-20 to supplant G-8 as international economic council". CNN. 25 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d "Norway Takes Aim at G-20:'One of the Greatest Setbacks Since World War II'". Der Spiegel. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  7. ^ Bosco, David (19 April 2012). "Who would replace Argentina on the G20?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
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Bibliography

Cooper, Andrew F. (2011). "The G20 and Its Regional Critics: The Search for Inclusion". Global Policy. doi:10.1111/j.1758-5899.2011.00081.x. ISSN 1758-5899.
Firzli, Nicolas J. (2017). "G20 Nations Shifting the Trillions: Impact Investing, Green Infrastructure and Inclusive Growth" (PDF). Revue Analyse Financière. 64 (3): 15–18.
Gilpin, Robert (2001). Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08676-7.
Markwell, Donald (2006). John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292364.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-829236-4.
Wade, Robert (2009). "From Global Imbalances to Global Reorganisations". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 33 (4): 539–562. doi:10.1093/cje/bep032. ISSN 1464-3545.
Woods, Ngaire (2006). The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers. Cornell Studies in Money. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4424-1. JSTOR 10.7591/j.ctt1ffjpgn.
Wouters, Jan; Van Kerckhoven, Sven (2011). "OECD and the G20: An Ever Closer Relationship" (PDF). George Washington International Law Review. 43 (2): 345–374. ISSN 1534-9977.

Further reading

Haas, Peter M. (1992). "Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination" (PDF). International Organization. 46 (1): 1–35. doi:10.1017/S0020818300001442. ISSN 1531-5088. JSTOR 2706951.
Hajnal, Peter I. (2007). "The G8 System and the G20: Evolution, Role and Documentation". Global Finance Series. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-4550-4.
Kirton, John J. (2013). G20 Governance for a Globalized World. Global Finance Series. Abingdon, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-4094-2829-9.
Reinalda, Bob; Verbeek, Bertjan, eds. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. Routledge/ECPR Studies in European Political Science. 5. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3.
Samans, Richard; Uzan, Marc; Lopez-Claros, Augusto, eds. (2007). The International Monetary System, the IMF and the G-20: A Great Transformation in the Making?. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-52495-8.

External links

2009 G20 London summit

The 2009 G20 London Summit was the second meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, which was held in London on 2 April 2009 at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre to discuss financial markets and the world economy. It followed the first G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy, which was held in Washington, D.C. on 14–15 November 2008. Heads of government or heads of state from the G20 attended, with some regional and international organisations also represented. Due to the extended membership it has been referred to as the London Summit.The policing tactics at the event raised some controversy, particularly over the death of Ian Tomlinson.

It was revealed in June 2013 that the Government Communications Headquarters, an intelligence agency of the British government, had intercepted phone calls and monitored computers used by foreign delegates at the summit. Their actions were sanctioned by the British government and intelligence was passed to British government ministers.

2009 G20 London summit protests

The 2009 G20 London summit protests occurred in the days around the 2 April 2009 G20 London summit. The summit was the focus of protests from a number of groups over various long-standing and topical issues. These ranged from disquiet over economic policy, anger at the banking system and bankers' remuneration and bonuses, the continued war on terror and concerns over climate change.

Although the majority of the protests and protesters were peaceful, the threat of violence and criminal damage were used by police as a reason to detain, or "kettle", protesters as part of Operation Glencoe. A bystander, Ian Tomlinson, died shortly after being pushed to the ground by a police officer. A second post-mortem revealed that Tomlinson may have died from an abdominal haemorrhage. The inquest into Tomlinson's death found that he was unlawfully killed.

2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit

The 2009 G20 Pittsburgh Summit was the third meeting of the G20 heads of state/heads of government to discuss financial markets and the world economy.

The G20 is the premier forum for discussing, planning and monitoring international economic

cooperation.The summit was held at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States on September 24–25, 2009. Announced shortly after the April 2009 G20 London summit, U.S. President Barack Obama volunteered to host this summit, initially planning to hold it in New York City and coordinating it with the opening of the United Nations General Assembly. However, due to coordination issues, on May 28, 2009, the Obama Administration announced a change of venue to Pittsburgh in order to highlight the city's economic recovery following the collapse of its manufacturing sector in the latter half of the 20th century. In response to the Global credit crisis, a G20 summit in one year was proposed shortly after the London summit in April 2009.

Amongst the issues discussed was a proposal to radically reform the International Monetary Fund (IMF). French President Nicolas Sarkozy also suggested that there would be an evaluation of measures already taken.The primary venue of the summit was the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, which was at one point the largest Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified building in the world. A working dinner for world leaders was held at the Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens, chosen to highlight its environmentally friendly features including an earth-sheltered welcome center and a Tropical Forest Conservatory described as the world’s most energy efficient. Other venues used around the city include The Andy Warhol Museum, the Pittsburgh High School for the Creative and Performing Arts and Rosemont, the working farm of Teresa Heinz Kerry.

