The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union. Founded in 1999 with the aim to discuss policy pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability, the G20 has expanded its agenda since 2008 and heads of government or heads of state, as well as finance ministers and foreign ministers, have periodically conferred at summits ever since. It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.
Membership of the G20 consists of 19 individual countries plus the European Union (EU). The EU is represented by the European Commission and by the European Central Bank. Collectively, the G20 economies account for around 90% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of world trade (or, if excluding EU intra-trade, 75%), two-thirds of the world population, and approximately half of the world land area.
With the G20 growing in stature after its inaugural leaders' summit in 2008, its leaders announced on 25 September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations. Since its inception, the G20's membership policies have been criticized by numerous intellectuals, and its summits have been a focus for major protests by left-wing groups and anarchists.
Group of Twenty
|Formation||26 September 1999|
2008 (Heads of State/Heads of Government Summits)
|Purpose||Bring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy.|
|Shinzō Abe (2019)|
The G20 is the latest in a series of post–World War 2 initiatives aimed at international coordination of economic policy, which include institutions such as the "Bretton Woods twins", the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and what is now the World Trade Organization.
The G20 was foreshadowed at the Cologne Summit of the G7 in June 1999, and formally established at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on 26 September 1999 with an inaugural meeting on 15–16 December 1999 in Berlin. Canadian finance minister Paul Martin was chosen as the first chairman and German finance minister Hans Eichel hosted the inaugural meeting.
A 2004 report by Colin I. Bradford and Johannes F. Linn of the Brookings Institution asserted the group was founded primarily at the initiative of Eichel, the concurrent chair of the G7. However, Bradford later described then-Finance Minister of Canada (and future Prime Minister of Canada) Paul Martin as "the crucial architect of the formation of the G-20 at finance minister level," and as the one who later "proposed that the G-20 countries move to leaders level summits." Canadian academic and journalistic sources have also identified the G20 a project initiated by Martin and then-US Treasury Secretary Larry Summers. All acknowledge, however, that Germany and the United States played a key role in bringing their vision into reality.
Martin and Summers conceived of the G20 in response to the series of massive debt crises that had spread across emerging markets in the late 1990s, beginning with the Mexican peso crisis and followed by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the 1998 Russian financial crisis, and eventually impacting the United States, most prominently in the form of the collapse of the prominent hedge fund Long-Term Capital Management in the autumn of 1998. It illustrated to them that in a rapidly globalizing world, the G7, G8, and the Bretton Woods system would be unable to provide financial stability, and they conceived of a new, broader permanent group of major world economies that would give a voice and new responsibilities in providing it.
Geithner and Koch-Weser went down the list of countries saying, Canada in, Portugal out, South Africa in, Nigeria and Egypt out, and so on; they sent their list to the other G7 finance ministries; and the invitations to the first meeting went out.
The G20's primary focus has been governance of the global economy. Summit themes have varied from year to year. The theme of the 2006 G20 ministerial meeting was "Building and Sustaining Prosperity". The issues discussed included domestic reforms to achieve "sustained growth", global energy and resource commodity markets, reform of the World Bank and IMF, and the impact of demographic changes due to an aging world population.
In 2007, South Africa hosted the secretariat with Trevor A. Manuel, South African Minister of Finance as chairperson of the G20.
In 2008, Guido Mantega, Brazil's Minister of Finance, was the G20 chairperson and proposed dialogue on competition in financial markets, clean energy, economic development and fiscal elements of growth and development.
On 11 October 2008 after a meeting of G7 finance ministers, US President George W. Bush stated that the next meeting of the G20 would be important in finding solutions to the burgeoning economic crisis of 2008.
The G20 Summit of the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, who prepare the leaders' summit and implement their decisions, was created as a response both to the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and to a growing recognition that key emerging countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Additionally, the G20 Summits of heads of state or government were held.
A number of other ministerial-level G20 meetings have been held since 2010. Agriculture ministerial meetings were conducted in 2011 and 2012; meetings of foreign ministers were held in 2012 and 2013; trade ministers met in 2012 and 2014, and employment ministerial meetings have taken place annually since 2010.
