Fyodor Ushakov

Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (Russian: Фёдор Фёдорович Ушако́в, IPA: [ʊʂɐˈkof]; 24 February [O.S. 13 February] 1745 – 14 October [O.S. 2 October] 1817) was the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century.

Fyodor Ushakov
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Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov
Born24 February 1745
Burnakovo, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russian Empire
Died14 October 1817 (aged 72)
Alekseevka, Tambov Governorate, Russian Empire
Allegiance Russia
Service/branch Imperial Russian Navy
Years of service1766–1812
RankAdmiral
Commands heldBlack Sea Fleet
Battles/warsRusso-Turkish War (1768–74)
Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)

War of the Second Coalition

Awards
Monument, Admiral Fyodor Ushakov, Kaliakra, Kavarna, Bulgaria
Monument to Admiral Fyodor Ushakov for the battle of Cape Kaliakra, Kaliakra, Kavarna

Life and naval career

Ushakov was born in the village of Burnakovo in the Yaroslavl gubernia, to a modest family of the minor nobility. His father, Fyodor Ignatyevich Ushakov, was a retired sergeant of the Preobrazhensky regiment of the Russian Imperial guards[1]. By the time Fyodor Ushakov submitted his statement of background (skaska) to the military, his family had not been officially confirmed in the so-called 'dvoryanstvo', yet they surely belonged to serving gentry[1]. In the submission Ushakov stated that he neither had a coat-of-arms, nor a royal patent for a landed estate, and had no way to prove nobility[1]. In 1798, Fyodor Ushakov, as a vice-admiral of the Black Sea Navy, submitted a request for official nobility and an arms providing a genealogical record[1]. In 1807 his coat-of-arms was added to the General all-Russian book heraldry[1]. In 1815 Fyodor Ushakov and his family were added to the part 6 (ancient nobility) of the Yaroslavl genealogical book[1].

On 15 February 1761, he signed up for the Russian Navy in Saint Petersburg. After training, he served on a galley in the Baltic Fleet. In 1768 he was transferred to the Don Flotilla (Azov Sea Navy) in Taganrog, and served in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74). He commanded Catherine II's own yacht, and later defended Russian merchant ships in the Mediterranean from British naval attacks.

After the Russian Empire annexed Crimea in 1783, Ushakov personally supervised the construction of a naval base in Sevastopol and the building of docks in Kherson. During the Russo-Turkish War (1787–92), he brilliantly defeated the Turks at Fidonisi (1788), Kerch Strait (1790), Tendra (1790), and Cape Kaliakra (1791). In these battles, he demonstrated the excellence of his innovative doctrines in the art of naval fighting.

In 1798 Ushakov was promoted to full admiral and given command of a squadron which sailed to the Mediterranean via Constantinople, where it joined with a Turkish squadron. The Russian-Turkish fleet then operated under Ushakov's command in the War of the Second Coalition against France. The expedition started by conquering the Ionian islands, acquired by France the year before from the defunct Republic of Venice in the Treaty of Campo Formio. This action culminated in the Siege of Corfu (1798–1799), and led to the subsequent creation of the Septinsular Republic. Ushakov's squadron then blockaded French bases in Italy, notably Genoa and Ancona, and successfully assaulted Naples and Rome.

Tsar Paul, in his capacity as the Grand Master of the Order of St. John, ordered Ushakov to proceed to Malta, which a British fleet under Nelson had besieged to no effect.

Ushakov was senior in rank to Nelson, and Nelson would be subordinate to him. Nelson disliked that very much, and therefore suggested dispatching the Russian squadron to Egypt instead.

Mogila Ushakov F F
Grave of Ushakov in Sanaksar Abbey

Brewing conflict between the commanders was prevented by Ushakov's being recalled to Russia in 1800, where the new Emperor, Alexander I, failed to appreciate his victories. Ushakov resigned command in 1807 and withdrew into the Sanaksar Abbey in modern-day Mordovia. He was asked to command the local militia during the Patriotic War of 1812 but declined.

In the course of 43 naval battles under his command he did not lose a single ship and never lost a battle.

