Fyodor Tyutchev

Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Тютчев, Pre-Reform orthography: Ѳедоръ Ивановичъ Тютчевъ; December 5 [O.S. November 23] 1803 – July 27 [O.S. July 15] 1873) was a Russian poet and statesman.

Fyodor Tyutchev
Tyutchev as painted by Stepan Alexandrovsky
Tyutchev as painted by Stepan Alexandrovsky
BornDecember 5 [O.S. November 23] 1803
Ovstug near Bryansk, Oryol Governorate, Russian Empire
DiedJuly 27 [O.S. July 15] 1873 (aged 69)
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
SpouseEleonore Peterson (1826 – 1838)
Ernestine von Dörnberg


Tyutchev was born into a Russian noble family in the Ovstug family estate near Bryansk (modern-day Zhukovsky District, Bryansk Oblast of Russia). His father Ivan Nikolaevich Tyutchev (1768—1846) was a court councillor who served in the Kremlin Expedition that managed all building and restoration works of Moscow palaces. One of Ivan's sisters, Evdokia Meshcherskaya (1774—1837), was a hegumenia famous for founding the Borisoglebsky Anosin Women's Monastery.[1][2][3] The Tyutchevs traced their roots to Zakhariy Tutchev mentioned in The Tale of the Rout of Mamai, a 15th-century epic tale about the Battle of Kulikovo that described him as the most trusted man of Dmitry Donskoy; sent as a messenger to Mamai, he managed to reveal traitors and return alive thanks to his diplomatic skills.[4][5][6] Fyodor's mother Ekaterina Lvovna Tolstaya (1776—1866) belonged to the Tolstoy family on her father's side and the Rimsky-Korsakov noble house on her mother's side. Russian war general Alexander Rimsky-Korsakov was her uncle.[7][1][2]

Most of his childhood years were spent in Moscow, where he joined the literary circle of Professor Merzlyakov at the age of 13. His first printed work was a translation of Horace's epistle to Maecenas, published when he was still 15. From that time on, his poetic language was distinguished from that of Pushkin and other contemporaries by its liberal use of majestic, solemn Slavonic archaisms.

His family tutor was Semyon Raich, a minor poet and translator under whose guidance Tyutchev undertook his first poetic steps. From 1819 to 1821 Tyutchev studied at the Philological Faculty of Moscow University. After graduating he joined the Foreign Office and in 1822 accompanied his relative, Count Ostermann-Tolstoy, to Munich to take up a post as trainee diplomat at the Russian legation. He was to remain abroad for 22 years.

In Munich he fell in love with Amalie von Lerchenfeld, the illegitimate half-sister of a young Bavarian diplomat, Count Maximilian Joseph von Lerchenfeld. Tyutchev's poem Tears or Slyozy (Liubliu, druz'ya, laskat' ochami...) coincides with one of their meetings, and is most likely dedicated to Amalie (or Amélie, as she was usually known). Among other poems inspired by her are K. N., and Ia pomniu vremia zolotoe… Published extracts from the letters and diaries of Maximilian von Lerchenfeld illuminate the first years of Tyutchev as a diplomat in Munich (1822–1826), giving details of his frustrated love affair for Amélie, nearly involving a duel (probably with his colleague, Baron Alexander von Krüdener), in January 1825. Amélie was coerced by her relatives into marrying the much older Krüdener, but she and Tyutchev continued to be friends and frequented the same diplomatic society in Munich. A late poem of 1870 with the title K.B. (Ia vstretil vas - i vsio biloe), long accepted on dubious evidence as addressed to Amélie, is now thought much more likely to refer to Tyutchev's sister-in-law Clotilde (or Klothilde) von Bothmer.[8] Tyutchev's last meeting with Amélie took place on March 31, 1873 (OS) when she visited him on his deathbed. The next day, Tyutchev wrote to his daughter Daria:

Yesterday I felt a moment of burning emotion due to my meeting with... my dear Amalie Krüdener who wished to see me for the last time in this world and came to take her leave of me. In her person my past and the best years of my life came to give me a farewell kiss.[9]

