Gérard de Nerval

Gérard de Nerval (French: [ʒeʁaʁ də nɛʁval]; 22 May 1808 – 26 January 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French writer, poet, and translator Gérard Labrunie, a major figure of French romanticism, best known for his novellas and poems, especially the collection Les Filles du feu (The Daughters of Fire), which included the novella Sylvie and the poem "El Desdichado". He played a major role in introducing French readers to the works of German Romantic authors, including Klopstock, Schiller, Bürger and Goethe. His later work merged poetry and journalism in a fictional context and influenced Marcel Proust. His last novella, Aurélia, influenced André Breton and Surrealism.

Gérard de Nerval
Félix Nadar 1820-1910 portraits Gérard de Nerval
Gérard de Nerval, by Nadar
Gérard Labrunie

22 May 1808
Paris, France
Died26 January 1855 (aged 46)
Paris, France
Occupationpoet, essayist and translator
Notable work
Voyage en Orient (1851)
Les Filles du feu (1854)
Aurélia (1855)


Early life

Gérard Labrunie was born in Paris on 22 May 1808.[1] His mother, Marie Marguerite Antoinette Laurent, was the daughter of a clothing salesman,[2] and his father, Étienne Labrunie, was a young doctor who had volunteered to serve as a medic in the army under Napoleon.[3]

In June 1808, soon after Gérard's birth, Étienne was drafted. With his young wife in tow, Étienne followed the army on tours of Germany and Austria, eventually settling in a hospital in Głogów.[4] While they traveled East, the Labrunies left their newborn son Gérard in the care of Marie Marguerite's uncle Antoine Boucher, who lived in Mortefontaine, a small town in the Valois region, not far from Paris.[3] On November 29, 1810, Marie Marguerite died before she could come back to France.[4] Gérard was two years old. Having buried his wife, Étienne took part in the disastrous French invasion of Russia.[5] He was reunited with his son in 1814.[5]

Upon his return to France in 1814, Étienne took his son and moved back to Paris, starting a medical practice at 72 rue Saint-Martin.[6] Gérard lived with his father but often stayed with his great-uncle Boucher in Mortefontaine and with Gérard Dublanc in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. (Dublanc, Étienne's uncle, was also Gérard's godfather.)[1]

In 1822 Gérard enrolled at the collège Charlemagne. This was where he met and befriended Théophile Gautier. This was also where he began to take poetry more seriously. He was especially drawn to epic poetry. At age 16, he wrote a poem that recounted the circumstances of Napoleon's defeat called "Napoléon ou la France guerrière, élégies nationales".[7] Later, he tried out satire, writing poems that took aim at Prime Minister Villèle, the Jesuit order, and anti-liberal newspapers like La Quotidienne.[8] His writing started to be published in 1826.

At age 19, with minimal knowledge of the German language, he began the ambitious task of translating Goethe's Faust.[9] His prose translation appeared in 1828. Despite its many flaws, the translation had many merits, and it did a great deal to establish his poetic reputation.[10] It is the reason why Victor Hugo, the leader of the Romantic movement in France, felt compelled to have Gérard come to his apartment on 11, rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs.[11]


In 1829, having received his baccalaureate degree two years late (perhaps because he skipped classes to go for walks and read for pleasure),[11] Gérard was under pressure from his father to find steady employment. He took a job at a notary's office, but his heart was set on literature. When Victor Hugo asked him to support his play Hernani, under attack from conservative critics suspicious of Romanticism, Gérard was more than happy to join the fight (see Bataille d'Hernani).

Gérard was sympathetic to the liberal and republican atmosphere of the time, and was briefly imprisoned in 1832 for participating in student demonstrations.[12] Gérard set himself two anthology projects: one on German poetry, and one on French poetry. Alexandre Dumas and Pierre-Sébastien Laurentie arranged a library card for him so he could carry out his research.

The first anthology included translations of Klopstock, Schiller, Bürger and Goethe, and met with less enthusiasm than his translation of Faust. The second anthology included poems by Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay, Jean-Antoine de Baïf, Guillaume Du Bartas and Jean-Baptiste Chassignet.