Tactics

Distinguishing features of Ushakov's tactics were: use of unified marching and fighting orders; resolute closing to close quarters with the enemy forces without evolution of a fighting order; concentration of effort against enemy flagships; maintaining a reserve (Kaiser-flag squadrons); combination of aimed artillery fire and maneuvering; and chasing the enemy to its total destruction or capture. Giving great value to sea and fire training of his staff, Ushakov was a supporter of generalissimo Suvorov's principles of training for sailors and officers. Ushakov's innovations were among the first successful developments of naval tactics, from its "line" to maneuvering concepts.

Legacy

Соборная площадь г. Саранска
The statue of Ushakov in Saransk.

Several warships have been named after Admiral Ushakov.

On 3 March 1944 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR established the Order of Ushakov for Navy officers who showed outstanding achievement leading to victory over a numerically superior enemy. This medal was one of several which was preserved in Russia upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, thus remaining one of the highest military awards in the Russian Federation. The Ushakov Medal was established simultaneously for servicemen who had risked their life in naval theatres defending the Soviet Union. In May 2014, the medal was presented to 19 surviving British sailors who had served on the Arctic convoys during World War II in a ceremony aboard HMS Belfast.[2]

The Baltic Naval Institute in Kaliningrad also carries his name. The minor planet 3010 Ushakov, discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Ivanovna Chernykh in 1978, is named after him.[3]

In 1953 two Soviet films were released portraying his career Attack from the Sea and Admiral Ushakov. In both films he was played by Ivan Pereverzev.

Canonization

The Russian Orthodox Church glorified him as a patron saint of the Russian Navy in 2000. His relics are preserved in Sanaksar Monastery. He was also declared the patron saint of Russian nuclear-armed strategic bombers in 2005 by Patriarch Alexius II in the Cathedral of St. Theodore Ushakov.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Овчинников В.Д. Адмирал Ф.Ф. Ушаков: архивные документы против легенд//Вестник архивиста. №2, 2012.
  2. ^ John Naughton (22 May 2014). "Arctic Convoy veterans honoured by Russia on HMS Belfast". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  3. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - p.247

External links

Andrey Kovalchuk

Andrey Nikolayevich Kovalchuk (Russian: Андрей Николаевич Ковальчук; b. 7 September 1959 in Moscow, Soviet Union) is a Russian sculptor. He holds the title of People’s Artist of the Russian Federation (awarded in 2003) and is the winner of the Moscow City Hall Prize for Literature and the Arts (1999) and the Russian Federation Government Prize for Culture (2005).

Kovalchuks works embody his deep interest in Russian history. Among his many sculptural compositions are monuments to Peter the Great in Astrakhan, Admiral Fyodor Ushakov (1745–1817) in Moscow, and the outstanding poet and diplomat Fyodor Tyutchev (1803–1873) in Bryansk and Munich.

Kovalchuk commemorated the feats of soldiers in the German-Soviet War in a multi-figure composition, "Soldier-Road Workers" in Moscow Region. His memorial "To the Victims of Chernobyl" is charged with emotion.

One of the sculptors most recent works, a monument to the pilots of the Normandy-Neman Squadron, was unveiled in October 2007 by the Presidents of Russia and France.

Kovalchuk's compositions are distinguished by their strong sense of proportion, vividness of image and the accuracy with which they capture the subject's psychological characteristics. Vivid examples include the image of Ivan the Terrible torn by inner drama, Nikolai Gogol filled with the subtle tension and anxiety, Alexander Pushkin lifted by the wings of inspiration, noble Ivan Bunin steeped in human dignity, plastic interpretations of etchings by the Spanish artist Goya and a whole host of other works.

Attack from the Sea

Attack from the Sea (Russian: Корабли штурмуют бастионы, translit. Korabli shturmuyut bastiony) is a 1953 Soviet historical war film directed by Mikhail Romm and starring Ivan Pereverzev, Gennadi Yudin and Vladimir Druzhnikov.The film is about the career of the Russian naval officer Fyodor Ushakov. It was made by the Moscow-based Ministry of Cinematography by the production unit Mosfilm, in Agfa-color, renamed Sovcolor by Moscow. It is the sequel to Admiral Ushakov, released the same year.