In Munich, he came under the influence of the German Romantic movement, and this is reflected in his poetry. Among the figures, he knew personally were the poet Heinrich Heine and the philosopher Friedrich Schelling. In 1826, he married the Bavarian widow of a Russian diplomat Eleonore Peterson, née Countess von Bothmer. She became the mother of his daughter Anna Tiuttjev. Following her death in 1838, Tyutchev married another aristocratic young German widow, Baroness Ernestine von Dörnberg, née von Pfeffel, who had become his mistress and had a child by him while Eleonore was still alive. Neither of his wives understood Russian to begin with (Ernestine made efforts to learn the language only much later). That is hardly surprising since Tyutchev spoke French better than Russian and nearly all his private correspondence was in the former language.

The manor of Tyutchev's father in the Bryansk region

In 1836, a young former colleague at the Munich legation, Prince Ivan Gagarin, obtained Tyutchev's permission to publish his selected poems in Sovremennik, a literary journal edited by Pushkin. Although appreciated by the great Russian poet, the superb lyrics failed to spark off any public interest. The death of Eleonore in 1838 hit Tyutchev hard and appears to have silenced him as a poet for some considerable time, and for ten years afterwards, he wrote hardly any lyric verse. Instead, he turned his attention to publishing political articles in Western periodicals such as the Revue des Deux Mondes outlining his strongly held views on Russia's role in the world (see below).

In 1837, Tyutchev was transferred from Munich to the Russian legation in Turin. He found his new place of residence uncongenial to his disposition and after marrying Ernestine, he resigned from his position there to settle in Munich. It was later discovered that Tyutchev had actually abandoned his post as chargé d'affaires in Turin without official permission to marry in Switzerland, and he was dismissed from the Foreign Service as a result. He continued to live in Germany for five more years without position before returning to Russia. Upon his eventual return to St Petersburg in 1844, the poet was much lionised in the highest society. His daughter Kitty caused a sensation, and the novelist Leo Tolstoy wooed her, "almost prepared to marry her impassively, without love, but she received me with studied coldness", as he remarked in a diary. Kitty would later become influential at Konstantin Pobedonostsev's circle at the Russian court. Not long after his return to Russia, Tyutchev was reinstated in government service as a censor, rising eventually to become Chairman of the Foreign Censorship Committee and a Privy Councillor.

Tyutchev loved to travel, often volunteering for diplomatic courier missions as a way of combining business with pleasure. One of his lengthiest and most significant missions was to newly independent Greece in the autumn of 1833. During his years abroad there were visits home on leave, and after settling in Russia in 1844, he would sometimes spend short periods on the family estate at Ovstug. Tours undertaken in a private capacity took him to many parts of continental Europe, including Italy, France, Germany, Austria and Switzerland. He was particularly drawn to the Swiss lakes and mountains. Many of his best poems were inspired by such journeys.

As a poet, Tyutchev was little known during his lifetime. His 400 or so short poems were the only pieces he ever wrote in Russian. Tyutchev regarded his poems as bagatelles, not worthy of publication. He generally did not care to write them down and, if he did, he would often lose papers they were scribbled upon. Nikolay Nekrasov, when listing Russian poets in 1850, praised Tyutchev as one of the most talented among "minor poets". It was only in 1854 that his first volume of verse was printed, which was prepared by Ivan Turgenev and others without any help from the author.

In 1850, he began an illicit affair with Elena Denisyeva, over twenty years his junior. She remained his mistress until her death from tuberculosis in 1864, and she bore him three children. The affair produced a body of lyrics rightly considered among the finest love poems in the language. Permeated with a sublime feeling of subdued despair, the so-called "Denisyeva Cycle" has been variously described by critics as "a novel in verse", "a human document, shattering in the force of its emotion", and "a few songs without comparison in Russian, perhaps even in world poetry".[10] One of the poems, Last Love, is often cited as emblematic of the whole cycle.

In the early 1870s, the deaths of his brother, son and daughter left Tyutchev deeply depressed. (Depression was something from which he suffered at intervals throughout his life.) Following a series of strokes, he died in Tsarskoye Selo in 1873 and was interred at Novodevichy Monastery in St. Petersburg. Ernestine survived him by 21 years.