By the fall of 1830, the Cénacle, a group created by Sainte-Beuve to ensure Victor Hugo's success with Hernani, had assembled many famed writers, including Alfred de Vigny, Alfred de Musset, Charles Nodier, Alexandre Dumas and Honoré de Balzac. After Hernani's success, the Cénacle began to fall apart. At that time a new group appeared: the Petit-Cénacle, created by the sculptor Jean Bernard Duseigneur. Gérard attended some of the meetings, which took place in Duseigneur's studio.[13]

Gérard, following Hugo's lead, started to write plays. Le Prince des sots and Lara ou l'expiation were shown at the Théâtre de l'Odéon and met with positive reviews. He started to use the pseudonym Gérard de Nerval, inspired by the name of a property near Loisy (a village near Ver-sur-Launette, Oise) which had belonged to his family.[14][15]

Work with Dumas

In January 1834, Nerval's maternal grandfather died and he inherited around 30,000 francs. That fall, he headed to Southern France, then traveled to Florence, Rome and Naples. On his return in 1835, he moved in with a group of Romantic artists (including Camille Rogier). In May of that year, he created Le Monde Dramatique, a luxurious literary journal that made him squander his inheritance. Debt-ridden, Gérard finally sold it in 1836. Getting his start in journalism, he traveled to Belgium with Gautier from July to September.

In 1837, Piquillo was shown at the Opéra-Comique. Despite Nerval's work on the project, Dumas' was the only name on the libretto. Jenny Colon played the main role. Nerval may have fallen in love with the actress. Some specialists claim that his unrequited love for her is what inspired many of the female figures that appear in his writing, including the Virgin Mary, Isis, the queen of Saba. Other experts disagree with this biographical analysis.[16]

Despite Dumas' refusal to let him take credit for his work, Nerval continued to collaborate with Dumas on plays. In the summer of 1838, he traveled with Dumas to Germany to work on Léo Burckart, which eventually premiered at the Théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin on 16 April 1839, six days after the premiere of another play the pair worked on together called L'Alchimiste. In November 1839, Nerval traveled to Vienna, where he met the pianist Marie Pleyel at the French embassy.

First nervous breakdowns

Back in France in March 1840, Nerval took over Gautier's column at La Presse. After publishing a third edition of Faust in July, including a preface and fragments of Second Faust, he traveled to Belgium in October. On 15 December Piquillo premiered in Brussels, where Nerval crossed paths with Jenny Colon and Marie Pleyel once again.

After a first nervous breakdown on 23 February 1841 he was cared for at the Sainte-Colombe Borstal ("maison de correction"). On 1 March Jules Janin published an obituary for Nerval in the Journal des Débats. After a second nervous breakdown, Nerval was housed in Docteur Esprit Blanche's clinic in Montmartre, where he remained from March to November.


On 22 December 1842 Nerval set off for the Near East, traveling to Alexandria, Cairo, Beirut, Constantinople, Malta and Naples. Back in Paris in 1843, he began to publish articles about his trip in 1844. His Voyage en Orient appeared in 1851.

Between 1844 and 1847, Nerval traveled to Belgium, the Netherlands, to London, producing a significant amount of travel writing. At the same time, he wrote novellas and opera librettos and translated poems by his friend Heinrich Heine, publishing a selection of translations in 1848. His last years were spent in dire financial and emotional straits. Following his doctor Emile Blanche's advice, he tried to purge himself of his intense emotions in his writing. This is when he composed some of his best works.

Gustave Doré, La Rue de la Vieille Lanterne The Suicide of Gérard de Nerval, 1855
La rue de la vieille lanterne: The Suicide of Gérard de Nerval, by Gustave Doré, 1855

Nerval had a pet lobster, which he walked at the end of a blue silk ribbon in the Palais-Royal in Paris.[17] According to Théophile Gautier, Nerval said:[18]

Why should a lobster be any more ridiculous than a dog? ...or a cat, or a gazelle, or a lion, or any other animal that one chooses to take for a walk? I have a liking for lobsters. They are peaceful, serious creatures. They know the secrets of the sea, they don't bark, and they don't gnaw upon one's monadic privacy like dogs do. And Goethe had an aversion to dogs, and he wasn't mad.

In his later years, Nerval also took an interest in socialism, tracing its origins to the eighteenth century Illuminists and esoteric authors such as Nicolas-Edme Rétif.[19][20]


Increasingly poverty-stricken and disoriented, he committed suicide during the night of 26 January 1855, by hanging himself from the bar of a cellar window in the rue de la Vieille-Lanterne, a narrow lane in a squalid section of Paris.[a] He left a brief note to his aunt: "Do not wait up for me this evening, for the night will be black and white."[22]

The poet Charles Baudelaire observed that Nerval had "delivered his soul in the darkest street that he could find." The discoverers of his body were puzzled by the fact that his hat was still on his head. The last pages of his manuscript for Aurélia ou le rêve et la vie were found in a pocket of his coat. After a religious ceremony at the Notre-Dame cathedral (which was granted despite his suicide because of his troubled mental state), he was buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, at the expense of his friends Théophile Gautier and Arsène Houssaye, who published Aurélia as a book later that year.