In March 2014, the former Australian foreign minister Julie Bishop, as host of the 2014 G20 summit in Brisbane, proposed to ban Russia from the summit over its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis. The BRICS foreign ministers subsequently reminded Bishop that "the custodianship of the G20 belongs to all Member States equally and no one Member State can unilaterally determine its nature and character."
To decide which member nation gets to chair the G20 leaders' meeting for a given year, all 19 sovereign nations are assigned to one of five different groupings, with each group having four nations, except one having three. This system has been in place since 2010, when South Korea, which is in Group 5, held the G20 chair. The table below lists the nations' groupings:
|Group 1||Group 2||Group 3||Group 4||Group 5|
The G20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The group's chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The current chair of the G20 is Argentina, which took over the chair on 1 December 2017. The 2017 chair was Germany, which hosted the 2017 Summit in Hamburg. The 2019 chair will be Japan, which will host the 2019 G20 Osaka summit.
In 2010, President of France Nicolas Sarkozy proposed the establishment of a permanent G20 secretariat, similar to the United Nations. Seoul and Paris were suggested as possible locations for its headquarters. Brazil and China supported the establishment of a secretariat, while Italy and Japan expressed opposition to the proposal. South Korea proposed a "cyber secretariat" as an alternative. It has been argued that the G20 has been using the OECD as a secretariat.
As of 2017 there are 20 members of the group: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Spain is a permanent guest invitee.
Representative include, at the leaders' summits, the leaders of 19 countries and of the European Union, and, at the ministerial-level meetings, the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and of the European Union.
In addition each year, the G20's guests include Spain; the Chair of ASEAN; two African countries (the chair of the African Union and a representative of the New Partnership for Africa's Development) and a country (sometimes more than one) invited by the presidency, usually from its own region.
The first of the tables below lists the member entities and their heads of government, finance ministers and central bank governors. The second table lists relevant statistics such as population and GDP figures for each member, as well as detailing memberships of other international organizations, such as the G7, BRICS and MIKTA. Total GDP figures are given in millions of US dollars.
|Member||Leader position||State leader||Finance portfolio||Portfolio minister||Central bank governor|
|Argentina||President||Mauricio Macri||Minister of the Treasury||Nicolás Dujovne||Guido Sandleris|
|Australia||Prime Minister||Scott Morrison||Treasurer||Josh Frydenberg||Philip Lowe|
|Brazil||President||Jair Bolsonaro||Minister of Economy||Paulo Guedes||Ilan Goldfajn|
|Canada||Prime Minister||Justin Trudeau||Minister of Finance||Bill Morneau||Stephen Poloz|
|China||President[note 1]||Xi Jinping[note 1]||Minister of Finance||Liu Kun||Yi Gang|
|France||President||Emmanuel Macron||Minister of the Economy||Bruno Le Maire||François Villeroy de Galhau|
|Germany||Chancellor||Angela Merkel||Minister of Finance||Olaf Scholz||Jens Weidmann|
|India||Prime Minister||Narendra Modi||Minister of Finance||Arun Jaitley||Shaktikanta Das|
|Indonesia||President||Joko Widodo||Minister of Finance||Sri Mulyani Indrawati||Perry Warjiyo|
|Italy||Prime Minister||Giuseppe Conte||Minister of Economy and Finance||Giovanni Tria||Ignazio Visco|
|Japan||Prime Minister||Shinzō Abe||Minister of Finance||Tarō Asō||Haruhiko Kuroda|
|Mexico||President||Andrés Manuel López Obrador||Secretary of Finance||Carlos Manuel Urzúa Macías||Alejandro Díaz de León|
|Russia||President||Vladimir Putin||Minister of Finance||Anton Siluanov||Elvira Nabiullina|
|Saudi Arabia||King||Salman||Minister of Finance||Mohammed Al-Jadaan||Ahmed Abdulkarim Al-Khulaifi|
|South Africa||President||Cyril Ramaphosa||Minister of Finance||Tito Mboweni||Lesetja Kganyago|
|South Korea||President||Moon Jae-in||Minister of Economy and Finance||Hong Nam-ki||Lee Ju-yeol|
|Turkey||President||Recep Tayyip Erdoğan||Minister of Finance||Berat Albayrak||Murat Çetinkaya|
|United Kingdom||Prime Minister||Theresa May||Chancellor of the Exchequer||Philip Hammond||Mark Carney|
|United States||President||Donald Trump||Secretary of the Treasury||Steven Mnuchin||Jerome Powell|
|European Union||President of the European Council||Donald Tusk||Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs||Pierre Moscovici||Mario Draghi|
|President of the European Commission||Jean-Claude Juncker|
mil. USD (2014)
mil. USD (2016)
mil. USD (2016)
|Nom. GDP per capita
|PPP GDP per capita
|P5||G4||G7||BRICS||MIKTA||DAC||OECD||C'wth||N11||OPEC||CIVETS||IMF economy classification|
In addition to these 20 members, the chief executive officers of several other international forums and institutions participate in meetings of the G20. These include the managing director and Chairman of the International Monetary Fund, the President of the World Bank, the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee.