Political views

He was a militant Pan-Slavist, who never needed a particular reason to berate the Western powers, Vatican, Ottoman Empire or Poland, the latter perceived by him as a Judas in the Slavic fold. The failure of the Crimean War made him look critically at the Russian government as well.

On domestic matters, he held broadly liberal views. He warmly welcomed most of the reforms of Tsar Alexander II, particularly the Emancipation Reform of 1861. Both in his work as a censor and in his writings, he promoted the ideal of freedom of expression, frequently incurring the wrath of his superiors as a result, even under the more relaxed regime of Alexander II.

His fairly sizeable output of verse on political subjects is largely forgotten. One exception is a short poem which has become something of a popular maxim in Russia:

Who would grasp Russia with the mind?
For her no yardstick was created:
Her soul is of a special kind,
By faith alone appreciated.
(translated by John Dewey)


Tyutchev is one of the most memorized and quoted Russian poets. Occasional pieces, translations and political poems constitute about a half of his overall poetical output.

The 200 or so lyric pieces which represent the core of his poetic genius, whether describing a scene of nature or passions of love, put a premium on metaphysics. Tyutchev's world is bipolar. He commonly operates with such categories as night and day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Each of these images is imbued with specific meaning. Tyutchev's idea of night, for example, was defined by critics as "the poetic image often covering economically and simply the vast notions of time and space as they affect man in his struggle through life". [1] In the chaotic and fathomless world of "night", "winter", or "north" man feels himself tragically abandoned and lonely. Hence, a modernist sense of frightening anxiety permeates his poetry. Unsurprisingly, it was not until the late 19th and early 20th century that Tyutchev was rediscovered and hailed as a great poet by the Russian Symbolists such as Vladimir Solovyov, Andrey Bely and Alexander Blok.

Sample of verse

Silentium! is an archetypal poem by Tyutchev. Written in 1830, it is remarkable for its rhythm crafted so as to make reading in silence easier than aloud toward others. Like so many of his poems, its images are anthropomorphic and pulsing with pantheism. As one Russian critic put it, "the temporal epochs of human life, its past and its present fluctuate and vacillate in equal measure: the unstoppable current of time erodes the outline of the present." ^

Fedor Tutchev
Portrait by Levitsky, 1856.
Speak not, lie hidden, and conceal
the way you dream, the things you feel.
Deep in your spirit let them rise
akin to stars in crystal skies
that set before the night is blurred:
delight in them and speak no word.
How can a heart expression find?
How should another know your mind?
Will he discern what quickens you?
A thought, once uttered, is untrue.
Dimmed is the fountainhead when stirred:
drink at the source and speak no word.
Live in your inner self alone
within your soul a world has grown,
the magic of veiled thoughts that might
be blinded by the outer light,
drowned in the noise of day, unheard...
take in their song and speak no word.
(trans. by Vladimir Nabokov)

Incidentally, this poem inspired an early-20th-century composer, Georgi Catoire (the setting of the poem in the song Silentium), while another one of Tyutchev's poems, "O chem ty voesh' vetr nochnoy...", was the inspiration for Nikolai Medtner's Night Wind piano sonata (#7) of 1911. There is a well-known setting by Rakhmaninov of Tyutchev's poem Spring Waters. While the title of Nikolai Myaskovsky's 1910 tone poem, "Silence", may have been borrowed from Tyutchev, the inspiration is credited to one of Edgar Allan Poe's tales. The same poem was also set to music by the 20th-century Russian composer, Boris Tchaikovsky (1925-1996), in his 1974 cantata "Signs of the Zodiac". The Ukrainian[11] composer, Valentyn Sylvestrov (born 1937), has made a memorable setting of 'Last Love', recorded by Alexi Lubimov and Jana Ivanilova on the album 'Stufen'. At the end of Andrey Tarkovsky's film Stalker, a character recites a Tyutchev poem. In 2007, Icelandic musician Björk used this same Tyutchev poem for the lyrics to "The Dull Flame Of Desire" from her album Volta.The song was later released as a single in 2008. The 2011 contemporary classical album Troika includes a setting of Tyutchev's French-language poem “Nous avons pu tous deux…” by the composer Isabelle Aboulker.