The complete works of Gérard de Nerval are published in three volumes by Gallimard in the collection Bibliothèque de la Pléiade.[23]


Goethe read Nerval's translation of Faust and called it "very successful," even claiming that he preferred it to the original.[24]

The composer Hector Berlioz relied on Nerval's translation of Faust for his work La damnation de Faust, which premiered in 1846.[25]

In 1867, Nerval's friend Théophile Gautier (1811–1872) wrote a touching reminiscence of him in "La Vie de Gérard" which was included in his Portraits et Souvenirs Littéraires (1875).

For Marcel Proust, Nerval was one of the greatest writers of the nineteenth century. Proust especially admired Sylvie's exploration of time lost and regained, which would become one of Proust's deepest interests and the dominant theme of his magnum opus In Search of Lost Time. Later, André Breton named Nerval a precursor of Surrealist art, which drew on Nerval's forays into the significance of dreams. For his part, Antonin Artaud compared Nerval's visionary poetry to the work of Hölderlin, Nietzsche and Van Gogh.[26]

In 1945, at the end of the Second World War and after a long illness, the Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Jung delivered a lecture in Zürich on Nerval's Aurélia which he regarded as a work of "extraordinary magntitude". Jung described Nerval's memoir as a cautionary tale (the protagonist cannot profit psychologically from his own lucidity and profound insights), and he validates Nerval's visionary experience as a genuine encounter with the collective unconscious and anima mundi.[27]

Umberto Eco in his Six Walks in the Fictional Woods calls Nerval's Sylvie a "masterpiece" and analysed it to demonstrate the use of temporal ambiguity.

Henry Miller called Nerval an "extraordinary French poet" and included him among a group of exemplary translators:"[i]n English we have yet to produce a poet who is able to do for Rimbaud what Baudelaire did for Poe's verse, or Nerval for Faust, or Morel and Larbaud for Ulysses".[28]

The English rock band Traffic included the jazz-rock track "Dream Gerrard" in their 1974 album When the Eagle Flies. Lyrics are known to be mainly written by Vivian Stanshall after reading Nerval's biography.[29]

There are streets named after Nerval in the towns of Saint-Denis, Béthisy-Saint-Pierre, Crépy-en-Valois, Creil, Mortefontaine, Othis and Senlis.

Selected works by Gérard de Nerval

  • Les Faux Saulniers (The Salt Smugglers, 1850) – published over several weeks in Le National, a daily newspaper. He later incorporated some of this material in Les Filles du feu (in Angelique) and in Les Illuminés (in L'Abbé de Bucquoy).
  • Voyage en Orient (1851) – an account of the author's voyages to Germany, Switzerland and Vienna in 1839 and 1840, and to Egypt and Turkey in 1843. Includes several pieces already published, including Les Amours de Vienne, which first appeared in the Revue de Paris in 1841. One of the author's major works.
  • La Bohème Galante (1852) – a collection of short prose works and poems including some of the set he later called Odelettes. Dedicated and addressed to Arsène Houssaye.
  • Les Nuits d'Octobre (1852) – a small but distinguished collection of essays describing Paris at night.
  • Lorely, souvenirs d'Allemagne (1852) – an account of his travels along the Rhine, also in Holland and Belgium. It includes the full-length play Léo Burckart, under the title "Scènes de la Vie Allemande".
  • Les Illuminés (1852) – a collection of six biographical narratives in the form of novellas or essays.
  • Sylvie (1853) – described by Nerval as "un petit roman" ("a small novel"), it is the most celebrated of his works.
  • Petits Châteaux de Bohême (1853) – a collection of prose works and poetry, including the short play Corilla, which was subsequently included in Les Filles du feu, and the Odelettes, and several of the sonnets later published as Les Chimères.
  • Les Filles du feu (1854) – a volume of short stories or idylls, including the previously published Sylvie, along with a sequence of twelve sonnets, Les Chimères
  • Pandora (1854) – another Fille du Feu, not finished in time for inclusion in that volume, written in the style of Sylvie and set in Vienna. Also known as La Pandora, often subtitled Suite des Amours de Vienne.
  • Aurélia ou le rêve et la vie (1855, posthumously) – a fantasy-ridden interior autobiography.
  • Promenades et Souvenirs (1854–1855) – a collection of eight essays after the manner of Les Nuits d'Octobre, describing the Saint-Germain neighborhood of the author's childhood and youth. The last, "Chantilly", includes a portrait similar to those in Les Filles du feu.