The G20's membership does not reflect exactly the 19 largest national economies of the world in any given year. The organization states:
In a forum such as the G20, it is particularly important for the number of countries involved to be restricted and fixed to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of its activity. There are no formal criteria for G20 membership and the composition of the group has remained unchanged since it was established. In view of the objectives of the G20, it was considered important that countries and regions of systemic significance for the international financial system be included. Aspects such as geographical balance and population representation also played a major part.
All 19 member nations are among the top 32 economies as measured in GDP at nominal prices in a list published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for 2018. Not represented by membership in the G20 are Switzerland (ranked 20th by the IMF), Taiwan (21), Thailand (25), Norway (28), the United Arab Emirates (29), Iran (30) and Nigeria (31). even though they rank higher than some members. The Netherlands (17), Sweden (22), Poland (23), Belgium (24), and Austria (27) are included only as part of the EU, and not independently. Spain (13) is a permanent guest invitee.
When the countries' GDP is measured at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates, all 19 members are among the top 30 in the world for the year of 2017, according to the IMF. Iran (18), Thailand (20), Egypt (21), Taiwan (22), Nigeria (24), Pakistan (25), Malaysia (26) and Philippines (29) are not G20 members, while Spain (15), Poland (23) and the Netherlands (28) are only included by virtue of being EU members. However, in a list of average GDP, calculated for the years since the group's creation (1999–2008) at both nominal and PPP rates, only Spain, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Taiwan, Iran and Thailand appear above any G20 member in both lists simultaneously.
Spain, being the 14th largest economy in the world and 5th in the European Union in terms of nominal GDP, has been a "permanent guest" of the organization, and the Spanish government's policy is to not request official membership. A Spanish delegation has been invited to, and has attended, every G20 heads of state summit since the G20's inception.
A 2011 report released by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) predicted that large Asian economies such as China and India would play a more important role in global economic governance in the future. The report claimed that the rise of emerging market economies heralded a new world order, in which the G20 would become the global economic steering committee. The ADB furthermore noted that Asian countries had led the global recovery following the late-2000s recession. It predicted that the region would have a greater presence on the global stage, shaping the G20's agenda for balanced and sustainable growth through strengthening intraregional trade and stimulating domestic demand.
Typically, several participants that are not permanent members of the G20 are extended invitations to participate in the summits. Each year, the Chair of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations; the Chair of the African Union; and a representative of the New Partnership for Africa's Development are invited in their capacities as leaders of their organisations and as heads of government of their home states. Additionally, the leaders of the Financial Stability Board, the International Labour Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, the World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization are invited and participate in pre-summit planning within the policy purview of their respective organisation. Spain is a permanent non-member invitee.