See also


  • ^ Literaturnoe nasledstvo. Issue 97: Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev, Nauka, 1988.
  1. ^ a b Ivan Aksakov (1997). Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev's Biography. — Moscow: AO Book and Business, p. 172-173 ISBN 5212008271
  2. ^ a b Gennady Chagin (2004). Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev. — Moscow: Russkiy mir, p. 17 ISBN 5-89577-044-4
  3. ^ History. Founding Mother at the official Anosin Monastery website (in Russian)
  4. ^ Kati M.J. Parppei (2017). The Battle of Kulikovo Refought: “The First National Feat”. — Leiden, Boston: Brill ISBN 9004336168
  5. ^ The Tyutchevs article from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian)
  6. ^ Tyutchev coat of arms by All-Russian Armorials of Noble Houses of the Russian Empire. Part 6, June 23, 1801 (in Russian)
  7. ^ Rimsky-Korsakov coat of arms by All-Russian Armorials of Noble Houses of the Russian Empire. Part 2, June 30, 1798 (in Russian)
  8. ^ Nikolayev, A.A., 'Zagaka "K.B."', Neva, 1988, No. 2, pp. 190-196.
  9. ^ F.I. Tyutchev, Polnoe sobranie sochineniy i pis'ma, 6 vols., Moscow, 2002-2005. VI, p. 416.
  10. ^ I.V. Petrova; K.V. Pigarev; D.S. Merezhkovsky. Quoted in John Dewey, Mirror of the Soul. A Life of the Poet Fyodor Tyutchev, Shaftesbury (Brimstone Press), 2010, p. 325.
  11. ^ Valentyn Sylvestrov

External links

Andrey Kovalchuk

Andrey Nikolayevich Kovalchuk (Russian: Андрей Николаевич Ковальчук; b. 7 September 1959 in Moscow, Soviet Union) is a Russian sculptor. He holds the title of People’s Artist of the Russian Federation (awarded in 2003) and is the winner of the Moscow City Hall Prize for Literature and the Arts (1999) and the Russian Federation Government Prize for Culture (2005).

Kovalchuks works embody his deep interest in Russian history. Among his many sculptural compositions are monuments to Peter the Great in Astrakhan, Admiral Fyodor Ushakov (1745–1817) in Moscow, and the outstanding poet and diplomat Fyodor Tyutchev (1803–1873) in Bryansk and Munich.

Kovalchuk commemorated the feats of soldiers in the German-Soviet War in a multi-figure composition, "Soldier-Road Workers" in Moscow Region. His memorial "To the Victims of Chernobyl" is charged with emotion.

One of the sculptors most recent works, a monument to the pilots of the Normandy-Neman Squadron, was unveiled in October 2007 by the Presidents of Russia and France.

Kovalchuk's compositions are distinguished by their strong sense of proportion, vividness of image and the accuracy with which they capture the subject's psychological characteristics. Vivid examples include the image of Ivan the Terrible torn by inner drama, Nikolai Gogol filled with the subtle tension and anxiety, Alexander Pushkin lifted by the wings of inspiration, noble Ivan Bunin steeped in human dignity, plastic interpretations of etchings by the Spanish artist Goya and a whole host of other works.

Anna Tiutcheva

Anna Feodorovna Tiutcheva (Russian: А́нна Фёдоровна Тю́тчева, 3 May 1829 – 23 August 1889) was a Russian courtier, slavophile and memoirist. She was the maid of honour and confidante of empress Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse) from 1853 until 1866, and is known for her memoirs depicting Russian life from 1853 until 1882, which are regarded to be a valuable historic source of the life of Russian aristocracy in mid 19th-century Russia. She was the daughter of Fyodor Tyutchev and married Ivan Aksakov in 1866.