  1. ^ The street existed only a few months longer. The area had been scheduled for demolition in June 1854, and that work began in the spring of 1855. The site of Nerval's suicide is now occupied by the Théâtre de la Ville.[21]


  1. ^ a b Gérard Cogez, Gérard de Nerval 11.
  2. ^ Pierre Petitfils, Nerval p. 15.
  3. ^ a b Cogez 13.
  4. ^ a b Cogez 14.
  5. ^ a b Cogez 15.
  6. ^ Cogez 16
  7. ^ Cogez 20.
  8. ^ Cogez 21–22.
  9. ^ Cogez 24
  10. ^ Richer, Jean (1970). Nerval par les témoins de sa vie. éditions Minard. p. 73. ISBN 0-320-05499-3.
  11. ^ a b Cogez 27.
  12. ^ Taylor, Karen L. (2006). The Facts on File Companion to the French Novel. Infobase Publishing. pp. 285–286.
  13. ^ Pierre Petitfils, Nerval, p. 63.
  14. ^ litterature-pour-tous.com.
  15. ^ "Gérard de NERVAL" (in French). 28 August 2003. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  16. ^ For example, see Christine Bomboir, Les Lettres d'amour de Nerval : mythe ou réalité ?, p. 93–94.
  17. ^ Horton, Scott (12 October 2008). "Nerval: A Man and His Lobster". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
  18. ^ Gautier, Théophile (1875). Portraits et Souvenirs Littéraires. Paris: Charpentier.
  19. ^ Ni Cheallaigh, Gillian (2014). Quand la folie parle: The Dialectic Effect of Madness in French Literature since the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 17–19.
  20. ^ Wyngaard, Amy S. (2013). Bad Books: Rétif de la Bretonne, Sexuality, and Pornography. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 3.
  21. ^ Carmona, Michel (2002). Haussmann: His Life and Times and the Making of Modern Paris. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. pp. 249–51. ISBN 1-56663-427-X.
  22. ^ Sieburth, Richard (1999). Gérard de Nerval: Selected Writings. London: Penguin Group. p. xxxi.
  23. ^ "Le Catalogue: Gerard de Nerval". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  24. ^ Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann, Trans. John Oxenford, 1906. Jan 3, 1830 entry Archived 25 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Kelly, Thomas Forrest (2000). First Nights: Five Musical Premieres. Yale University Press. p. 190. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  26. ^ Richard Sieburth, introduction to Selected Writings, by Gérard de Nerval, trans. Richard Sieburth (New York: Penguin, 2006), Apple Books edition.
  27. ^ Jung (1945/2015)
  28. ^ Miller, Henry, The Time of the Assassins, A Study of Rimbaud, New York 1962, p. vi and vii.
  29. ^ Jonathan Calder, "Traffic: Dream Gerrard", 22 September 2013


Works in French

  • Œuvres complètes. 3 vols. Eds. Jean Guillaume & Claude Pichois. Paris: La Pléiade-Gallimard, 1984. Print.
  • Les filles du feu/Les Chimères. Ed. Bertrand Marchal. Paris: Folio-Gallimard, 2005. Print. ISBN 978-2070314799
  • Aurélia – La Pandora – Les Nuits d'Octobre – Promenades et souvenirs. Ed. Jean-Nicolas Illouz. Paris: Folio-Gallimard, 2005. Print. ISBN 978-2070314768

Works in English

  • Aurélia & Other Writings. Trans. Geoffrey Wagner, Robert Duncan, Marc Lowenthal. New York: Exact Change, 2004. ISBN 978-1878972095
  • Journey to the Orient. Trans. Conrad Elphinstone. New York: Antipodes Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0988202603
  • Selected Writings. Trans. Richard Sieburth. New York: Penguin, 1999. Print. ISBN 978-0140446012


  • Album Nerval. Eds. Éric Buffetaud and Claude Pichois. Paris: La Pléiade-Gallimard, 1993. ISBN 2070112829.
  • Cogez, Gérard. Gérard de Nerval. Paris : Folio-Gallimard, 2010. Print. ISBN 978-2070338795
  • Gautier, Théophile. Histoire du romantisme/Quarante portraits romantiques. Ed. Adrien Goetz. Paris: Folio-Gallimard, 2011. Print. ISBN 978-2070412730
  • Gautier, Théophile. (1900). "Gérard de Nerval." In: The Complete Works of Théophile Gautier, Vol. VIII. London: The Athenæum Press, pp. 96–116.
  • Jones, Robert Emmet (1974). Gerard de Nerval. New York: Twayne Publishers.
  • Petitfils, Pierre, Nerval, Paris, Julliard, 1986, coll. Les Vivants ISBN 2-260-00484-9
  • Sowerby, Benn. The disinherited; the life of Gérard de Nerval, 1808–1855. New York: New York University Press, 1974. Print.