Battle of Cape Kaliakra

The Battle of Cape Kaliakra was the last naval battle of the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792). It took place on 11 August 1791 off the coast of Cape Kaliakra, Bulgaria, in the Black Sea. Neither side lost a ship, but the Ottomans retreated to Istanbul afterward.

The Russian fleet under Admiral Fyodor Ushakov, of 15 battleships and two frigates (990 guns), and several small craft sailed from Sevastopol on 8 August, and at midday on 11 August encountered the Ottoman–Algerian fleet under Hussein Pasha of 18 battleships and 17 frigates (1,500–1,600 guns) and some smaller craft at anchor just south of Cape Kaliakra. Ushakov sailed, in three columns, from the northeast, between the Ottomans and the cape, despite the presence on the cape of several guns.

Admiral Said Ali, the commander of the Algerian ships, weighed anchor and sailed east, followed by Hussein Pasha with the 18 battleships. The Russians then turned around south to a parallel east-south-east course and formed up mostly into one line, with Ushakov in third position and one ship out of line on the off-battle side. Said Ali, leading the line, turned north to try to double the Russian van, but Ushakov sailed out of the line and attacked him, as the rest of the Russian fleet approached. This was at 16:45 (4:45 p.m.). Gradually the Turks turned to the south and when darkness put an end to fighting at 20:30 (8:30 p.m.) they were in full retreat to Istanbul. Russian casualties were 17 killed and 28 wounded, and the frigate Alexander Nevsky was damaged. Ottoman casualty figures are unknown, but their ships were heavily damaged aloft.

Battle of Fidonisi

The naval Battle of Fidonisi took place on 14 July 1788 (OS) between the fleets of the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) in the area of Snake Island, which in Greek was called Fidonisi (Φιδονήσι). It was a Russian victory.

Battle of Kerch Strait (1790)

The naval Battle of Kerch Strait (also known as Battle of Yenikale, by the old Turkish name of the strait near Kerch) took place on 19 July 1790 near Kerch, Crimea, and was a slight victory for Imperial Russia over the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War, 1787-1792.

The Russian fleet, under Ushakov, sailed from Sevastopol on 13 July 1790 for the southern Crimea, after hearing a report that the Ottoman fleet had been sighted there. On 19 July it anchored at the mouth of the Kerch Strait and sent privateers out in search of the Ottomans. At 10 am they reported a sighting and 30 minutes later the Ottoman fleet came into view from the east. With the wind from the ENE, Ushakov formed a line on the port tack (i.e. south-east). The Ottomans turned from their group formation and formed a parallel line to the east of the Russian line. Seeing that the Ottoman battle-line contained just their battleships, Ushakov sent 6 frigates to form a second line to leeward of the main line, and between about 12pm and 3pm, 3 hours of indecisive longish-range fighting followed, but then the wind changed direction to NNE and the Russians luffed, turning toward the Ottoman line. The Ottomans reversed course, 2 of their ships colliding as they did so, because some ships turned left and others turned right. As the Russians steered toward the tail-end of the Ottomans line, and with the wind from the north, the Ottoman admiral steered away, to the SW. At about 7pm firing ceased. The Russians followed all night, but by morning, the faster ships of the Ottomans were out of sight. Russian casualties were 29 killed and 68 wounded, with very little damage to ships. The Russian victory prevented the Ottoman Empire from achieving its goal in landing an army in Crimea.

Battle of Tendra

The Battle of Tendra was a naval action fought on 8 and 9 September 1790 in the Black Sea as part of the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792). It ended in a victory for the Russians over the Ottomans.The Russian fleet of 10 battleships, 6 frigates and small craft sailed from Sevastopol on 5 September under Fyodor Ushakov for Kherson to pick up some frigates. At 6 a.m. on 8 September it encountered the Ottoman fleet of 14 battleships, 8 frigates and 23 small crafts at anchor near Tendra. As the Ottomans formed into a battle line, the Russian fleet sailed toward the tail end of the Ottoman line in 3 parallel lines, forming into one line as they did so.