Automatons (album)

Automatons is the second solo album by Svoy. It was originally released in Japan August 19, 2009, on historic P-Vine Records/Blues Interactions. U.S./International release followed on November 2, 2010, on Sixteenth Republic Records.

Automatons expands upon artist's signature diverse sound by simultaneously paying tribute to his broad scope of musical influences and the sonic language of so-called "processed humanity". Svoy created 15 new selections of music and lyrics (including original cover of the Bee Gees' classic "Lonely Days" and an excerpt from "Silentium!", a poem by Fyodor Tyutchev). Two songs on Automatons were written and performed in collaboration with Adam Levy (multi platinum-selling songwriter/singer/guitarist for Tracy Chapman, Amos Lee and Norah Jones' Handsome Band), as well as Ilya Lagutenko (frontman/leader of Russia's superstar rock band Mumiy Troll, MTV Award winner, legendary multi-hit songwriter/singer/actor, whose acting credits include "Night Watch" (2005), international blockbuster by director Timur Bekmambetov ("Wanted", 2008; "Wanted 2", 2011).

Album's lead single "Beautiful Thing" reached #69 on the Billboard Japan Hot TOP 100 Airplay and #82 on Billboard Japan Hot 100 Singles chart. Besides remaining in top 40 and 100 airplay charts of numerous major Japanese radio networks for over 8 weeks, the song peaked at #3 on Alpha Station FM Kyoto 89.4's TOP 40 Overseas Chart. Also in 2009, Automatons reached #100 on the Billboard Japan Top Independent Albums and Singles chart.

In February, 2011, the album and its title track received two nominations at The 10th Independent Music Awards in Best Dance/Electronica Album and Best Dance/Electronica Song categories, winning in the latter category in March, 2011. 10th Independent Music Awards judging panel included Seal, Fall Out Boy, Portishead, McCoy Tyner, Counting Crows, Aerosmith, Ozzy Osbourne, Suzanne Vega, Jesse Harris, Tom Waits, Aimee Mann, Jonatha Brooke among other notable artists and music industry professionals.In July 2011, it was announced that Automatons also won The 10th Independent Music Awards' Vox Populi (fan-based portion of the annual awards) in both Best Dance/Electronica Song and Best Dance/Electronica Album categories.

Golden Age of Russian Poetry

Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by philologists to the first half of the 19th century. It is also called the Age of Pushkin, after its most significant poet (in Nabokov's words, the greatest poet this world was blessed with since the time of Shakespeare). Mikhail Lermontov and Fyodor Tyutchev are generally regarded as two most important Romantic poets after Pushkin. Vasily Zhukovsky and Konstantin Batyushkov are the best regarded of his precursors. Pushkin himself, however, considered Evgeny Baratynsky to be the finest poet of his day.


Grazhdanin (Russian: Гражданин, lit. The Citizen) was a Russian conservative political and literary magazine published in Petersburg in 1872–1914 (with a one-year interval in 1880–1881). The magazine was founded by Prince Vladimir Meshchersky. It came out weekly or two times a week, and daily in 1887–1914. Grazhdanin exerted some influence on policies of the Russian government. It adhered to principals of monarchism and opposed liberal press and revolutionary movements. Fyodor Dostoyevsky was the magazine’s chief editor from the early 1873 to April 1874. Throughout this magazine’s existence, people like Konstantin Pobedonostsev, Nikolay Strakhov, Aleksey Pisemsky, Nikolai Leskov, Fyodor Tyutchev, Apollon Maykov, Yakov Polonsky, Aleksey Apukhtin, Vasily Nemirovich-Danchenko and others published their works on its pages.

List of compositions by Nikolai Medtner

This is a list of compositions by Nikolai Medtner by genre.


Muranovo is the Fyodor Tyutchev state museum located in Pushkino, Moscow Oblast, Russia.

The estate was founded in 1816 and since then has belonged to four families, including Fyodor Tyutchev's family. Its main house was built in wood in 1842 by Yevgeny Baratynsky, another renowned Russian poet. In August 1920, the estate became a museum.

Muranovo contains many historically important relics such as original furniture, manuscripts and artwork, which originally belonged to Tyutchev, Baratynsky and their families.