Criticism (books)

  • Ahearn, Edward J. "Visionary Insanity: Nerval's Aurélia." Visionary Fictions: Apocalyptic Writing from Blake to the Modern Age. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. Print.
  • Jeanneret, Michel. La lettre perdue: Ecriture et folie dans l'œuvre de Nerval. Paris: Flammarion, 1978. Print.
  • Gordon, Rae Beth (2014). "The Enchanted Hand: Schlegel's Arabesque in Nerval." In: Ornament, Fantasy, and Desire in Nineteenth-Century French Literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Jung, Carl Gustav (1945/2015). On Psychological and Visionary Art: Notes from C. G. Jung's Lecture on Gérard de Nerval's "Aurélia". Ed. Craig E Stephenson, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Rhodes, Solomon A. (1951). Gérard de Nerval, 1808–1855: Poet, Traveler, Dreamer. New York: Philosophical Library.
  • Symons, Arthur (1919). "Gérard de Nerval." In: The Symbolist Movement in Literature. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, pp. 69–95.
  • Lang, Andrew (1892). "Gérard de Nerval." In: Letters on Literature. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co., pp. 147–156.

Criticism (journal articles)

  • Blackman, Maurice (1986–87). "Byron and the First Poem of Gérard de Nerval," Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Vol. XV, No. 1/2, pp. 94–107.
  • Bray, Patrick M. (2006). "Lost in the Fold: Space and Subjectivity in Gérard de Nerval's 'Généalogie' and Sylvie," French Forum, Vol. XXXI, No. 2, pp. 35–51.
  • Carroll, Robert C. (1976). "Illusion and Identity: Gérard de Nerval and Rétif's 'Sara'," Studies in Romanticism, Vol. XV, No. 1, pp. 59–80.
  • Carroll, Robert C. (1976). "Gérard de Nerval: Prodigal Son of History," Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Vol. IV, No. 3, pp. 263–273.
  • DuBruck, Alfred (1974–1975). "Nerval and Dumas in Germany," Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Vol. III, No. 1/2, pp. 58–64.
  • Duckworth, Colin (1965). "Eugène Scribe and Gérard de Nerval 'Celui Qui Tient la Corde Nous Étrangle'," The Modern Language Review, Vol. LX, No. 1, pp. 32–40.
  • Knapp, Bettina L. (1974–75). "Gérard de Nerval's 'Isis' and the Cult of the Madonna," Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Vol. III, No. 1/2, pp. 65–79.
  • Knapp, Bettina L. (1976). "Gérard de Nerval: The Queen of Sheba and the Occult," Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Vol. IV, No. 3, pp. 244–257.
  • Lang, Andrew (1873). "Gérard de Nerval, 1810–1855," Fraser's Magazine, Vol. VII, pp. 559–566.
  • Mauris, Maurice (1880). "Gérard de Nerval." In: French Men of Letters. New York: D. Appleton and Company, pp. 129–150.
  • Moon, H. Kay (1965). "Gerard de Nerval: A Reappraisal," Brigham Young University Studies, Vol. VII, No. 1, pp. 40–52.
  • Rhodes, Solomon A. (1938). "Poetical Affiliations of Gerard de Nerval," PMLA, Vol. LIII, No. 4, pp. 1157–1171.
  • Rhodes, Solomon A. (1949). "The Friendship between Gérard de Nerval and Heinrich Heine," The French Review, Vol. XXIII, No. 1, pp. 18–27.
  • Rinsler, Norma (1963). "Gérard de Nerval, Fire and Ice," The Modern Language Review, Vol. LVIII, No. 4, pp. 495–499.
  • Rinsler, Norma (1963). "Gérard de Nerval's Celestial City and the Chain of Souls," Studies in Romanticism, Vol. II, No. 2, pp. 87–106.
  • Smith, Garnet (1889). "Gérard de Nerval," The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. CCLXVI, pp. 285–296.
  • Warren, Rosanna (1983). "The 'Last Madness' of Gérard de Nerval," The Georgia Review, Vol. XXXVII, No. 1, pp. 131–138.

External links

Auguste de Châtillon

Auguste de Châtillon (29 January 1808 - 26 March 1881) was a French painter, sculptor and poet. He was born and died in Paris. He, Théophile Gautier, Gérard de Nerval and Arsène Houssaye formed the "bohème du Doyenné".


