Fuzhou

Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.[4] Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong (lit. Eastern Fujian) linguistic and cultural area.

Fuzhou lies on the north (left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's Gutian County lies upriver. Its population was 7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05%.[2] In 2015, Fuzhou was ranked as the 10th Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas in the world by Brookings Institution.[5] Fuzhou is listed as No.20 in China Integrated City Index 2016's total ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform Commission.[6]

Fuzhou

福州市
From top, left to right: Black Pagoda of Fuzhou, White Pagoda of Fuzhou; Xichan Temple, City Skyline of Fuzhou; Gulou District of Fuzhou
From top, left to right: Black Pagoda of Fuzhou, White Pagoda of Fuzhou; Xichan Temple, City Skyline of Fuzhou; Gulou District of Fuzhou
Location of Fuzhou City jurisdiction in Fujian
Location of Fuzhou City jurisdiction in Fujian
Fuzhou is located in China
Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Location in China
Coordinates (May Day Square): 26°04′31″N 119°18′30″E / 26.0753°N 119.3082°ECoordinates: 26°04′31″N 119°18′30″E / 26.0753°N 119.3082°E
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceFujian
Divisions
 - County-level

6 districts, 6 counties,
& 1 County-level cities(2017)
Government
 • CPC Ctte SecretaryWang Ning (王宁)
 • MayorYou Mengjun (尤猛军)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city12,177 km2 (4,702 sq mi)
 • Water4,634 km2 (1,790 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[1]
1,243 km2 (480 sq mi)
Population
(2017)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city7,660,000
 • Urban
 (2018)[3]
5,400,000
 • Rural
2,707,294
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
350000
Area code(s)591
ISO 3166 codeCN-FJ-01
GDP2017[2]
 - TotalCNY 710.402 billion
US$105.245 billion
 - Per capitaCNY 93,844
US$13,902
 - GrowthIncrease 8.7%
License plate prefixes闽A
Local dialectFuzhou dialect of the Eastern Min Language
WebsiteFuzhou.gov.cn
Fuzhou
Fuzhou (Chinese characters)
"Fuzhou" in Chinese characters
Chinese福州
PostalFoochow
Literal meaning"Blessed Prefecture"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinFúzhōu
Wade–GilesFu2-chou1
IPA[fǔ.ʈʂóu] (listen)
Wu
SuzhouneseFoh-tseu
Hakka
RomanizationFuk-chiu
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationFūk-jāu
IPA[fók̚.tsɐ́u]
JyutpingFuk1-zau1
Southern Min
Hokkien POJHok-tsiu
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCHók-ciŭ 

Names

Fuzhou in Chinese is "有福之州" (yǒufúzhīzhōu), meaning "a city with good luck." The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century, says that Fuzhou's name came from Mount Futo, a mountain northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with -zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture," in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States period, area of Fuzhou was sometimes referred to as Ye (Chinese: ), and Fuzhou was incorporated into China proper during Qin dynasty. The city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries before finally settling on Fuzhou in 948.[7] In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng (Chinese: 榕城; Foochow Romanized: Ṳ̀ng-siàng), literally: "The Banyan City".

In older English publications, the name is variously romanized as Foochow, Foo-Chow,[8] Fuchow, Fūtsu, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew, and Hokchew.

History

Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC)

The remains of two Neolithic cultures—the Huqiutou Culture (虎丘頭文化), from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain Culture (曇石山文化), from around 3000 BC—have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area. During the Warring States period (c. 475–221 BC), Han Chinese began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue (閩越), suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a family of non-Han tribes who once inhabited most of southern China.[9] In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom (present-day Zhejiang) fell to the state of Chu. Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Han and Yue culture to create Minyue.[10] Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City.

Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–206 AD)

The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The Qin dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" (Chinese: ; pinyin: jùn)—roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture—and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery (閩中郡). The area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for the next century. The Han dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, and Emperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu (無諸; Old Chinese: Matya) as King of Minyue, and a walled city called Ye (; Old Chinese: Lya; literally: Beautiful) was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou.

In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies during the Han–Minyue War and annexed its territory and people into China.[11] Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jiangnan area, and the Yue ethnic group was mostly assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants.[9] The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85 BC.

Three Kingdoms to Sui dynasty (200–618)

Zh-fuzhou
"Fuzhou" calligraphy. "Fuzhou" literally means "Blessed Settlement" or "Blessed Prefecture".

During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, and the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River fleets. In 282, during the Jin dynasty, two artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. In 308, during the War of the Eight Princes at the end of the Jin dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland. The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to shift to the Ye area during the Sui dynasty (581 - 618).

Tang to the ten kingdoms era (618–960)

In 725, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian and Guangdong areas. In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang dynasty, successfully gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909. The Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous.

Fuzhou prospered during the Tang dynasty. Buddhism was quickly adopted by the citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area.

Song era (960–1279)

Fuzhou underwent a major dramatic surge in its refined culture and educational institutions throughout the Song Dynasty as Fuzhou produced 10 Fuzhounese zhuangyuan scholars (scholar who is ranked the top first place in the imperial examinations zh:状元), a large number for a small city in the country during that dynasty.

The Hualin Temple (華林寺, not to be confused with the temple of the same name in Guangzhou), founded in 964, is one of the oldest surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in 282, 901, 905, and 974, so the city had many layers of walls — more so than the Chinese capital. Emperor Taizong of the Song dynasty ordered the destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou in 978 but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371. During the Southern Song dynasty, Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi, the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji, the greatest composer of the ci form of poetry.

Marco Polo, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, transcribed, after the conventions of Italian orthography, the place name as Fugiu. This was not the local Min pronunciation but that of the mandarin administrative class.

Ming dynasty (1368–1644)

Between 1405 and 1433, a fleet of the Ming Imperial navy under Admiral Zheng He sailed from Fuzhou to the Indian Ocean seven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stele dedicated to the goddess Tian-Fei (Matsu) near the seaport.

The Ming government gave a monopoly over Philippine trade to Fuzhou, which at times was shared with Quanzhou.[12]

Galeote Pereira, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner during the pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of internal exile elsewhere in the province, Pereira escaped to Langbaijiao in 1553. The record of his experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at Goa in 1561, was the first non-clerical account of China to reach the West since Marco Polo.[13]

The Ryukyu Kingdom established an embassy in Fuzhou.