The Ottoman admiral, Hussein Pasha, seeing his tail threatened, turned north and came back parallel to the Russians, who followed suit so the two fleets ended up on paralleled tracks, heading north-east. This was completed by about 2 p.m.. Ushakov ordered 3 frigates to the off-battle side of the van to guard against an Ottoman doubling of the Russian line (Ottoman ships of the period were usually coppered and therefore several knots faster than Russian ships), leaving 13 ships of 710 guns in his line, opposed to 14 with 900 guns. Ushakov then turned toward the Ottoman ships and firing began at about 3 p.m..

The Ottomans began to bear away and by 6 p.m. were in full retreat. The Russians followed closely, inflicting much damage - in particular, the Ottoman Vice Admiral's ship was attacked by Ioann Bogoslov, and the Admiral's and Rear-Admiral's ships by Rozhdestvo Christovo and Preobrazhenie Gospodne. The Ottomans speed allowed them to get away though, and soon after 8 p.m. firing ceased and the Russians anchored.

The next day, 2 damaged Ottoman ships, the Kapitana (Vice Admiral's ship) and Melike Bahri were seen close by, and the Russians attacked. Melike Bahri surrendered to Maria Magdalina without resistance, but the "Kapitana" put up a stout resistance. At 10 a.m. she was attacked by Sv. Andrei Pervozvannyi, which brought down her fore topsail, then by Sv. Georgii Pobyedonosets, Preobrazhenie Gospodne and others. By noon she was completely surrounded, but fought on. At 2 p.m. Ushakov in Rozhdestvo Christovo shot away all her masts and placed his ship across her bows, and at 3 p.m. she surrendered. Unfortunately she was seen to be on fire, and blew up after only 20 men, including Said Bey and her captain, had been taken off. Only 101 men were saved out of 800 on board.

Some Russian ships had been chasing the rest of the Ottoman fleet but they were losing ground and at about 4:30 p.m. Ushakov recalled them. Russian privateers later brought in 3 small craft. Russian casualties were 25 killed and 25 wounded, and 733 Ottomans were captured. Several ships had minor damage in their masts and rigging. Russian victory in the Battle of Tendra allowed them to control the Black Sea.

Bulvar Admirala Ushakova

Bulvar Admirala Ushakova (Russian: Бульва́р Адмира́ла Ушако́ва) is a station on the Butovskaya Line of the Moscow Metro system in Moscow, Russia. It was opened on 27 December 2003 along with four other stations. The station is located in Yuzhnoye Butovo District, between two other stations of the same line, Ulitsa Skobelevskaya and Ulitsa Gorchakova. The station, which name literally means Admiral Ushakov Boulevard, was named after the nearby street, and the street was named after the 18th-century Russian naval commander Fyodor Ushakov.

Cathedral of St. Theodore Ushakov

The Cathedral of St. Theodore Ushakov (Russian: Собор Святого Феодора Ушакова) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in the Saransk, the Cathedral of the Diocese of Saransk and Mordovia. The cathedral is named for Russian saint and admiral Fyodor Ushakov.

Cathedral of the Nativity, Volgodonsk

Cathedral of the Nativity (Russian: Кафедральный собор Рождества Христова) is a cathedral of Volgodonsk Diocese situated in the city of Volgodonsk, Rostov Oblast, Russia. The main temple of Volgodonsk Deanery. The Cathedral and Fyodor Ushakov Chapel located nearby form the Parish of the Nativity.

The Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ was founded on March 7, 2001. It was planned that it would become the main temple of the city and of Volgodonsk Deanery.

However, the construction works had soon been suspended for several years. They were resumed on October 15, 2008. In the period from 2008 to 2011 on the territory of the Nativity Cathedral there had been built and consecrated a small church of St. Fyodor Ushakov, erected a monument dedicated to this prominent admiral, and acquired 13 bells for the belfry. On August 1, 2010 the first Divine Liturgy in the lower chapel of the cathedral was carried out ― in the temple of St. Seraphim of Sarov, named in honor of the saint patron of nuclear energy. In late 2010, four domes were installed, and in the beginning of January 2011 ― the central dome was also added. As a result, the total height of the cathedral was 56 meters, and together with the cross on the central dome ― 58 meters.At the cathedral area of 8 hectares it is planned to construct a complex of buildings, including bell tower, Sunday school, charity dining hall, icon-painting workshops, publishing center, playgrounds, pilgrimage hotel and Orthodox gymnasium.