The Bouzingo were a group of eccentric poets, novelists, and artists in France during the 1830s that practiced an extreme form of romanticism whose influence helped determine the course of culture in the 20th century including such movements as Bohemianism, Parnassianism, Symbolism, Decadence, Aestheticism, Dadaism, Surrealism, the Lost Generation the Beat Generation, Hippies, Punk rock, etc.


A cliché or cliche ( or ) is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel.In phraseology, the term has taken on a more technical meaning, referring to an expression imposed by conventionalized linguistic usage. The term is frequently used in modern culture for an action or idea that is expected or predictable, based on a prior event. Typically pejorative, "clichés" may or may not be true. Some are stereotypes, but some are simply truisms and facts. Clichés often are employed for comic effect, typically in fiction.

Most phrases now considered clichéd originally were regarded as striking, but have lost their force through overuse. The French poet Gérard de Nerval once said, "The first man who compared woman to a rose was a poet, the second, an imbecile."A cliché is often a vivid depiction of an abstraction that relies upon analogy or exaggeration for effect, often drawn from everyday experience. Used sparingly, it may succeed, but the use of a cliché in writing, speech, or argument is generally considered a mark of inexperience or a lack of originality.

Club des Hashischins

The Club des Hashischins (sometimes also spelled Club des Hashishins or Club des Hachichins, "Club of the Hashish-Eaters") was a Parisian group dedicated to the exploration of drug-induced experiences, notably with hashish. Members included Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, Charles Baudelaire, Gérard de Nerval, and Honoré de Balzac.


Cénacle is the name given to a Parisian literary group of varying constituency that began about 1826 to gather around Charles Nodier. The group sought to revive in French literature the old monarchical spirit, the spirit of medieval mystery and spiritual submission. The chief members were Vigny and the brothers Deschamps. They were soon joined by Lamartine, Hugo, and Sainte-Beuve, who describes the group as "royalists by birth, Christians by convention and a vague sentimentality." Their organ was La Muse Française. Musset, Mérimée, and the elder Dumas were involved within the Cénacle, too. Time and the revolution of 1830 wrought changes in the attitudes of the members of Cénacle. Théophile Gautier and Gérard de Nerval were attracted to the group at the time of the revolution, but the reasons for the existence of the Cénacle dissolved. The group lost its reason for existence with the triumph of Hugo's Hernani (1830).

Jean Bernard Duseigneur

Jean Bernard Duseigneur (1808 - 6 March 1866), also known as Jehan Duseigneur, was a French romantic sculptor.

Duseigneur was born in Paris, studied at the École des Beaux-Arts, and in 1831 achieved renown when he exhibited Roland Furieux, now in Louvre and often regarded as the first romantic sculpture. He turned quickly almost exclusively to the production of religious works, along with medallions and busts of Jacques de Rougé, Marquis du Plessis-Bellière (now in the Palace of Versailles), and poet Gérard de Nerval.

Joseph Méry

Joseph Méry (21 January 1797 – 17 June 1866) was a French writer, journalist, novelist, poet, playwright and librettist.

La Pandora

La Pandora is a short novella by the French poet and writer Gerard de Nerval. In the style of Sylvie, it recounts Nerval's stay in Vienna in 1839-1840 and his infatuation with a theatre actress there. It was a follow-up to the text of Les Amours de Vienne, previously published in Revue de Paris in 1841 and incorporated in Nerval's book Voyage en Orient in 1852. Pandora was originally titled Suite des Amours de Vienne - La Pandora.

Begun in 1853, Nerval intended Pandora for inclusion in Les Filles du Feu, but it was not finished in time for the volume. The first part was published by Alexandre Dumas in the journal Le Mousquetaire in October 1854, but its publication was interrupted by Nerval’s suicide. Several attempts were made in the 20th century to produce a finished draft, the first published by Aristide Marie in 1921.

Le duc de Guise

Le duc de Guise (full title Le duc de Guise, ou Les ėtats de Blois (The Duke of Guise, or The Council of Blois)) is an opéra comique in three acts by George Onslow, to a libretto by François-Antoine-Eugène de Planard and Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges, based on a play from 1809 of the same name by François Just Marie Raynouard. The opera received its premiere on 8 September 1837 at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.The opera, which centres on the assassination of the Duc de Guise in 1588, was the third and last of Onslow's operas to be produced. The text and music were well received by the audience, but Gérard de Nerval complained in a review that they had not offered Jenny Colon the opportunity to display her talents.Onslow made an arrangement of extracts of the opera for string quartet (his Op. 60).