Other invitees are chosen by the host country, usually one or two countries from its own region. For example, South Korea invited Singapore. International organisations which have been invited in the past include the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC), the European Central Bank (ECB), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Global Governance Group (3G) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Previously, the Netherlands had a similar status to Spain while the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union would also receive an invitation, but only in that capacity and not as their own state's leader (such as the Czech premiers Mirek Topolánek and Jan Fischer during the 2009 summits).
As of 2017, leaders from the following nations have been invited to the G20 summits: Azerbaijan, Benin, Brunei, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritania, Myanmar, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.
|African Union (AU)||Paul Kagame||Rwanda||President|
|Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)||Sebastián Piñera||Chile||President|
|Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)||Prayut Chan-o-cha||Thailand||Prime Minister|
|Lim Jock Hoi||N/A||Secretary-General|
|Financial Stability Board (FSB)||Mark Carney||N/A||Chairperson|
|International Labour Organization (ILO)||Guy Ryder||N/A||Director General|
|International Monetary Fund (IMF)||Christine Lagarde||N/A||Managing Director|
|Spain||Pedro Sánchez||Spain||Prime Minister|
|New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)||Macky Sall||Senegal||President|
|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)||José Ángel Gurría||N/A||Secretary-General|
|United Nations (UN)||António Guterres||N/A||Secretary-General|
|World Bank Group (WBG)||Kristalina Georgieva||N/A||Acting President|
|World Trade Organization (WTO)||Roberto Azevêdo||N/A||Director General|
The initial G20 agenda, as conceived by US, Canadian and German policy makers, was very much focused on the sustainability of sovereign debt and global financial stability, in an inclusive format that would bring in the largest developing economies as equal partners. During a summit in November 2008, the leaders of the group pledged to contribute trillions to international finance organizations, including the World Bank and IMF, mainly for reestablishing the global financial system.
After the adoption of the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, more "issues of global significance" were added to the G20 agenda: migration, digitisation, employment, healthcare, the economic empowerment of women and development aid.
Wolfgang Schäuble, German Federal Minister of Finance, has insisted on the interconnected nature of the issues facing G20 nations, be they purely financial or developmental, and the need to reach effective, cross-cutting policy measures: "Globalization has lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty, but there is also a growing rise in frustration in some quarters […] development, [national] security and migration are all interlinked"
Although the G20 has stated that the group's "economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system," its legitimacy has been challenged. A 2011 report for the Danish Institute for International Studies criticised the G20's exclusivity, particularly highlighting its underrepresentation of African countries and its practice of inviting observers from non-member states as a mere "concession at the margins", which does not grant the organisation representational legitimacy. With respect to the membership issue, former US President Barack Obama noted the difficulty of pleasing everyone: "Everybody wants the smallest possible group that includes them. So, if they're the 21st largest nation in the world, they want the G21, and think it's highly unfair if they have been cut out." Others stated in 2011 that the exclusivity is not an insurmountable problem, and proposed mechanisms by which it could become more inclusive.
In a 2010 interview with Der Spiegel, the Norwegian foreign minister Jonas Gahr Støre called the G20 "one of the greatest setbacks since World War II." Although Norway is a major developed economy and the seventh-largest contributor to UN international development programs, it is not a member of the EU, and thus is not represented in the G20 even indirectly. Norway, like the other 173 nations not among the G-20, has little or no voice within the group. Støre characterized the G20 as a "self-appointed group", arguing that it undermines the legitimacy of international organizations set up in the aftermath of World War II, such as the IMF, World Bank and United Nations:
The G20 is a self-appointed group. Its composition is determined by the major countries and powers. It may be more representative than the G7 or the G8, in which only the richest countries are represented, but it is still arbitrary. We no longer live in the 19th century, a time when the major powers met and redrew the map of the world. No one needs a new Congress of Vienna.
As previously stated, the Spanish government's policy is to not request official membership. Despite being hit hard by the economic crisis after 2008, Spain is still the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP (the 5th in the European Union) and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity, clearly exceeding the numbers of several current members of the G20 such as Argentina or South Africa. In addition, since the 1990s several Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America, where Spain is the second biggest foreign investor after the United States and keeps an important influence. These facts have reinforced the idea that Spain should seek permanent membership of the G20.