Qing dynasty (1644-1912)

In 1839, Lin Zexu, who himself was a Fuzhou native, was appointed by the Daoguang Emperor to enforce the imperial ban on the opium trade in Canton. His unsuccessful actions, however, precipitated the disastrous First Opium War with Great Britain, and Lin, who had become a scapegoat for China's failure in war, was exiled to the northwestern section of the empire. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842), which put an end to the conflict, made Fuzhou (then known to Westerners as Foochow) one of five Chinese treaty ports, and it became completely open to Western merchants and missionaries.

Foochow morrison
The Eastward View of Fuzhou from Black Stone Hill (circa 1880)

Fuzhou was one of the most important Protestant mission fields in China. On January 2, 1846, the first Protestant missionary, Rev. Stephen Johnson (missionary) from ABCFM (美國公理會差會), entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there. ABCFM was followed by the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society that was led by Revs. M. C. White and J. D. Collins, who reached Fuzhou in early September 1847. The Church Missionary Society also arrived in the city in May 1850. These three Protestant agencies remained in Fuzhou until the communist revolution in China in the 1950s, leaving a rich heritage in Fuzhou's Protestant culture. They supported the creation of hospitals and schools, including the Woolston Memorial Hospital, run by the American-trained Hü King Eng.[14]

On August 23, 1884, the Battle of Fuzhou broke out between the French Far East Fleet and the Fujian Fleet of the Qing dynasty. As the result, the Fujian Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor.

Republic of China

On November 8, 1911, revolutionaries staged an uprising in Fuzhou. After an overnight street battle, the Qing army surrendered.

Revolutionary Republic

Fuzhou Jinshan Temple
Fuzhou Jinshan Temple

On November 22, 1933, Eugene Chen and the leaders of the National Revolutionary Army's 19th Army set up the short-lived People's Revolutionary Government of Republican China.[15] Blockaded by Chiang Kai-shek and left to twist in the wind by the nearby Soviet Republic of China, the PRGRC collapsed within two months.[16]

Japanese occupation

With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities commenced in Fujian Province. Xiamen (Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing force on May 13, 1938. The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the security of Foochow. On May 23, Japanese ships bombarded Mei-Hua, Huang-chi and Pei-Chiao while Japanese planes continued to harass the Chinese forces. Between May 31 and June 1, Chinese gunboats Fu-Ning, Chen-Ning and Suming defending the blockade line in the estuary of the Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, the Chinese ship Chu-Tai berthed at Nan-Tai was damaged. The Chinese Navy's Harbor Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at Ma-Wei were successively bombed.[17] Fuzhou is recorded as having fallen to Japanese forces in 1938.[18]

The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is uncertain. By 1941 (date unknown), the city is recorded as having returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in Fuzhou is noted as operational from 1941–1944 after the United Kingdom Declaration of War on Japan in December 1941. Western visitors to Fuzhou in the period 1941–1944 include the Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett in 1942.[19] and the British scientist Dr Joseph Needham in May 1944.[20] Both visitors record the presence of a British Consul and a Fuzhou Club comprising western businessmen.

In The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom, author Simon Winchester relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the British SIS agent (Murray MacLehose working undercover as the British Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance to Japanese forces in Fujian Province.[20]

As part of Operation Ichi-Go (1944), the last large-scale Japanese offensive in China in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate Fuzhou and the Fujian Province corridor to Nationalist forces in western China and the wartime capital of Chongqing. One account of the Japanese re-taking of Fuzhou city itself is narrated by American naval officer, Houghton Freeman.[21] The date is given as October 5, 1944.[22]

Fuzhou remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan and its armed forces in China in September 1945.

Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the administration divisions of Fuzhou were annexed, and administration level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially.

People's Republic of China

Foochow Mosque
Foochow Mosque in Fuzhou.

Fuzhou was occupied by People's Liberation Army with little resistance on 17 August 1949.[23]

In the 1950s, the city was on the front line of the conflict with KMT in Taiwan, as hostile KMT aircraft frequently bombed the city. The bombing on 20 January 1955 was the most serious one, killing hundreds of people.[24]

Fuzhou was also involved in violent mass chaos during the Cultural revolution. Different groups of Red Guards fought with each other using guns on the streets of the city, and even attacking the People's Liberation Army.[25]

Under the reform and opening policy since the late 1970s, Fuzhou has developed rapidly. In 1982, Fuzhou became the first city in China where the stored program control was introduced, which marked a milestone in the history of telecommunications in China.[26] In 1984, Fuzhou was chosen as one of the first branches of Open Coastal Cities by the Central Government.[27]

On December 13, 1993, a raging fire swept through a textile factory in Fuzhou and claimed the lives of 60 workers.[28]

On October 2, 2005, floodwaters from Typhoon Longwang swept away a military school, killing at least 80 paramilitary officers.[28]

Geography

Fuzhou is located in the northeast coast of Fujian province, connects jointly northwards with Ningde and Nanping, southwards with Quanzhou and Putian, westwards with Sanming respectively.

Climate

Fuzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian Monsoon; the summers are long, very hot and humid, and the winters are short, mild and dry. In most years, torrential rain occurs during the monsoon in the second half of May. Fuzhou is also liable to typhoons in late summer and early autumn. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 10.9 °C (51.6 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 19.84 °C (67.7 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24 percent in March to 54 percent in July, the city receives 1,607 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.9 °C (29 °F) on 25 January 2016 to 41.7 °C (107 °F) on 26 July 2003.[29][30]