In July 2006, a fire from a lightning nearly destroyed the main building. Nevertheless, almost all exhibits were saved, and the estate has since been restored.

Nashe Vremya

Nashe Vremya (Russian: Наше время, Our Time) was a literary and political newspaper published in 1860-1863 in Moscow by Nikolai Pavlov. It started out as a liberal weekly, then, after some talks that Pavlov had had with the then Minister of Interior Pyotr Valuyev (which involved the promise of the financial support, among other things), in early 1862 became a conservative daily, whose agenda was formulated in the January issue by Boris Chicherin in his article "Measure and Limits" (Мера и границы). The newspaper proclaimed itself to be the 'liberally conservative' publication aiming at guarding the interests of the Russian dvoryanstvo as "the only class where the fire of the enlightenment is being kept." Among the authors who contributed to Nashe Vremya regularly, were Nikolai Berg, Alexander Rotchev, Mikhail Pogodin, Fyodor Tyutchev.

Novodevichy Cemetery (Saint Petersburg)

Novodevichy Cemetery (Russian: Новодевичье кладбище) in Saint Petersburg is a historic cemetery in the south-west part of the city near the Moscow Triumphal Gate. The cemetery is named after the historical Resurrection (Novodevichy) Convent. In the 19th century it was the second most prestigious cemetery after the Tikhvin Cemetery in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.

The cemetery started in 1845 when the Smolny Convent was moved to this location. The first burials date to 1849. In the 1920s and 1930s, the cemetery church was demolished by the Soviet authorities (1929) and many tombs were destroyed, while other burials were transferred to the Tikhvin Cemetery. In 1989, major restoration work was carried out at the cemetery.

Notable people formerly interred at the Novodevichy Cemetery include the poets Nikolay Nekrasov and Fyodor Tyutchev, the painter Mikhail Vrubel, the architect Leonty Benois, the composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, the philologist Yakov Grot, the publisher A. F. Marx, the chess-player Mikhail Chigorin, the politician Vyacheslav Pleve and the explorer Gennady Nevelskoi.

Many people (even Petersburgers) confuse the cemetery with the Novodevichy Cemetery at the Novodevichy Convent in Moscow.

Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality

Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality (Russian: Правосла́вие, самодержа́вие, наро́дность, Pravoslávie, samoderzhávie, naródnost'), also known as Official Nationality, was the dominant ideological doctrine of Russian emperor Nicholas I. It was "the Russian version of a general European ideology of restoration and reaction" that followed the Napoleonic Wars."The Triad" of Official Nationality was originally proposed by Minister of Education Sergey Uvarov in his April 2, 1833 circular letter to subordinate educators. It was soon embraced by Nicholas and his establishment and gained wide public recognition, vocally supported by intellectuals like Mikhail Pogodin, Fyodor Tyutchev and Nikolai Gogol.Critics of the policy saw this principle as a call for Russification. Yet the very fact of its existence, being Russia's first statewide political ideology since the 16th century, indicated the nation's brewing transition to modernity.

Pyotr Bykov

Pyotr Vasilyevich Bykov (Пётр Васильевич Быков, 1 November 1844, Sevastopol, Crimea, Russian Empire, - 22 October 1930, Detskoye Selo, Leningrad, USSR) was a Russian literary historian, editor, poet and translator.

A University of Kharkiv alumnus, Bykov moved to Saint Petersburg in the early 1860s and started writing short stories, poems and bibliographical articles, published in Syn Otechestva, Russky Mir, Iskra, Otechestvennye Zapiski. Later Bykov edited Delo (1880), Russkoye Bogatstvo (1881-1900), Vsemirnaya Illyustratsia (literary section, 1891-1898), Slovo newspaper (1904-1905) and Sovremennik (1911).

Among the translations Bykov made in 1870s-1900s were those of the works by William Shakespeare, Victor Hugo, Heinrich Heine, Theophile Gautier and Wladyslaw Syrokomla.