Contrary to the Spanish position, the Polish government has repeatedly asked to join the G20.
Before the 2009 G20 London summit, the Polish government expressed an interest in joining with Spain and the Netherlands and condemned an "organisational mess" in which a few European leaders speak in the name of all the EU without legitimate authorisation in cases which belong to the European Commission.
During a 2010 meeting with foreign diplomats, former Polish president Lech Kaczyński said:
Polish economy is according to our data an 18th world economy. The place of my country is among the members of the G20. This is a very simple postulate: firstly – it results from the size of Polish economy, secondly – it results from the fact that Poland is the biggest country in its region and the biggest country that has experienced a certain story. That story is a political and economic transformation.
In 2012 Forbes wrote that swapping Argentina for Poland should be considered, claiming that the Polish economy was headed toward a leadership role in Europe and its membership would be more legitimate. Similar opinions have been later expressed by American magazine Foreign Policy, Wall Street Journal and by Mamta Murthi from the World Bank.
In 2014 consulting company Ernst & Young published its report about optimal members for G20. After analyzing trade, institutional and investment links Poland was included as one of the optimal members.
G20 membership has been part of Poland's Law and Justice party and President Andrzej Duda political program. In March 2017, Deputy Prime Minister of Poland Mateusz Morawiecki took part in a meeting of G20 financial ministers in Baden-Baden as the first Polish representative.
Poland registered in 2017 a GDP of $524 billion while Argentina surpassed that number by 21%.
In June 2010, Singapore's representative to the United Nations warned the G20 that its decisions would affect "all countries, big and small", and asserted that prominent non-G20 members should be included in financial reform discussions. Singapore thereafter took a leading role in organizing the Global Governance Group (3G), an informal grouping of 30 non-G20 countries (including several microstates and many Third World countries) with the aim of collectively channelling their views into the G20 process more effectively. Singapore's chairing of the 3G was cited as a rationale for inviting Singapore to the November 2010 G20 summit in South Korea, as well as the 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and the recently concluded 2017 summits.
The American magazine Foreign Policy has published articles condemning the G20, in terms of its principal function as an alternative to the supposedly exclusive G8. It questions the actions of some of the G20 members, and advances the notion that some nations should not have membership in the first place. Furthermore, with the effects of the Great Recession still ongoing, the magazine has criticized the G20's efforts to implement reforms of the world's financial institutions, branding such efforts as failed.
The G20's prominent membership gives it a strong input on global policy despite lacking any formal ability to enforce rules. There are disputes over the legitimacy of the G20, and criticisms of its organisation and the efficacy of its declarations.
The G20's transparency and accountability have been questioned by critics, who call attention to the absence of a formal charter and the fact that the most important G20 meetings are closed-door. In 2001, the economist Frances Stewart proposed an Economic Security Council within the United Nations as an alternative to the G20. In such a council, members would be elected by the General Assembly based on their importance to the world economy, and the contribution they are willing to provide to world economic development.
The cost and extent of summit-related security is often a contentious issue in the hosting country, and G20 summits have attracted protesters from a variety of backgrounds, including information activists, opponents of fractional-reserve banking and anti-capitalists. In 2010, the Toronto G20 summit sparked mass protests and rioting, leading to the largest mass arrest in Canada's history.
The 2009 G20 London Summit was the second meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, which was held in London on 2 April 2009 at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre to discuss financial markets and the world economy. It followed the first G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy, which was held in Washington, D.C. on 14–15 November 2008. Heads of government or heads of state from the G20 attended, with some regional and international organisations also represented. Due to the extended membership it has been referred to as the London Summit.The policing tactics at the event raised some controversy, particularly over the death of Ian Tomlinson.