Climate data for Fuzhou (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
28.5
(83.3)
30.3
(86.5)
36.2
(97.2)
37.5
(99.5)
39.1
(102.4)
41.7
(107.1)
40.6
(105.1)
39.3
(102.7)
36.7
(98.1)
33.4
(92.1)
26.5
(79.7)
41.7
(107.1)
Average high °C (°F) 15.8
(60.4)
16.7
(62.1)
19.2
(66.6)
23.9
(75.0)
27.7
(81.9)
30.9
(87.6)
34.5
(94.1)
33.7
(92.7)
31.0
(87.8)
27.0
(80.6)
22.7
(72.9)
18.1
(64.6)
25.1
(77.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.1
(53.8)
14.3
(57.7)
18.9
(66.0)
23.0
(73.4)
26.4
(79.5)
29.3
(84.7)
28.8
(83.8)
26.6
(79.9)
22.7
(72.9)
18.4
(65.1)
13.8
(56.8)
20.5
(68.8)
Average low °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
9.3
(48.7)
11.2
(52.2)
15.6
(60.1)
19.8
(67.6)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.6
(78.1)
23.7
(74.7)
19.7
(67.5)
15.5
(59.9)
10.9
(51.6)
17.4
(63.4)
Record low °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
0.3
(32.5)
6.2
(43.2)
10.9
(51.6)
18.9
(66.0)
20.7
(69.3)
20.3
(68.5)
18.3
(64.9)
12.2
(54.0)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
−1.9
(28.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 49.9
(1.96)
84.9
(3.34)
141.5
(5.57)
154.4
(6.08)
187.8
(7.39)
202.0
(7.95)
123.0
(4.84)
169.4
(6.67)
156.4
(6.16)
47.6
(1.87)
40.9
(1.61)
34.0
(1.34)
1,391.8
(54.78)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.7 14.4 17.5 17.8 18.2 15.9 10.4 12.1 11.6 7.1 7.2 7.1 149.0
Average relative humidity (%) 72 75 77 76 76 79 74 75 72 67 68 70 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.6 79.2 89.1 111.0 114.4 141.9 225.6 199.2 153.7 144.2 120.3 126.9 1,607.1
Percent possible sunshine 31 25 24 29 28 35 54 49 42 40 37 39 36
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000),[31][32]

Administrative divisions

Historical population
YearPop.±%
2000[2]6,386,013—    
2010[2]7,115,370+11.4%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

The administrative divisions of Fuzhou have been changed frequently throughout history. From 1983, the Fuzhou current administrative divisions were formed officially, namely, 5 districts and 8 counties. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing (Foochow Romanized: Hók-chiăng) and Changle (Foochow Romanized: Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties were promoted to county-level cities; Changle became a district in 2017. Despite these changes, the administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65 percent of Fujian Province.

The city of Fuzhou has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts, 1 county-level city, and 6 counties:

Map
Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)[2]
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
City proper 2,921,763 1,015.07 2878.39
Gulou District 鼓楼区 Gǔlóu Qū 687,706 36.60 18,790
Taijiang District 台江区 Táijiāng Qū 446,891 18.28 24,447
Cangshan District 仓山区 Cāngshān Qū 762,746 139.41 5,471
Mawei District 马尾区 Mǎwěi Qū 231,929 254.33 912
Jin'an District 晋安区 Jìn'ān Qū 792,491 566.45 1,399
Changle District 长乐区 Chánglè Qū 682,626 717.54 951
Suburban and Rural
Minhou County 闽侯县 Mǐnhóu Xiàn 662,118 2,133.03 310
Lianjiang County 连江县 Liánjiāng Xiàn 561,490 1,190.67 472
Luoyuan County 罗源县 Luóyuán Xiàn 207,677 1,081.17 192
Minqing County 闽清县 Mǐnqīng Xiàn 237,643 1,468.90 162
Yongtai County 永泰县 Yǒngtài Xiàn 249,455 2,243.41 111
Pingtan County 平潭县 Píngtán Xiàn 357,760 371.09 964
Satellite cities
Fuqing 福清市 Fúqīng Shì 1,234,838 1,932.43 639
Total 7,115,370 12,153.31 585.47

Culture

Banyan King, Fuzhou
Banyan King in Fuzhou National Forest Park (福州國家森林公園).

The City of Banyans is distinct from the mainstream inland cultures of central China, and in details vary from other areas of the Chinese coast

Language and art

Besides Mandarin Chinese, the majority local residents of Fuzhou (Fuzhou people) also speak Fuzhou dialect (福州話), the prestige form of Eastern Min.

Min opera, also known as Fuzhou drama, is one of the major operas in Fujian Province. It enjoys popularity in the Fuzhou area and in neighboring parts of Fujian such as the northeast and northwest areas where the Fuzhou dialect is spoken, as well as in Taiwan and the Malay Archipelago. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from folk tales, historical novels, or ancient legends, including such traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and "Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi".[33]

Architecture

Zuohai Park North Gate
Traditional Fuzhounese architetcure

Religion

The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in Fuzhou are Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. Traditionally, many people practice both religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist monasteries, Taoist temples and Buddhist monks.

Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of Fuzhou.

The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and traditional legends. For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of Wealth in Fuzhou after the novel Journey to the West was issued in Ming dynasty.

As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of Lady Linshui is viewed as one of the three most influential local religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu and Baosheng Dadi (保生大帝).

Local cuisine

Litchi Pork
Fuzhou's local dish Litchi Pork(荔枝肉), famous for its sweet and sour flavor

Fuzhou cuisine is most notably one of the four traditional cooking styles of Fujian cuisine, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as xianwei (simplified Chinese: 鲜味; traditional Chinese: 鮮味; pinyin: xiānwèi), as well as retaining the original flavor of the main ingredients instead of masking them. In Fuzhou cuisine, the taste is light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, and often have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh vegetables and seafood and often added with local cooking wine (福建老酒).

Fuzhou is famous for its street food and snacks. Some notable street food dishes include Fuzhou fish balls (魚丸), meat-pastry dumplings (扁肉燕), rice scroll soup (鼎邊糊),gong pian (光餅)- a kind of mildly savoury pastry,pork floss (肉鬆) etc. Many of these street food dishes have a long history, for example rice scroll soup became popular in Fuzhou in the early part of the Qing dynasty. As more Fuzhou residents settled overseas, Fuzhou dishes spread to Taiwan, South East Asia and the U.S.. For example, one is able to find gong pian and Fuzhou fish balls in Sitiawan in Ipoh, Malaysia while Fuzhou fish balls, meat-pastry dumplings and rice scroll soup can be found in New York's Chinatown.

Fuzhou residents also enjoy eating festival foods during traditional Chinese holidays. For example, red and white rice cakes (年糕) are served over Chinese New Year, stuffed yuanxiao (元宵) during the Lantern Festival, zongzi during Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao over the winter solstice.

Special crafts

Bodiless lacquerware (脫胎漆器), paper umbrellas and horn combs (角梳) are the "Three Treasures" of Fuzhou traditional arts. In addition, bodiless lacquerware, together with cork pictures (軟木畫) and Shoushan stone sculptures (壽山石雕) are called "Three Superexcellences" of Fuzhou.