2010 G20 Seoul summit

The 2010 G20 Seoul Summit was the fifth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, to discuss the global financial system and the world economy, which took place in Seoul, South Korea, on November 11–12, 2010. Korea was the first non-G8 nation to host a G20 leaders' summit.The G20 is the premier forum for discussing, planning, and monitoring international economic cooperation.The theme of the summit was "Shared Growth Beyond Crisis".

2010 G20 Toronto summit

The 2010 G20 Toronto summit was the fourth meeting of the G20 heads of state/government, to discuss the global financial system and the world economy, which took place at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, during June 26–27, 2010. The summit's priorities included evaluating the progress of financial reform, developing sustainable stimulus measures, debating global bank tax, and promoting open markets. Alongside the twenty-one representatives of the G20 major economies, leaders of six invited nations, and eight additional intergovernmental organizations also took part in the summit.

Prior to the summit, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the theme would be "recovery and new beginnings," referring to an anticipated economic stimulus from the impact of the ongoing world recession. Harper initially proposed to hold the summit in Huntsville, Ontario, where the 36th G8 summit was scheduled immediately prior. Organizers later deemed the town insufficient to provide hospitality for the large number of G20 delegates and journalists, favouring Toronto as the host location.Organizers formed an Integrated Security Unit, consisting of police officers from several regional departments, to provide security during the summit in Downtown Toronto. The event was part of the largest and most expensive security operation in Canadian history. The total combined cost between the 36th G8 summit in Huntsville and the G20 summit in Toronto including security, infrastructure, and hospitality, was determined to be approximately C$858 million.

2010 G20 Toronto summit protests

Public protesting and demonstrations began one week ahead of the 2010 G20 Toronto summit, which took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on 26−27 June. The protests were for various causes, including poverty and anti-capitalism.

Protests mainly consisted of peaceful demonstrations and rallies but also took form of a riot as a group of protesters using black bloc tactics caused vandalism to several businesses in Downtown Toronto. More than 20,000 police, military, and security personnel were involved in policing the protests, which at its largest numbered 10,000 protesters. While there were no deaths, 97 officers and 39 arrestees were injured, and at least 40 shops were vandalised, constituting at least C$750,000 worth of damage.Over 1000 arrests were made, making it the largest mass arrest in Canadian history. In the aftermath of the protests, the Toronto Police Service and the Integrated Security Unit (ISU) of the G20 Toronto summit were heavily criticized for brutality during the arrests and eventually went under public scrutiny by media and human rights activists. There has been legal action in the form of a class action lawsuit towards the Toronto police on behalf of all whom were arrested despite the Toronto Police's several attempts to stop court proceedings by appealing the case. As of November 10, 2016 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that it will not hear the Toronto Police Services Board's appeal and court proceedings may go on.

2014 G20 Brisbane summit

The 2014 G20 Brisbane summit was the ninth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state.

It was held in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, on 15–16 November 2014.

The hosting venue was the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre at South Brisbane. The event was the largest ever peacetime police operation in Australia.On 1 December 2013 Brisbane became the official host city for the G20. The City of Brisbane had a public holiday on 14 November 2014. Up to 4,000 delegates were expected to attend with around 2,500 media representatives. The leaders of Mauritania, Myanmar, New Zealand, Senegal, Singapore, and Spain were also invited to this summit.

2016 G20 Hangzhou summit

The 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit was the eleventh meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20). It was held on 4–5 September 2016 in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang. It was the first ever G20 summit to be hosted in China and the second in an Asian country after 2010 G20 Seoul summit was hosted in South Korea.

2017 G20 Hamburg summit

The 2017 G20 Hamburg summit was the twelfth meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 7–8 July 2017, at Hamburg Messe, in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit

The 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit, was the thirteenth meeting of Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 30 November and 1 December 2018 in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was the first G20 summit to be hosted in South America.

BMW 3 Series (G20)

The BMW 3 Series (G20) is a compact executive car produced by German automobile manufacturer BMW. It is the seventh and current generation of the 3 Series, and was unveiled at the 2018 Paris Motor Show on October 2, 2018, and was released in March 2019.The M340i, one of the first models in the range will be available for sale in the spring of 2019, with the 330e hybrid model scheduled for launch in 2020.

Chevrolet van

This page talks about the 1964–1995 Chevrolet van and GMC Vandura. For the post-1995 successor, see Chevrolet Express.

The Chevrolet and GMC G-series vans were made by General Motors for North America. They are in the same vehicle class as the discontinued Ford E series and Dodge Ram van.