Bykov compiled and published numerous The Complete Works series, including those by Yulia Zhadovskaya (1885), Alexey Koltsov (1892), Alexander Afanasyev-Chuzhbinsky (1890), Mikhail Lermontov (1891, 1904), Heinrich Heine (1900), Alexey Pleshcheyev (1896—1897, 1905), Nikolai Gogol (1909), Moliere (1909), Ilya Salov (1910—1912), Pyotr Polevoy (1911—1912), Lev Mey (1911), Anton Chekhov (1911), Mikhail Mikhaylov (1912), Fyodor Tyutchev (1912), Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak (1915—1917). The number of biographical articles and essays authored by Bykov, exceeds one thousand.

Russkaya Beseda

Russkaya Beseda (Russian: Ру′сская бесе′да, English: The Russian Colloquy) was a Russian literary magazine founded in Moscow, Russian Empire, in 1856 by Alexander Koshelev who remained its editor-in-chief until 1858, when Ivan Aksakov joined in as co-editor. The magazine was published on a bi-monthly basis and was belonged to the Slavophile movement; most prominent in it were the literature, science and criticism sections. Selskoye Blagoustroistvo (Agrarian landscaping) was added as a supplement in 1858–1859. Russkaya Beseda targeted for broad and mixed readership and but, frequently covered articles about the future of the Slavic peoples. Among the authors who regularly contributed to the magazine, were Sergei Aksakov, Vladimir Dal, Aleksey K. Tolstoy, Alexander Ostrovsky, Aleksey Khomyakov, Fyodor Tyutchev, Ivan Nikitin, Taras Shevchenko. It ceased publication in 1860.

Suite No. 1 (Rachmaninoff)

Suite No. 1 (or Fantaisie-Tableaux for two pianos), Op. 5, is a composition for two pianos by Sergei Rachmaninoff. Composed in the summer of 1893 at the Lysikofs estate in Lebeden, Kharkov, this suite was initially titled Fantaisie (Tableaux) since Rachmaninoff intended it, as he explained in a letter to his cousin Sofia Satin, to consist "of a series of musical pictures." While François-René Tranchefort asserts that the music illustrates four extracts of poems (written by Mikhail Lermontov, Lord Byron, Fyodor Tyutchev and Aleksey Khomyakov), Rachmaninoff biographer Max Harrison counters that while the poems "convey something of the emotional tone of the music," the music itself is not programmatic.This work was first performed on November 30, 1893, by Rachmaninoff and Pavel Pabst in Moscow, and is dedicated to Tchaikovsky. Rachmaninoff composed a second suite in 1901.

The four movements are:

Barcarolle. Allegretto, in G minor.

La nuit... L'amour... Adagio sostenuto, in D major. (The night...the love...)

Les Larmes. Largo di molto, in G minor. (The Tears)

Pâques. Allegro maestoso, in G minor. (Easter)Perhaps surprisingly, given that Rachmaninoff wrote orchestral and two-piano versions of his Symphonic Dances, which is effectively a three-movement symphony, no one has orchestrated this Suite as a possible symphony.


Teleskop (Russian: Телескоп) was a Russian literary, philosophical and political magazine published in Moscow in 1831-1836 by Nikolai Nadezhdin, who was also its editor-in-chief. Originally a fortnightly publication, it became a weekly in 1834. Another Nadezhin's project, Molva (Молва, Rumour, 1831-1986), originally a 'news and fashion' magazine, in 1932 became a newspaper and literary supplement to Teleskop.

Among the authors whose works appeared in Teleskop regularly, were Mikhail Pogodin, Stepan Shevyryov, Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Tyutchev, Alexander Polezhayev, Nikolai Stankevich and Alexey Koltsov. Vissarion Belinsky joined in 1833 to become a year later Nadezhdin's co-editor.In 1836 the magazine published Pyotr Chaadaev's "Philosophical Letter" and was promptly closed, as was Molva.

The Dull Flame of Desire

"The Dull Flame of Desire" is a song recorded by Icelandic singer Björk featuring Anohni from the band Antony and the Johnsons. The track was released as the fifth and final single from her seventh full-length studio album, Volta, on 29 September 2008. Björk has performed the song 12 times on her global Volta Tour, often with Anohni onstage.