Media

Fuzhou Evening News(福州晚报), Strait News(海峡都市报) and Southeast Express(东南快报) are the three most primary newspapers in the city. Fuzhou Daily(福州日报) is the official newspaper of the Fuzhou Committee of Communist Party of China.[34] FZTV, the local municipal television station has four channels.[35] As the capital, the provincial state-owned Fujian Media Group, Fujian Daily Newspaper Group and Straits Publishing & Distributing Group also headquarter here.

Transportation

Airports

The city is served by Fuzhou Changle International Airport, which replaces Fuzhou Yixu Airport, the old airfield. The former is its main international airport and an air-hub in southeast China, while the latter was turned into a PLA airbase after 1997.

Railways

Fuzhou Train
Fuzhou Rail Station

Fuzhou is a railway hub in northern Fujian. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen Railways form part of the Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor and can accommodate high-speed trains at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph). The Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway links the city to Beijing through its nearby inner land province Jiangxi at speeds up to 350 km/h (220 mph). The Nanping–Fuzhou Railway and Xiangtang–Putian Railway provide rail access inland. The latter line can carry trains at speeds of 200 km/h (124 mph). The regional Fuzhou-Mawei Cargo Railway runs from the Fuzhou Railway Station eastward to the port in Mawei District. Fuzhou has two main railway stations, Fuzhou and Fuzhou South. Fuzhou station is often just referred to as Fuzhou station given its central location.

Subway

The first metro line opened linking the South of the city and the North above the river, and two lines under construction.[36]

The line 1 links the two Railway stations of the city. The Fuzhou Rail Station is located north of city center, near the North Second Ring Road. Fuzhou South Railway Station, located in Cangshan district, is a key landmark of the New City development scheme, began in 2007 and was completed in 2010.

Seaport

Lo-nguong Bay
The dock in Luoyuan Bay, Fuzhou. The construction of a new industrial park is still in progress.

The passenger liners regularly sail between ROC's Matsu Islands and the port in Mawei District.[37][38]

The high speed ferry sails across Taiwan Strait between the port in Pingtan County, the mainland's closest point to Taiwan, to Taipei and Taichung, spending about 3 hours.[39]

History of Fuzhou port

In 1867 the Fuzhou seaport was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Fuzhou Navy Yard was established: A shipyard and an arsenal were built under French guidance and a naval school was opened. A naval academy was also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu (1854–1921).

The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat in the Second Opium War (1856–60). But most talented students continued to pursue a traditional Confucian education, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard, which had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively little industry. The port was occupied by the Japanese during 1940–45.

Since 1949, Fuzhou has grown considerably. Transportation has been improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping. In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the main Chinese railway system began operation. The port has also been improved; Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchorage and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East China Sea have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs.

Economy

Fuzhou's GDP (Nominal) trend[2]
Year GDP
(billions of CN¥)
Growth (%)
2005 172.000 9.8
2006 165.694 12.2
2007 197.459 15.1
2008 228.416 13.0
2009 252.428 12.8
2010 306.821 14.0
2011 373.478 13.0
Fuzhou Taijiang
Taijiang District (Financial District) of Fuzhou.

Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for commercial banking, designer brands and timber-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou was designated one of China's "open" cities in the new open-door policy inviting foreign investments. Handicrafts remain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquer and wood products.

Its GDP was ¥75,614 (c. US$12,140) per capita in 2015, ranked no. 52 among 659 Chinese cities.

Fuzhou is undoubtedly the province's political, economic and cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. In 2008, Fuzhou's GDP amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an increase of 13 percent.[40]

Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream.[41]

In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita GDP grew to ¥33,615.[41] During the same period, Fuzhou approved 155 foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43 percent to US$1.002 billion.[41]

Fuzhou Cityscape (Taixi CBD)
Taixi Central Business District

Economic and Technological Zones

  • Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone

The Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in January 1985 by State Council, with a total planning area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. It is located close to Fuzhou Changle International Airport and Fuzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution, automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry.[42]

  • Fuzhou Export Processing Zone

The Fuzhou Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005 with the approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the Fuzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned land area of 1.14 square kilometres (0.44 sq mi).[43]

  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone

The Fuzhou Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State Council, with a planning area of 1.8 square kilometres (0.69 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the free trade zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production, shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading, and distribution.[44]

  • Residential Buildings in Fuzhou
    Residential Buildings in Fuzhou
    Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Residential Buildings in Fuzhou
Residential Buildings in Fuzhou

The Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the Fuzhou Municipal Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which covers 1.2 square kilometres (0.46 sq mi) in the zone, making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the zone in 1999. It covers an area of 5.6 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road.[45]

  • Fuzhou Science and Technology Park

The Fuzhou Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The planned area is 5.5 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi) and is divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information technology, and biotechnology. The zone is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away from the China National Highway 316 and 41 kilometres (25 mi) away from the Fuzhou Changle International Airport.[46]

  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

The Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. The current area is 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and 52 kilometres (32 mi) away from Fuzhou Changle International Airport.[47]

Cityscape

Fuzhou skyline
Fuzhou skyline, the city hall is on the left, and the Financial District is on the right.
Fuzhou Taixi CBD
Fuzhou Taixi Central Business District

Tourist attractions

Historical / cultural

  • Sanfang Qixiang (三坊七巷) "Three Lanes and Seven Alleys" (A cluster of ancient residential buildings dating from the late Jin dynasty now features a pedestrian zone with shops along the street)
  • Lin Zexu Memorial Hall (林则徐纪念馆) (Aomen Rd)
  • West Lake (福州西湖) (An artificial landscape-style lake built in 282)
  • Hualin Temple (华林寺) (Built in 964, Song dynasty) Its main hall is known as the oldest surviving wooden building in south China and was confirmed as an important heritage site under state protection in 1982.
  • Dizang Temple (The Temple of Sacrificing Guardian of the Earth, founded in 527)
  • Xichan Temple (西禅寺) (Founded in 867)
  • Wu Ta (乌塔) "Black Pagoda" (Originally built in 799, rebuilt in 936)
  • Bai Ta (白塔) "White Pagoda" (On the top of Mount Yu, originally built in 905, 67 m in height, collapsed in 1534, rebuilt in 1548, 41 m in height)
  • Yongquan Temple (涌泉寺) (Founded in 915, and located on the top of Mount Gu)
  • Mount Gu (鼓山)
  • Mount Qi (旗山) (In Nanyu, Minhou County.)
  • Luoxing Tower (罗星塔) (In Mawei District and built in the Song dynasty. Was called "China Tower")
  • Tanshishan cultural relics (昙石山文化遗址) (In Ganzhe, Minhou County)
  • Saint Dominic's Cathedral
  • St. John's Church, Fuzhou
Fuzhou confucian temple