Les Filles du feu

Les Filles du feu (The Daughters of Fire) is a collection of short prose works, poetry and a play published by the French poet Gérard de Nerval in January 1854, a year before his death. During 1853, Nerval had suffered three nervous breakdowns and spent five months in an asylum. He saw Les Filles du feu as an opportunity to show the public, his friends and his father that he was sane, though except for the introduction all of the pieces in Les Filles du feu had been published previously: "Angélique" in Les Faux Saulniers (1850), "Sylvie" in La Revue des Deux Mondes (1853), and "Émilie", "Jemmy", "Isis" and "Octavie" in diverse reviews.

The precise meaning of the title, which Nerval chose just before publication, is uncertain. Scholars have identified its source as the ceremonies of Irish vestal virgins described in Michelet's Histoire de France (1833) or a poem in a novel by Alexandre Dumas, La Tulipe noire (1850).

Les Illuminés

Les Illuminés is a collection of narratives or essays by the French poet and author Gerard de Nerval. Subtitled Recits et Portraits, it was published in 1852.

The book consists of six narratives relating the adventures and mishaps of historical figures whose lives reflected different aspects of Nerval’s own experiences. It is a male counterpart to his Les Filles du feu. The concerns of socialism in the eighteenth century and the French Revolution underline most of the narratives. The book is also subtitled: Les precurseurs du socialisme.

Lorely, souvenirs d'Allemagne

Lorely is a collection of travel essays and a drama by Gérard de Nerval. The essays describe de Nerval's journeys along the Rhine and in the Netherlands and Belgium. It takes its title from the Lorelei, a rock on the eastern bank of the river Rhine.

The centerpiece of the book is the play Leo Buckhart, which de Nerval wrote in collaboration with Alexandre Dumas.

The book is dedicated to Jules Janin and its introduction is addressed to him.

It was first published by Giraud and Dagneau, Maison du Coq d'or, in 1852.

Monde dramatique

Le Monde Dramatique was a periodical published in Paris, France, from May 1835 to September 1841. It was founded by Gérard de Nerval and Anatole Bouchardy. The short-lived magazine was "overly ambitious and poorly managed", consisting mostly of unsigned articles reviewing or commenting upon the theater. It also included some early writings of Anatole's brother Joseph Bouchardy, who would later go on to a successful career as a playwright.

Richard Sieburth

Richard Sieburth (born 11 February 1949) is a translator, essayist, editor, and literary scholar. A graduate of the University of Chicago (B.A., New Collegiate Division, 1970) and of Harvard University (Ph.D., Comparative Literature, 1976), he retired from university life in early 2019, after 45 years of teaching (35 at NYU and 10 at Harvard). Over the course of his career, he directed many doctoral dissertations that resulted in successful books and academic careers, and advised dozens of other students who went on to careers in translation, publishing, and other corridors of the Arts.

Sieburth is considered an authority on French renaissance poetry, on European romanticism and on literary modernism in general, particularly the life and work of Ezra Pound. In addition to his numerous editions of the works of Pound for New Directions and the Library of America, Sieburth has published translations of Nostradamus, Maurice Scève, Louise Labé, Friedrich Hölderlin, Georg Büchner, Walter Benjamin, Gershom Scholem, Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Henri Michaux, Antonin Artaud, Michel Leiris, Eugène Guillevic, and Jacques Darras. He has also published translations into French of American poets like Michael Palmer. As a historian and theorist of translation, Sieburth played a crucial role in introducing and disseminating the work of Antoine Berman into English.

A regular contributor to the Times Literary Supplement, his essays, articles and translations have also appeared in Studies in Romanticism, Romantisme, L’Esprit Créateur, Parnassus, Poetry, Poesie, the New York Review of Books, the New York Times Book Review, Critical Inquiry, October, Raritan, Yale Review, Sulphur, Conjunctions, the Paris Review, Bookforum and Harper’s. He was made a Chevalier dans l’ordre des palmes académiques in 1985, elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007, and received an Annual Award in Letters from the American Academy of Arts in Letters in 2017, while his forthcoming Late Baudelaire (Yale UP, 2020) has been supported by a Guggenheim Fellowship for Translation. Among many honors, he received the PEN/Book-of the Month Translation Prize in 2000 for his Selected Writings of Gérard de Nerval and his translation of Maurice Scève’s Emblems of Desire was shortlisted for the Weidenfeld Prize and the PEN Poetry Translation Prize in 2003. He was twice shortlisted for the French-American Foundation Translation Prize, in 2007 for Stroke by Stroke (by Henri Michaux) and then in 2010 for The Salt Smugglers (Gérard de Nerval), while his translations of Eugène Guillevic's Geometries was shortlisted for the Three Percent Poetry Translation Prize in 2012. Most recently, his A Certain Plume (Michaux) received the 2019 PEN Prize for Poetry in Translation.