The Wanderer (Maykov poem)

The Wanderer (Strannik, Стра′нник) is a poem by Apollon Maykov, first published in the No.1, January 1867 issue of The Russian Messenger. It was dedicated to Fyodor Tyutchev and subtitled: "First part of the drama The Thirsty One".

Troika (album)

Troika: Russia's westerly poetry in three orchestral song cycles is a 2011 album of contemporary classical songs performed by soprano Julia Kogan, who also conceived the project. She is accompanied by The St. Petersburg Chamber Philharmonic conducted by Jeffery Meyer. The songs are set to Russian, English, and French language poetry by five classic Russian writers: Joseph Brodsky, Mikhail Lermontov, Vladimir Nabokov, Aleksandr Pushkin and Fyodor Tyutchev. Eight modern composers, from France, Russia, and the United States, wrote music for the album: Isabelle Aboulker, Ivan Barbotin, Eskender Bekmambetov, Jay Greenberg, James DeMars, Andrey Rubtsov, Michael Schelle and Lev Zhurbin.

The three song cycles on the album are “there…”, set to Russian poems and their English auto-translations by Joseph Brodsky; “Sing, Poetry”, set to Russian poems and their English auto-translations by Vladimir Nabokov; and “Caprice étrange”, set to French poems by Mikhail Lermontov, Aleksandr Pushkin and Fyodor Tyutchev. The common point of the three song cycles is that they are based upon poetry that reflects its authors’ active linguistic integration into Western culture.

Zarya (magazine)

Zarya (Russian: Заря, Dawn) was a monthly literary and political Russian magazine published in Saint Petersburg in 1869-1872.A Slavophile-oriented journal, Zarya supported the liberal reforms in Russia while promoting the idea of strong Tsarist power. Nikolai Danilevsky's Russia and Europe, published there in 1869 (Nos. 1-6, 8-10) would later become the basis for Alexander III's government's official political doctrine. Among other notable works that were published by Zarya were "The Prisoner of the Caucasus" by Leo Tolstoy (1872, No. 2), The Eternal Husband by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, as well as assorted works by Fyodor Tyutchev, Afanasy Fet, Apollon Maykov, Yakov Polonsky, Alexey Pisemsky, Konstantin Leontyev, Dmitry Averkiyev, Vsevolod Krestovsky, Viktor Klyushnikov, Daniil Mordovtsev, Vasily Avseenko, Semyon Sholkovich. A pivotal figure in Zarya was the critic and journalist Nikolai Strakhov. His three essays on Tolstoy's War and Peace (1869, Nos. 1 and 2; 1870, No.1) provided the first detailed analysis on this novel in Russia.

The magazine's editor-in-chief Vasily Kashpiryov was also its publisher. After three years of struggling to attract the wider readership, he found himself on the verge of bankruptcy and stopped the publication in February 1872.


Znamenskoye-Sadki is one of the oldest country estates of Moscow.

It lies in the southern section of Bitsa Park in the South-South-West of Moscow, outside today's MKAD. Since the middle of 18th century and almost until the October Revolution (1917) this estate belonged to the Trubetskoy family.

In the second half of the 18th century the main house, the church and the other buildings were built. At that time the system of ponds was constructed there.

Znamenskoye-Sadki was visited by many prominent men of letters and arts, the Grand Princes and Tsars. In 1787, Empress Catherine II of Russia came there with her grandsons. One of them was the future Emperor Alexander I of Russia.

Pyotr Vyazemsky and Fyodor Tyutchev used to stay in the estate.

On the second day after their wedding, the future parents of Leo Tolstoy visited there. They were married in the church of Yasenevo on 9 July 1822.

Historian Mikhail Pogodin stayed and worked there in the 1820s. He spent a lot of time in the large library of the estate.

In 1918 the main house of Znamenskoye-Sadki estate passed to a workers' cooperative.

In 1929 the church was dismantled. Currently the estate is a neglected park with remaining ponds, the central house and ruins of the stables. In the restored central house there is the Institute of Nature Preservation.

The constructions are closed for the general public as of 2010.

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