Fuzhou Confucian temple

Saint Dominic's Cathedral

Saint Dominic's Cathedral

St. John's Church, Fuzhou

St. John's Church, Fuzhou

Recreational

  • Fujian Museum (福建省博物院) (Near West Lake)
  • Wulongjiang Shidi Park (乌龙江湿地公园) (A wetland park. However, the park is in distress due to ineffective environmental protection and construction)
  • Beach Park (沙滩公园)
  • Fuzhou Beach Park
    Fuzhou Beach Park
    Chating Park (茶亭公园)
  • Zuohai Park (左海公园)
  • Minjiang Park (闽江公园) (On the two banks of the Min River)
  • Pingshan Park (屏山公园)
  • Mount Jinniu Park (金牛山公园) (Near the Fuzhou West Long-Distance Bus Station)
  • Mount Jinji Park (金鸡山公园)
  • Fuzhou National Forest Park (福州国家森林公园)
  • Sandiejing Forest Park (三叠井森林公园)
  • Fuzhou Hot Spring Park (福州温泉公园)
  • Fuzhou Zoo (福州动物园) (This new zoo was built in 2008 after moving from its old location by West Lake)
Fuzhou Beach Park
Fuzhou Beach Park

Notable people

  • Yao Jinnan (姚金男, 1995–present) Chinese artistic gymnast who represented China at the London 2012 Olympic Games. She is the 2014 World Uneven Bars Champion and a 5 time world medallist at the 2011 World Gymnastics Championships and the 2014 World Gymnastics Championships.
Fuzhou Linzexu
Fuzhou Memorial Hall of Lin Zexu

Education

Colleges and universities

Hwa nan college
The old campus of Fujian Normal University

Three Universities above take the leading position in the province, and they are supported by Fujian Government to build High-level University.[48][49]

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High schools

  • Fuzhou Foreign Language School (福州外国语学校)
  • Fuzhou Gezhi High School(福州格致中学)
  • Fuzhou No.1 Middle School(福州第一中学)
  • Fuzhou No.3 Middle School(福州第三中学)
  • Fuzhou Senior High School(福州高级中学)
  • Fuzhou No.4 Middle School(福州第四中学)
  • Fuzhou No.8 Middle School(福州第八中学)
  • Fuzhou No.2 Middle School(福州第二中学)
  • The Affiliated High School Of Fujian Normal University (福建师范大学附属中学)
  • Fuzhou Pingdong Middle School(福州屏东中学)

See also

References

  1. ^ Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 24.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Fuzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau". Fuzhou.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  3. ^ Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 24.
  4. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  5. ^ Jesus Leal Trujillo, Joseph Parilla (February 10, 2015). "The World's 10 Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas". Brookings Institution.
  6. ^ 2016中国城市综合发展指标发布 北上深位列三甲.
  7. ^ Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian (中国古今地名大词典), (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe, 2005), 3116.
  8. ^ Sladen, Douglas (1895), "Bits of China", The Japs at Home, 5th ed., New York: New Amsterdam Book Co., p. 279.
  9. ^ a b Xu Xiaowang (徐曉望), 2006. Fujian Tong Shi 福建通史, Fujian People's Publishing 福建人民出版社.
  10. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, Yue Wang Goujian Shijia 越王勾踐世家.
  11. ^ Yu 1986, p. 456.
  12. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 420. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Foochow was reserved for trade with the Philippines (a similar role had been assumed by Ch'iian- chou between 1368 and 1374 and again after 1403 in the Yung-le era)
  13. ^ Spence, Jonathan D., The Chan's Great Continent: China in Western Minds, 1999, W.W.Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-31989-7, pp.20–21
  14. ^ *Burton, Margaret E. (1912). Notable Women of Modern China. New York: Fleming H. Revell. p. 42.
  15. ^ 中華共和國人民革命政府; Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó Rénmín Gémìng Zhèngfǔ, also known as the Fujian People's Revolutionary Government (福建人民革命政府, Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ). Compare 中華共和國 to the shorter, more ambiguous 中華民國 (Zhonghua Minguo, "Folk-state of China"), which was the one-party state under Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek against which Chen and the 19th rebelled (translated into English nonetheless as the "Republic of China").
  16. ^ 晚清民國史 [History of the late Qing and the Republic]. 五南圖書出版股份有限公司. 2002. pp. 440–. ISBN 978-957-11-2898-6.
  17. ^ Hu, Pu-yu (1974). A brief history of Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) (1st ed.). Taipei, Taiwan: Chung Wu Publishing Co. p. 142.
  18. ^ Dreyer, Edward L. (1995). China at War, 1901-1949. London, New York City: Longman. p. 107. ISBN 0-521480-01-9.
  19. ^ Strahan, Lachlan (1996). Australia's China: Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s. Cambridge, New York City: Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-582051-25-8.
  20. ^ a b Winchester, Simon. (2008). The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom (1st ed.). New York: Harper. pp. 143–151. ISBN 978-0060884598.
  21. ^ Smith, Nancy. "The Freeman Orientation". Wesleyan Alumni Magazine. Wesleyan University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010.
  22. ^ "League of Nations Timeline - 1944". Indiana University. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  23. ^ 福州有福,完好无损迎来解放. society.people.com.cn.
  24. ^ 一·二○”大轰炸60周年 沙县退休职工忆尘封历史. 66163.com. 2015-02-04.
  25. ^ 1967,军队介入平息福州武斗乱局.
  26. ^ 福州万门程控电话开通25周年纪念专题.
  27. ^ OPENING TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD. China.org.cn
  28. ^ a b Major Events Across The Taiwan Straits Archived April 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
  30. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-12-02.
  31. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  32. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  33. ^ "Min Opera". cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25.
  34. ^ 福州的报纸
  35. ^ 福州广播电视台本台介绍
  36. ^ "Fuzhou Metro merges sleek future with rich heritage". www.chinadaily.com.cn. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  37. ^ Direct shipping services between Taiwan's Matsu and Mawei in mainland China, China Daily, 2010-04-19
  38. ^ 福州连江县黄岐至马祖白沙客运航线通航. Xinhua News Fujian.
  39. ^ First high-speed ship to Taiwan sails out of Pingtan
  40. ^ "China Expat city Guide Dalian". China Expat. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  41. ^ a b c "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  42. ^ "Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  43. ^ "Fuzhou Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. 2005-06-03. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  44. ^ "Fuzhou Free Trade Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  45. ^ "Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  46. ^ "Fuzhou Science and Technology Park". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  47. ^ "Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  48. ^ 'High-level university construction' a hot phrase at Fujian two sessions, China Daily, 2016-01-19
  49. ^ 福州大学、福建师范大学、福建农林大学着手建设高水平大学, Fujian Daily, 2014-02-20