Sylvie is a name and may refer to:

The French form, as well as an affectionate shortened form, of the given name Sylvia

Sylvie (novel), by Gérard de Nerval

Sylvie (band), a Canadian indie rock band

Sylvie (actress), a French actress born 1883

Sylvie (album)

Sylvie (novel)

Sylvie (1853) is a novella by French Romanticist Gérard de Nerval. It was first published in the periodical La Revue des Deux Mondes in 1853, and as a book in Les Filles du feu in 1854, just a few months before Nerval killed himself in January 1855. Sylvie is often considered to be Nerval's prose masterpiece, and has been a favorite of Marcel Proust, André Breton, Joseph Cornell and Umberto Eco. Harold Bloom included it in The Western Canon (1994).An idyll written in the form of a reminiscence, the story is about a hero's love for three women, all of whom he loses - a hymn to unattainable, unrequited love. The story begins when a paragraph in a newspaper plunges the narrator into his memories as a younger man. The perspective seems to shift back and forth between the past and present, so the reader is never entirely sure if the narrator is recounting past events from memory, or retelling current events as they happen. Critics have praised the writing for its lucid and lyrical style. The narrator, of noble status and who has recently come into an inheritance, decides to leave Paris, where he is living a debauched life of theater and drink, and return to the love of his youth, a peasant girl named Sylvie who has classic features and brunette hair, a "timeless ideal". She sews gloves for a living and ends up marrying another man more equal to her class. The narrator also loves a seductive actress in Paris named Aurélia, who has many suitors who tell her empty idylls of love, but none love her for who she really is - including the narrator, who sees her as a lovely illusion that fades in the daylight of reality. The narrator also loves Adrienne, of noble birth, tall with blonde hair; she is an "ideal beauty", but she lives in a convent, and dies an early death. In the end, he loves all three but obtains none, seemingly for reasons both beyond and within his making.

Sylvie has many features of Romanticism, including flowing descriptions of a beautiful but lost natural world, appreciation for the architecture and traditions of the Middle Ages, and Greek traditions. The use of color appears to be unique, with binary oppositions serving as a simplifying mechanism to make distant memories emerge more strikingly from the mist.The novel contains autobiographical elements. As in the story, Nerval often traveled to Germany and to the east. Nerval had an unhappy love for a real actress, Jenny Colon. He had a female childhood friend named Adrienne, whom he unhappily lost earlier in life. These unattainable and lost female figures are represented in the story, as well in his other works. In real life, Nerval lost his mother at an early age.Guillaume Apollinaire relates (in La Vie Anecdotique) that while writing Sylvie, Nerval spent a week in Chantilly solely to study a sunset that he needed for it.

Julien Gracq wrote of Sylvie in 1966: "I know of no more enchanted narrative in our language" ("Je ne connais aucun récit plus enchanté dans notre langue").

The Dark Third

The Dark Third is the first full-length album by Pure Reason Revolution. It was produced by Paul Northfield (Rush, Porcupine Tree, Gentle Giant, Hole) and recorded at Fairhazel Studios and later RAK studios. An earlier single "Apprentice of the Universe" peaked at #74. The title refers to the "Dark Third", the third of a person's life spent asleep and dreaming, with the song on disc 2 "In Aurelia" being based lyrically and thematically around the book Aurelia by Gérard de Nerval.

Voyage to the Orient

Voyage to the Orient (French: Voyage en Orient) is one of the works of French writer and poet Gérard de Nerval, published during 1851, resulting from his voyage of 1842 to Cairo and Beirut. In addition to a travel account it retells Oriental tales, like Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, in terms of the artist and the act of creation.

The chapters first appeared in the periodical Revue des Deux Mondes in 1846 and 1847, where the series was called Scènes de la Vie Orientale. Later, when the chapters appeared together in book form in 1851, it was retitled Voyage en Orient, and an account of de Nerval's travels through Europe before leaving for the Orient was added. For a later edition, de Nerval added a series of appendices, the majority of the material taken directly from Lane's Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. In 1930 the book was translated as The Women Of Cairo by Conrad Elphinstone in two volumes, it included only the material originally published in 1846–47. More recent translations are incomplete.

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