It was revealed in June 2013 that the Government Communications Headquarters, an intelligence agency of the British government, had intercepted phone calls and monitored computers used by foreign delegates at the summit. Their actions were sanctioned by the British government and intelligence was passed to British government ministers.2009 G20 London summit protests
The 2009 G20 London summit protests occurred in the days around the 2 April 2009 G20 London summit. The summit was the focus of protests from a number of groups over various long-standing and topical issues. These ranged from disquiet over economic policy, anger at the banking system and bankers' remuneration and bonuses, the continued war on terror and concerns over climate change.
Although the majority of the protests and protesters were peaceful, the threat of violence and criminal damage were used by police as a reason to detain, or "kettle", protesters as part of Operation Glencoe. A bystander, Ian Tomlinson, died shortly after being pushed to the ground by a police officer. A second post-mortem revealed that Tomlinson may have died from an abdominal haemorrhage. The inquest into Tomlinson's death found that he was unlawfully killed.2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit
The 2009 G20 Pittsburgh Summit was the third meeting of the G20 heads of state/heads of government to discuss financial markets and the world economy.
The G20 is the premier forum for discussing, planning and monitoring international economic
cooperation.The summit was held at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States on September 24–25, 2009. Announced shortly after the April 2009 G20 London summit, U.S. President Barack Obama volunteered to host this summit, initially planning to hold it in New York City and coordinating it with the opening of the United Nations General Assembly. However, due to coordination issues, on May 28, 2009, the Obama Administration announced a change of venue to Pittsburgh in order to highlight the city's economic recovery following the collapse of its manufacturing sector in the latter half of the 20th century. In response to the Global credit crisis, a G20 summit in one year was proposed shortly after the London summit in April 2009.
Amongst the issues discussed was a proposal to radically reform the International Monetary Fund (IMF). French President Nicolas Sarkozy also suggested that there would be an evaluation of measures already taken.The primary venue of the summit was the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, which was at one point the largest Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified building in the world. A working dinner for world leaders was held at the Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens, chosen to highlight its environmentally friendly features including an earth-sheltered welcome center and a Tropical Forest Conservatory described as the world’s most energy efficient. Other venues used around the city include The Andy Warhol Museum, the Pittsburgh High School for the Creative and Performing Arts and Rosemont, the working farm of Teresa Heinz Kerry.2010 G20 Seoul summit
The 2010 G20 Seoul Summit was the fifth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, to discuss the global financial system and the world economy, which took place in Seoul, South Korea, on November 11–12, 2010. Korea was the first non-G8 nation to host a G20 leaders' summit.The G20 is the premier forum for discussing, planning, and monitoring international economic cooperation.The theme of the summit was "Shared Growth Beyond Crisis".2010 G20 Toronto summit
The 2010 G20 Toronto summit was the fourth meeting of the G20 heads of state/government, to discuss the global financial system and the world economy, which took place at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, during June 26–27, 2010. The summit's priorities included evaluating the progress of financial reform, developing sustainable stimulus measures, debating global bank tax, and promoting open markets. Alongside the twenty-one representatives of the G20 major economies, leaders of six invited nations, and eight additional intergovernmental organizations also took part in the summit.
Prior to the summit, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the theme would be "recovery and new beginnings," referring to an anticipated economic stimulus from the impact of the ongoing world recession. Harper initially proposed to hold the summit in Huntsville, Ontario, where the 36th G8 summit was scheduled immediately prior. Organizers later deemed the town insufficient to provide hospitality for the large number of G20 delegates and journalists, favouring Toronto as the host location.Organizers formed an Integrated Security Unit, consisting of police officers from several regional departments, to provide security during the summit in Downtown Toronto. The event was part of the largest and most expensive security operation in Canadian history. The total combined cost between the 36th G8 summit in Huntsville and the G20 summit in Toronto including security, infrastructure, and hospitality, was determined to be approximately C$858 million.2010 G20 Toronto summit protests
Public protesting and demonstrations began one week ahead of the 2010 G20 Toronto summit, which took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on 26−27 June. The protests were for various causes, including poverty and anti-capitalism.