Sources

  • A Brief History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Hu Pu-yu, (Chung Wu Publishing Co. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, 1974) pg 142.
  • China at War 1901–1949, Edward L. Dreyer, (Longman, London and New York, 1995) pg 235.
  • Australia's China, Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s, Lachlan Strachan, (Cambridge University Press 1996) pg 107.
  • Bomb, Book & Compass, Joseph Needham and the Great Secrets of China, Simon Winchester, (Penguin *Group Australia, Camberwell, Victoria) pp 143–151.
  • op.cit.
  • wesleyan.edu
  • indiana.edu
  • politics.people.com.cn

External links

4th Garrison Division of Fuzhou Military Region

Independent Division of Jiangxi Provincial Military District(Chinese: 江西省军区独立师)(1st Formation) was formed in 1966 from the Public Security Contingent of Jiangxi province. The division was composed of three regiments (1st to 3rd).

In October 1969 the division moved to Xiamen, Fujian as the replacement of 93rd Army Division, and renamed as 4th Garrison Division of Fuzhou Military Region(Chinese: 福州军区守备第4师).

In December 1969, all its regiments were renamed as follows:

12th Garrison Regiment (former 1st);

13th Garrison Regiment (former 2nd);

14th Garrison Regiment (former 3rd).On February 1 1970, the division merged with Xiamen Military Sub-district and became Xiamen Garrison District.

In December 1980, Xiamen Garrison District was renamed as 4th Garrison Division of Fuzhou Military Region again.

The division was then composed of:

12th Garrison Regiment;

13th Garrison Regiment;

14th Garrison Regiment;

15th Garrison Regiment;

Artillery Regiment;

Shipping Group.In October 1985 the division was inactivated and became Xiamen Garrison District again.

Chinatown, Manhattan

Manhattan's Chinatown (simplified Chinese: 曼哈顿华埠; traditional Chinese: 曼哈頓華埠; pinyin: Mànhādùn huábù; Jyutping: Maan6haa1deon6 waa1bou6) is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, and Tribeca to its west. Chinatown is home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. With an estimated population of 90,000 to 100,000 people, Manhattan's Chinatown is also one of the oldest Chinese ethnic enclaves. The Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, comprising an estimated 819,527 uniracial individuals as of 2014.Historically, Chinatown was primarily populated by Cantonese speakers. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, large numbers of Fuzhounese-speaking immigrants also arrived and formed a sub-neighborhood annexed to the eastern portion of Chinatown, which has become known as Little Fuzhou (小福州). As many Fuzhounese and Cantonese speakers now speak Mandarin—the official language in China and Taiwan—in addition to their native languages, this has made it more important for Chinatown residents to learn and speak Mandarin. Although now overtaken in size by the rapidly growing Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), located in the nearby borough of Queens – also within New York City – the Manhattan Chinatown remains a dominant cultural force for the Chinese diaspora, as home to the Museum of Chinese in America and as the headquarters of numerous publications based both in the U.S. and China that are geared to overseas Chinese.

Chinatowns in Brooklyn

The first Brooklyn Chinatown (simplified Chinese: 布鲁克林华埠; traditional Chinese: 布魯克林華埠; pinyin: bùlǔkèlín huábù), was originally established in the Sunset Park area of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic Chinese enclaves outside of Asia, as well as within New York City itself. As this Chinatown is rapidly evolving into an enclave predominantly of Fuzhou immigrants from Fujian Province in China, it is now increasingly common to refer to it as the Little Fuzhou or Fuzhou Town of the Western Hemisphere; as well as the largest Fuzhou enclave of New York City.

Brooklyn's Chinese population continues to grow and expand highly rapidly, and the borough has since evolved three larger Chinatowns, between Sunset Park, Bensonhurst, and Avenue U in Sheepshead Bay. There are also several newer satellite Chinatowns in Bay Ridge, Borough Park, Coney Island, Dyker Heights, Gravesend, and Marine Park, as evidenced by the growing number of Chinese-run fruit markets, restaurants, beauty and nail salons, small offices, and computer and consumer electronics dealers. While the foreign-born Chinese population in New York City jumped 35 percent between 2000 and 2013, to 353,000 from about 262,000, the foreign-born Chinese population in Brooklyn increased 49 percent during the same period, to 128,000 from 86,000, according to The New York Times. The newer Brooklyn Chinatowns that evolved are mostly Cantonese speaking and therefore they are sometimes regarded as a Little Hong Kong/Guangdong or Cantonese Town. Hakka, another popular Chinese language, is gaining popularity in the Brooklyn Chinatowns.

Foochow Romanized

Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; Chinese: 平話字) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (Chinese: 福州話羅馬字), is a Latin alphabet for the Fuzhou dialect of Eastern Min adopted in the middle of the 19th century by Western missionaries. It had varied at different times, and became standardized in the 1890s. Foochow Romanized was mainly used inside of Church circles, and was taught in some Mission Schools in Fuzhou. But unlike its counterpart Pe̍h-ōe-jī for Hokkien, even in its prime days Foochow Romanized was by no means universally understood by Christians.

Fujian

Fujian (福建; formerly romanised as Fukien or Hokkien), is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou (present Nanping), two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China.

As a result of the Chinese Civil War, Historical Fujian is now divided between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taiwan, and both territories are named the Fujian province in their respective administration divisions. The majority of the territory of historical Fujian (the mainland territory and a few islands) currently make up the Fujian province of the PRC. The Fujian province of the ROC is made up of the Matsu Islands, the Wuqiu Islands and the Kinmen Islands, the two latter archipelagos constituting Kinmen County.

Fuzhou, Jiangxi

Fuzhou (simplified Chinese: 抚州; traditional Chinese: 撫州; pinyin: Fǔzhōu,[fùʈʂóu] ), Fuzhou dialect (Timtonese): Fú-Diù, also named as Gandong (Chinese: 赣东; literally: "East of Jiangxi"), is a prefecture-level city in the northeastern part of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.