In 2011, the temple acquired the status of cathedral of the newly formed Diocese of Volgodonsk.

Chelengk

A chelengk (Ottoman Turkish: چـلنك‎) (Turkish: Çelenk) was a military decoration of the Ottoman Empire.

Dunay-class motorship

Dunay class is a class of Russian river passenger ships. It is named after Danube River.

Two-deck cargo-passenger ships built in Hungary, 1959–1964.

Guards Ribbon

The Guards Ribbon, Russian: (Гвардейская лента), is a military decoration awarded in the Soviet Union in 1942 for the elite soviet Guards unit, during the Great Patriotic War. The Guards Ribbon is also seen on various soviet war medals, and should not be confused with the Imperial Russian Army's military decoration, the Ribbon of Saint George.

Monument to Fyodor Ushakov (Rostov-on-Don)

Monument to Fyodor Ushakov (Russian: Памятник Ушакову) — is a monument in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, dedicated to Russian admiral Fyodor Ushakov, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, the commander of the Russian-Turkish squadron in the Mediterranean. The monument was opened on September 16, 2001. Sculptor ― Honored Artist of the Russian Federation (2004) Anatoly Andreevich Sknarin.

Order of Ushakov

The Order of Ushakov (Russian: «Орден Ушакова») is a military decoration of the Russian Federation named in honour of admiral Fyodor Ushakov (1744 - 1817) who never lost a battle and was proclaimed patron saint of the Russian Navy. It is bestowed to command grade naval officers for outstanding leadership. The order was established in two classes during World War II by decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 3, 1944. The idea was given to Joseph Stalin by admiral Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov in the summer of 1943. Following the 1991 dissolution of the USSR, the Order of Ushakov was retained unchanged by Decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation 2557-I of March 20, 1992 but it was not awarded in this form. The all encompassing Presidential Decree 1099 of September 7, 2010 that modernised and reorganised the entire Russian awards system away from its Soviet past amended the Order to its present form, a ribbon mounted single class Order.

Siege of Corfu

Siege of Corfu may refer to:

Siege of Corfu (1537) by the Ottoman Turks led by Hayreddin Barbarossa

Sieges of Corfu 1571 and 1573, see Corfu#Venetian rule andOttoman–Venetian War (1570–1573)Siege of Corfu (1716) by the Ottoman Turks

Siege of Corfu (1798–1799) by a Russian-Turkish fleet led by admiral Fyodor Ushakov

Siege of Corfu (1798–99)

The Siege of Corfu (October 1798 – March 1799) was a military operation by a joint Russian and Turkish fleet against French troops occupying the island of Corfu.

Ushakov

Ushakov may refer to:

Dmitry Ushakov (1873–1942), Russian philologist

Fyodor Ushakov (1744–1817), Russian admiral

Georgy Ushakov (1901–1963), Soviet Arctic explorer

Simon Ushakov (1626–1686), Russian icon painter

Konstantin Ushakov (1970– ), Russian volleyball player

Nil Ushakov, Latvian journalist and politician, Mayor of Riga

Yuri Ushakov (1947– ), Russian diplomat

Admiral Ushakov (warship), several Russian ships named after Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov:

Russian battleship Admiral Ushakov, laid down in 1892 with service in the Russo-Japanese War

A Sverdlov class cruiser, laid down in 1950 and scrapped in 1987

Soviet battlecruiser Kirov, laid down in 1974 renamed Admiral Ushakov in 1992

Ushakov Island, Arctic island named after its discoverer, Georgy Ushakov

Ushakovsky Bridge

Ushakovsky Bridge (previously known as Stroganovsky Bridge) is a bridge spanning the Bolshaya Nevka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia named for Admiral Fyodor Ushakov. Originally built in 1786 as a floating pontoon bridge, the bridge was rebuilt between 1847 and 1853 as a multi-span wooden bridge. The bridge was refitted in 1906, 1911, and 1935. The current version of the bridge was constructed between 1953 and 1955. The bridge currently contains 11 spans with the central span being a double-leaf rolling lift. The other spans are bridged over with continuous beams. The bridge's footing is faced with granite. The bridge is 254.8 metres (836.0 ft) long with approaches and 27 metres (88.6 ft) wide.

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