Protests mainly consisted of peaceful demonstrations and rallies but also took form of a riot as a group of protesters using black bloc tactics caused vandalism to several businesses in Downtown Toronto. More than 20,000 police, military, and security personnel were involved in policing the protests, which at its largest numbered 10,000 protesters. While there were no deaths, 97 officers and 39 arrestees were injured, and at least 40 shops were vandalised, constituting at least C$750,000 worth of damage.Over 1000 arrests were made, making it the largest mass arrest in Canadian history. In the aftermath of the protests, the Toronto Police Service and the Integrated Security Unit (ISU) of the G20 Toronto summit were heavily criticized for brutality during the arrests and eventually went under public scrutiny by media and human rights activists. There has been legal action in the form of a class action lawsuit towards the Toronto police on behalf of all whom were arrested despite the Toronto Police's several attempts to stop court proceedings by appealing the case. As of November 10, 2016 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that it will not hear the Toronto Police Services Board's appeal and court proceedings may go on.2014 G20 Brisbane summit
The 2014 G20 Brisbane summit was the ninth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state.
It was held in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, on 15–16 November 2014.
The hosting venue was the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre at South Brisbane. The event was the largest ever peacetime police operation in Australia.On 1 December 2013 Brisbane became the official host city for the G20. The City of Brisbane had a public holiday on 14 November 2014. Up to 4,000 delegates were expected to attend with around 2,500 media representatives. The leaders of Mauritania, Myanmar, New Zealand, Senegal, Singapore, and Spain were also invited to this summit.2016 G20 Hangzhou summit
The 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit was the eleventh meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20). It was held on 4–5 September 2016 in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang. It was the first ever G20 summit to be hosted in China and the second in an Asian country after 2010 G20 Seoul summit was hosted in South Korea.2017 G20 Hamburg summit
The 2017 G20 Hamburg summit was the twelfth meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 7–8 July 2017, at Hamburg Messe, in the city of Hamburg, Germany.2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit
The 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit, was the thirteenth meeting of Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 30 November and 1 December 2018 in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was the first G20 summit to be hosted in South America.Chevrolet van
This page talks about the 1964–1995 Chevrolet van and GMC Vandura. For the post-1995 successor, see Chevrolet Express.The Chevrolet and GMC G-series vans were made by General Motors for North America. They are in the same vehicle class as the discontinued Ford E series and Dodge Ram van.
The term Chevrolet van also refers to the entire series of vans sold by Chevrolet. The first Chevrolet van was released in 1961 on the Corvair platform, and the latest Chevrolet van in production is the Chevrolet Express.
The G20 and its counterparts replaced the original Chevrolet Corvair Greenbrier Van which was manufactured until 1965. First fielded in the mid-1960s, the model line evolved until it was replaced in 1996 by the Chevrolet Express. 1964-70 G20s came with six-lug wheels (6 lugs - 5.5" (139.6 mm) bolt circle), while the 1971–1995 generation came with the 5 lug - 5" (127 mm) bolt circle.
G20s were fitted with the ball joints from the Chevrolet/GMC ¾- and 1-ton pickups although using the ½ ton pickup's brake rotors.
A light duty version, the G10, was produced alongside the G20—the early versions used the Chevrolet passenger car wheels (5 lugs - 4.75" (120.7 mm) bolt circle) until 1975 (G10s manufactured prior to the 1976 model year had the smaller bolt pattern, common with the short wheelbase vans), yet can still handle LT tire sizes for better handling and stability. The G20 series sported an SB 262 4.3L engine, not much was changed mechanically in the vehicles since their release, other than carburetor to a throttle body injection fuel system, and less use of a vacuum system. Currently there are more after market part options available for its V8 counterparts. Not much has been done in the lines of performance options for the small V6 G20 models, but the reliability remains the same throughout all the G-series models.