The term Chevrolet van also refers to the entire series of vans sold by Chevrolet. The first Chevrolet van was released in 1961 on the Corvair platform, and the latest Chevrolet van in production is the Chevrolet Express.

The G20 and its counterparts replaced the original Chevrolet Corvair Greenbrier Van which was manufactured until 1965. First fielded in the mid-1960s, the model line evolved until it was replaced in 1996 by the Chevrolet Express. 1964-70 G20s came with six-lug wheels (6 lugs - 5.5" (139.6 mm) bolt circle), while the 1971–1995 generation came with the 5 lug - 5" (127 mm) bolt circle.

G20s were fitted with the ball joints from the Chevrolet/GMC ¾- and 1-ton pickups although using the ½ ton pickup's brake rotors.

A light duty version, the G10, was produced alongside the G20—the early versions used the Chevrolet passenger car wheels (5 lugs - 4.75" (120.7 mm) bolt circle) until 1975 (G10s manufactured prior to the 1976 model year had the smaller bolt pattern, common with the short wheelbase vans), yet can still handle LT tire sizes for better handling and stability. The G20 series sported an SB 262 4.3L engine, not much was changed mechanically in the vehicles since their release, other than carburetor to a throttle body injection fuel system, and less use of a vacuum system. Currently there are more after market part options available for its V8 counterparts. Not much has been done in the lines of performance options for the small V6 G20 models, but the reliability remains the same throughout all the G-series models.

The G20's low cost of upkeep, size, and options have made this van popular with all different kinds of trades, from plumbers to caterers.

Financial Stability Board

The Financial Stability Board (FSB) is an international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system. It was established after the G20 London summit in April 2009 as a successor to the Financial Stability Forum (FSF). The Board includes all G20 major economies, FSF members, and the European Commission. Hosted and funded by the Bank for International Settlements, the board is based in Basel, Switzerland.

G20 Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway

The Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway (Chinese: 青岛—银川高速公路), commonly referred to as the Qingyin Expressway (Chinese: 青银高速公路) is an expressway that connects the cities of Qingdao, Shandong, China, and Yinchuan, Ningxia. It is 1,600 km (990 mi) in length.

G20 Schools

G20 Schools is an informal association of secondary schools initiated by David Wylde of St. Andrew's College, Grahamstown (South Africa) and Sir Anthony Seldon of Wellington College (UK) in 2006.All the schools claim to have a commitment to excellence and innovation of some sort. The G20 Schools have an annual conference which aims to bring together a group of school Heads who want to look beyond the parochial issues of their own schools and national associations and to discuss key issues facing education and their roles as educational leaders.

The association includes 50 schools from 20 countries, with membership by invitation and a vote of existing members. G20 schools are chosen on two criteria: the reputation of the school and the reputation of the school's leader.

G20 developing nations

The G20 developing nations (and, occasionally, the G21, G23 or G20+) is a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003. Distinct and separate from the G20 major economies, the group emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, held in Cancún, Mexico, from 10 September to 14 September 2003. The group accounted for 60% of the world's population, 70% of its farmers and 26% of world’s agricultural exports.

Ginetta Junior Championship

The Ginetta Junior Championship is a one-make racing series based in the United Kingdom. From the 2010 season teams will use the Ginetta G40, having previously used the Ginetta G20.

The cars use sealed Ford Zetec 1.8-litre engines, and feature tubular steel chassis, fully integral FIA approved roll cages and fibre-glass shells which ensure safe, controlled racing.

Infiniti G-series (Q40/Q60)

The Infiniti G-series is a line of compact executive car produced by the Infiniti division of Nissan for the 1991–1996 and 1999–present model years. The first two generations of the Infiniti G (P10 and P11) were sedans based on the Nissan Primera. Beginning with its third generation (V35), the Infiniti G have been rebadged versions of the Nissan Skyline line of sedans and coupes that were exported to the United States and Canada. The current incarnation is the fourth generation (V36) which introduced the hardtop coupe convertible. The Nissan FM platform, on top of which the third and fourth generations (V35 and V36) of the Infiniti G have been built, also underpins the Nissan 370Z and has shared components with the Infiniti M, Infiniti EX, and Infiniti FX.

In May 2013, Infiniti announced a new naming convention beginning with the 2014 model year; all passenger cars are designated by the letter "Q," while sport-utility model names will begin with "QX." The Infiniti G was to have been replaced by the Infiniti Q50, but the G37 was revived as the Q40 beginning with the 2015 model year.

List of G20 summits

The following list of G20 summits summarizes all G20 conferences held at various different levels: summits of heads of state or heads of government, ministerial-level meetings, Engagement Group meetings and others.

G20 major economies
Heads of state of the G20
Leaders of the G20

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