The Fuzhou Prefecture-level City is located to the south of the provincial capital Nanchang, bordered in the east by Fujian Province. Its total area is 18,800 km2 (7,300 sq mi). Its population is 3,700,000 people, using Timtonese as spoken language. The area is located northwest of the Wuyi Mountains, and is drained by the Fu River (Fuhe), which flows northwest and north, to the Poyang Lake (in the neighboring Nanchang Prefecture).It is well known as ‘The Cradle of the Talent’(才子之乡) and ‘Cultural State of Timtonese’(旴语文化之邦).

Fuzhou Changle International Airport

Fuzhou Changle International Airport (IATA: FOC, ICAO: ZSFZ) is an international airport serving Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian province, China. The airport was inaugurated on June 23, 1997, after being approved to start constructing in 1992. The current handling capacity is approximately 6.5 million people annually.

The airport is located near the shore of the Taiwan Strait in Zhanggang Subdistrict, Changle, about 50 km (31 mi) east of Fuzhou's city center.

In 2017, Fuzhou Airport handled 12,469,235 passengers and was 29th busiest in China by total passenger traffic. In 2016 the airport was the 23rd busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic and the 28th busiest airport by traffic movements.

Fuzhou Metro

Fuzhou Metro (simplified Chinese: 福州地铁; traditional Chinese: 福州地鐵; pinyin: Fúzhōu Dìtiě) is a metro system in the city of Fuzhou, Fujian Province in China. The first line was planned to open in 2014, but the southern section (9.76 km (6.06 mi)) was delayed to 2016 and the northern section (15.13 km (9.40 mi)) was delayed to 2017. It was due to archaeological excavations according to report. The operator are Fuzhou Metro Group and Fuzhou CETC Rail Trainsit Company.

Fuzhou Metro was approved for construction on 3 June 2009. Trial service closed to the public began on 30 December 2015 and lasted for three months. The first operational line (the south section of Line 1 from Sanchajie Station to Fuzhou South Railway Station) started service on 18 May 2016.

Fuzhou South railway station

Fuzhounan (Fuzhou South) Railway Station (Chinese: 福州南站; pinyin: Fúzhōu Nánzhàn; Foochow Romanized: Hók-ciŭ Nàng-chhám) is a metro station and a railway station located in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, along the Wenzhou-Fuzhou Railway and Fuzhou-Xiamen Railway operated by the Nanchang Railway Bureau, China Railway Corporation.

Fuzhou University

Fuzhou University (FZU simplified Chinese: 福州大学; traditional Chinese: 福州大學; pinyin: Fúzhōu Dàxué) is a university located in Fuzhou, China. Split into two campuses by the Min River, Fuzhou University's Old Campus is located on the north bank of the river in the western part of Fuzhou City, while the New Campus is located on the edge of the city on the south bank, at the base of Qi Mountain.The university is in the fields of science and engineering nationally. It also has similar programs such as economics, management, arts and law. The university is part of the PRC national policy called Project 211 to enhance the development of the tertiary education system in mainland China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.

Fuzhou dialect

The Fuzhou dialect, (simplified Chinese: 福州话; traditional Chinese: 福州話; pinyin: Fúzhōuhuà; FR: Hók-ciŭ-uâ ) also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of eastern Fujian province. Like many other varieties of Chinese, the Fuzhou dialect is dominated by monosyllabic morphemes which carry lexical tones, and has a mainly analytic syntax. While the Eastern Min branch that it belongs to is closer to Southern Min than to other Sinitic branches such as Mandarin or Hakka, they are still not mutually intelligible.

Centered in Fuzhou City, the Fuzhou dialect covers eleven cities and counties: Fuzhou City Proper, Pingnan, Gutian, Luoyuan, Minqing, Lianjiang (including Matsu), Minhou, Changle, Yongtai, Fuqing and Pingtan. It is also the second local language in many northern and middle Fujian cities and counties such as Nanping, Shaowu, Shunchang, Sanming and Youxi.Fuzhou dialect is also widely spoken in some regions abroad, especially in Southeastern Asian countries like Malaysia and Indonesia. The city of Sibu in Malaysia is called "New Fuzhou" due to the influx of immigrants there in the late 19th century and early 1900s. Similarly, quite a significant number of Fuzhounese have emigrated to Singapore, Taiwan, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand in the decades since China's economic reform.

Fuzhounese Americans

Fuzhounese Americans, also known as Hokchiu Americans or Fuzhou Americans or imprecisely Fujianese, are Chinese American people of Fuzhou descent, in particular from Changle. A large number of Chinese restaurant workers in the United States are from Fuzhou. There are also a number of undocumented Fuzhounese immigrants in the United States who are smuggled in by organizations like the Snakeheads. Fuzhounese Americans also helped develop the Chinatown bus lines system, which originated as a means to transport restaurant workers from New York City to various parts of the East Coast of the United States. Fuzhounese in the U.S. are almost singularly concentrated on the East Coast, unlike other Chinese Americans and Asian American groups; with the vast majority in New York City and on Long Island, but also in New Jersey and in the Boston and Philadelphia metropolitan areas.

Fuzhou–Xiamen railway

The Fuzhou–Xiamen railway (simplified Chinese: 福厦铁路; traditional Chinese: 福廈鐵路; pinyin: Fúxià Tiělù; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-ē Thih-lo̍; Foochow Romanized: Hók-â Tʰiā-le̤) is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line in eastern China. The line, also known as the Fuxia railway, is named after its two terminal cities Fuzhou and Xiamen, both coastal cities in Fujian. The line has a total length of 274.9 kilometres and forms part of China's Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen passenger-dedicated railway. Construction began in 2005, and the line entered into operation on April 26, 2010.

The line is used for both passenger and freight operations. Trains running on the line reached top speeds of 250 kilometres per hour, although that was later reduced to 200 km/h.As of 2015, the railway was reported to be highly successful, the passenger trains running at full capacity. To increase capacity and improve travel times, plans were announced in 2015 for the construction of a new dedicated passenger service only Fuzhou–Zhangzhou line. It will run mostly parallel to the existing Fuzhou–Xiamen railway, but will support a higher maximum speed, 350 km/h.

Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen passenger-dedicated railway

The Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen passenger-dedicated railway (Chinese: 杭福深客运专线, formerly 东南沿海快速通道 or 东南沿海铁路) refers to the dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail lines (HSR) in service along the southeastern coast of China, linking the Yangtze River Delta on the East China Sea and Pearl River Delta on the South China Sea. It is one of the eight arterial high-speed rail corridors that form the backbone of China's HSR network. The southeast coast is the only region of high-speed rail construction where no previous conventional railroads existed. Hence, the high-speed rail lines built on the southeast coast will, for the most part, carry both passenger and freight traffic, and will not be passenger-dedicated lines that comprise most of the other HSR corridors in China.

An additional bridge will be built across Hangzhou Bay for high-speed rail, providing a direct link between Shanghai and Ningbo before 2020. The Southeast Coast HSR Corridor is approximately 1,745 km (1,084 mi) in length, and crosses three coastal provinces, Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong. Major cities along the route include Hangzhou, Ningbo, Taizhou and Wenzhou in Zhejiang; Fuzhou, Quanzhou, Xiamen and Zhangzhou in Fujian; and Chaozhou, Shantou, Shanwei, Huizhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong.

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway (simplified Chinese: 合福高速铁路; traditional Chinese: 合福高速鐵路; pinyin: Héfú Gāosù Tiělù), is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line between Hefei and Fuzhou, respectively the provincial capitals of Anhui and Fujian. It has a total length of 813 km (505 mi) and runs through Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian province. Construction began on April 27, 2010 and the line was opened on 28 June 2015. The line required total investment of about ¥109.8 billion. Trains may reach top speeds of 300 kilometres per hour on this line. Travel time by train from Hefei to Fuzhou was reduced from fourteen to four hours. The railway is part of the future Beijing–Taipei high-speed rail corridor.

Cities and towns along route include Changlinhe, Chaohu, Wuwei, Tongling, Nanling, Jingxian, Jingde, Jixi and Huangshan in Anhui, Wuyuan and Shangrao in Jiangxi, and Wuyishan, Jianou, Gutian, Nanping and Minqing in Fujian.

The Hefu passenger-dedicated line (PDL) constitutes a portion of the proposed Beijing–Taipei high-speed rail corridor, which would tunnel under the Taiwan Strait from Fuzhou to the island of Taiwan. The northern section of this project is being built as the section of the Beijing-Shanghai HSR from Beijing to Bengbu. From Bengbu, a high-speed rail spur (opened on 2012-10-16), extends to Hefei, supporting 4 hour travel time from Beijing South railway station to Hefei. The Hefu PDL would then extend the line from Hefei to Fuzhou on the western shores of the Taiwan Strait. Political differences between mainland China and Taiwan complicate plans to extend the line by tunnel to Taipei.

Jasmine tea

Jasmine tea (Chinese: 茉莉花茶; pinyin: mòlìhuā chá) is tea scented with aroma from jasmine blossoms to make a scented tea. Typically, jasmine tea has green tea as the tea base; however, white tea and black tea are also used. The resulting flavour of jasmine tea is subtly sweet and highly fragrant. It is the most famous scented tea in China.The jasmine plant is believed to have been introduced into China from eastern South Asia via India during the Han Dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD), and was being used to scent tea around the fifth century.

However, jasmine tea did not become widespread until the Qing Dynasty (1644 to 1912) when tea started to be exported in large quantities to the West. Nowadays, it's still a common drink served in tea shops around the world.

The jasmine plant is grown at high elevations in the mountains. Jasmine tea produced in the Chinese province of Fujian has the best reputation. Jasmine tea is also produced in Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Zhejiang provinces. Vietnam and Japan are also known for the production of jasmine tea.

Modern biological studies have shown that drinking jasmine tea can have health and immunity benefits. Jasmine tea contains several different kinds of antioxidants that provide protection to the membranes of red blood cells. This added protection helps fend off free radical-induced oxidation of the red blood cells.

Shenglong Global Center

Shenglong Global Center is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Fuzhou, Fujian, China. It will be 300 metres (984.3 ft) tall. Construction started in 2012 and is expected to be completed in 2017.

Wenzhou–Fuzhou railway

The Wenzhou–Fuzhou railway, also known as the Wenfu railway, (Chinese: 温福铁路) is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line running between Wenzhou in Zhejiang and Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian. The line has a total length of 298.4 km (185.4 mi) and forms part of the Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen passenger-dedicated railway. Construction began in August 2005, and the line opened to freight traffic on July 1, 2009. Passenger service began on September 28, 2009. Trains running on the line reach top speeds of 250 kilometres per hour, and the shortest trip between Wenzhou and Fuzhou takes 1.5 hours. The line required investment of ¥12.66 billion.

Xiangtang–Putian railway

Xiangtang–Putian railway or Xiangpu railway (simplified Chinese: 向莆铁路; traditional Chinese: 向莆鐵路; pinyin: xiàngpǔ tiělù), is a Class I high-speed railway in eastern China linking Nanchang and Fúzhou (福州), the provincial capitals, respectively, of Jiangxi and Fujian Province. The line is named after Xiangtang, a township south of Nanchang, which was originally slated to serve as a terminus, and Putian, on the coast of Fujian, at which the southern branch of the Xiangpu railway terminates. The line actually begins at the Lehua East Station, a rail junction for the Beijing–Kowloon and Nanchang–Jiujiang intercity railways north of Nanchang. The line heads south to Nanchang West Railway Station and bypasses Xiangtang on its way to Fǔzhou (抚州). After entering Fujian, the line forks at Yongtai with the northern fork heading to Fúzhou (福州) and the southern fork going to Putian. The Nanchang to Yongtai section of the line plus the northern fork to Fuzhou is officially named the Nanchang–Fuzhou or Changfu railway. The southern fork is officially named the Yongtai–Putian or Yongpu railway.Including both forks, the Xiangpu has a total length of 635.9 km (395 mi) with 24 stations. Construction of the line began on October 1, 2008 and required investments of about Y51.6 billion. The line opened on September 26, 2013. The Xiangtang–Putian railway can accommodate trains running at speeds of up to 200 km/h (124 mph) and serves as a major trunkline in China's railway network. Major cities and towns along route include Nanchang, Fǔzhou (抚州), Nancheng and Nanfeng in Jiangxi and Jianning, Taining, Jiangle, Sha County, Youxi, Yongtai, Fúzhou (福州) and Putian in Fujian.

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