The G20's low cost of upkeep, size, and options have made this van popular with all different kinds of trades, from plumbers to caterers.Financial Stability Board
The Financial Stability Board (FSB) is an international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system. It was established after the G20 London summit in April 2009 as a successor to the Financial Stability Forum (FSF). The Board includes all G20 major economies, FSF members, and the European Commission. Hosted and funded by the Bank for International Settlements, the board is based in Basel, Switzerland.G20 Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway
The Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway (Chinese: 青岛—银川高速公路), commonly referred to as the Qingyin Expressway (Chinese: 青银高速公路) is an expressway that connects the cities of Qingdao, Shandong, China, and Yinchuan, Ningxia. It is 1,600 km (990 mi) in length.G20 Schools
G20 Schools is an informal association of secondary schools initiated by David Wylde of St. Andrew's College, Grahamstown (South Africa) and Sir Anthony Seldon of Wellington College (UK) in 2006.All the schools claim to have a commitment to excellence and innovation of some sort. The G20 Schools have an annual conference which aims to bring together a group of school Heads who want to look beyond the parochial issues of their own schools and national associations and to discuss key issues facing education and their roles as educational leaders.
The association includes 50 schools from 20 countries, with membership by invitation and a vote of existing members. G20 schools are chosen on two criteria: the reputation of the school and the reputation of the school's leader.G20 developing nations
The G20 developing nations (and, occasionally, the G21, G23 or G20+) is a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003. Distinct and separate from the G20 major economies, the group emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, held in Cancún, Mexico, from 10 September to 14 September 2003. The group accounted for 60% of the world's population, 70% of its farmers and 26% of world’s agricultural exports.Ginetta Junior Championship
The Ginetta Junior Championship is a one-make racing series based in the United Kingdom. From the 2010 season teams will use the Ginetta G40, having previously used the Ginetta G20.
The cars use sealed Ford Zetec 1.8-litre engines, and feature tubular steel chassis, fully integral FIA approved roll cages and fibre-glass shells which ensure safe, controlled racing.Infiniti G-series (Q40/Q60)
The Infiniti G-series is a line of compact executive car produced by the Infiniti division of Nissan for the 1991–1996 and 1999–present model years. The first two generations of the Infiniti G (P10 and P11) were sedans based on the Nissan Primera. Beginning with its third generation (V35), the Infiniti G have been rebadged versions of the Nissan Skyline line of sedans and coupes that were exported to the United States and Canada. The current incarnation is the fourth generation (V36) which introduced the hardtop coupe convertible. The Nissan FM platform, on top of which the third and fourth generations (V35 and V36) of the Infiniti G have been built, also underpins the Nissan 370Z and has shared components with the Infiniti M, Infiniti EX, and Infiniti FX.
In May 2013, Infiniti announced a new naming convention beginning with the 2014 model year; all passenger cars are designated by the letter "Q," while sport-utility model names will begin with "QX." The Infiniti G was to have been replaced by the Infiniti Q50, but the G37 was revived as the Q40 beginning with the 2015 model year.List of G20 summits
The following list of G20 summits summarizes all G20 conferences held at various different levels: summits of heads of state or heads of government, ministerial-level meetings, Engagement Group meetings and others.Power projection
Power projection (or force projection) is a term used in military and political science to refer to the capacity of a state "to apply all or some of its elements of national power — political, economic, informational, or military — to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain forces in and from multiple dispersed locations to respond to crises, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability."This ability is a crucial element of a state's power in international relations. Any state able to direct its military forces outside the limited bounds of its territory might be said to have some level of power projection capability, but the term itself is used most frequently in reference to militaries with a worldwide reach (or at least significantly broader than a state's immediate area). Even states with sizable hard power assets (such as a large standing army) may only be able to exert limited regional influence so long as they lack the means of effectively projecting their power on a global scale. Generally, only a select few states are able to overcome the logistical difficulties inherent in the deployment and direction of a modern, mechanized military force.
While traditional measures of power projection typically focus on hard power assets (tanks, soldiers, aircraft, naval vessels, etc.), the developing theory of soft power notes that power projection does not necessarily have to involve the active use of military forces in combat. Assets for power projection can often serve dual uses, as the deployment of various countries' militaries during the humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake illustrates. The ability of a state to project its forces into an area may serve as an effective diplomatic lever, influencing the decision-making process and acting as a potential deterrent on other states' behavior.