Future proof

Future-proofing is the process of anticipating the future and developing methods of minimizing the effects of shocks and stresses of future events.[1] Future-proofing is used in industries such as electronics, medical industry, industrial design, and, more recently, in design for climate change. The principles of future-proofing are extracted from other industries and codified as a system for approaching an intervention in an historic building.

Alewife station elevator tower showing futureproofing, March 2017
The parking garage at Alewife station was built to accommodate two additional levels if needed, with tall elevator shafts and knockout panels for future windows.

Concept

In general, the term "future-proof" refers to the ability of something to continue to be of value into the distant future—that the item does not become obsolete.

The concept of future-proofing is the process of anticipating the future and developing methods of minimizing the effects of shocks and stresses of future events.[2] This term is commonly found in electronics, data storage, and communications systems. It is also found in industrial design, computers, software, health care/medical, strategic sustainable development, strategic management consultancy and product design.

Study of the principles behind “future-proofing” both within the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry and among outside industries can give vital information about the basis of future-proofing. This information can be distilled into several Principles which can be applied to a variety of areas.

Electronics and communications

In future-proof electrical systems buildings should have “flexible distribution systems to allow communication technologies to expand.”[3] Image-related processing software should be flexible, adaptable, and programmable to be able to work with several different potential media in the future as well as to handle increasing file sizes. Image-related processing software should also be scalable and embeddable – in other words, the use or place where the software is employed is variable and the software needs to accommodate the variable environment. Higher processing integration is required to support future computational requirements in image processing as well.[4]

In wireless phone networks, future-proofing of the network hardware and software systems deployed become critical because they are so costly to deploy that it is not economically viable to replace each system when changes in the network operations occur. Telecommunications system designers focus heavily on the ability of a system to be reused and to be flexible in order to continue competing in the marketplace.[5][6]

In 1998, teleradiology (the ability to send radiology images such as x-rays and CAT scans over the internet to a reviewing radiologist) was in its infancy. Doctors developed their own systems, aware that technology would change over time. They consciously included future-proof as one of the characteristics that their investment would need to have. To these doctors, future-proof meant open modular architecture and interoperability so that as technology advanced it would be possible to update the hardware and software modules within the system without disrupting the remaining modules. This draws out two characteristics of future-proofing that are important to the built environment: interoperability and the ability to be adapted to future technologies as they were developed.[7]

Industrial design

In industrial design, future-proofing designs seek to prevent obsolescence by analyzing the decrease in desirability of products. Desirability is measured in categories such as function, appearance, and emotional value. The products with more functional design, better appearance, and which accumulate emotional value faster tend to be retained longer and are considered future-proof. Industrial design ultimately strives to encourage people to buy less by creating objects with higher levels of desirability. Some of the characteristics of future-proof products that come out of this study include a timeless nature, high durability, aesthetic appearances that capture and hold the interest of buyers. Ideally, as an object ages, its desirability is maintained or increases with increased emotional attachment. Products that fit into society's current paradigm of progress, while simultaneously making progress, also tend to have increased desirability.[8] Industrial design teaches that future-proof products are timeless, have high durability, and develop ongoing aesthetic and emotional attraction.

Utility systems

In one region of New Zealand, Hawke's Bay, a study was conducted to determine what would be required to future-proof the regional economy with specific reference to the water system. The study specifically sought to understand the existing and potential water demand in the region as well as how this potential demand might change with climate change and more intense land use. This information was used to develop demand estimates that would inform the improvements to the regional water system. Future-proofing thus includes forward planning for future development and increased demands on resources. However, the study focuses on future demands almost exclusively and does not address other components of future-proofing such as contingency plans to handle disastrous damage to the system or durability of the materials in the system.[9]

Climate change and energy conservation

The term “future-proofing” in relation to sustainable design began to be used in 2007. It has been used more often in sustainable design in relation to energy conservation to minimize the effects of future global temperature rise and/or rising energy costs. By far, the most common use of the term “future-proofing” is found in relation to sustainable design and energy conservation in particular. In this context, the term is usually referring to the ability of a structure to withstand impacts from future shortages in energy and resources, increasing world population, and environmental issues, by reducing the amount of energy consumption in the building. Understanding the use of “future-proofing” in this field assists in development of the concept of future-proofing as applied to existing structures.

In the realm of sustainable environmental issues, future-proof is used generally to describe the ability of a design to resist the impact of potential climate change due to global warming. Two characteristics describe this impact. First, “dependency on fossil fuels will be more or less completely eliminated and replaced by renewable energy sources.” Second, “Society, infrastructure and the economy will be well adapted to the residual impacts of climate change.”[10]

In the design of low energy consuming dwellings, “buildings of the future should be sustainable, low-energy and able to accommodate social, technological, economic and regulatory changes, thus maximizing life cycle value.” The goal is to “reduce the likelihood of a prematurely obsolete building design.”[11]

In Australia, research commissioned by the Health Infrastructure New South Wales explored “practical, cost-effective, design-related strategies for “future-proofing” the buildings of a major Australian health department.” This study concluded that “a focus on a whole life-cycle approach to the design and operation of health facilities clearly would have benefits.” By designing in flexibility and adaptability of structures, one may “defer the obsolescence and consequent need for demolition and replacement of many health facilities, thereby reducing overall demand for building materials and energy.”[12]

The ability of a building's structural system to accommodate projected climate changes and whether “non-structural [behavioral] adaptations might have a great enough effect to offset any errors from… …an erroneous choice of climate change projection.” The essence of the discussion is whether adjustments in the occupant's behavior can future-proof the building against errors in judgment in estimates of the impacts of global climate change. There are clearly many factors involved and the paper does not go into them in exhaustive detail. However, it is clear that “soft adaptations” such as changes in behavior (such as turning lights off, opening windows for cooling) can have a significant impact on the ability of a building to continue to function as the environment around it changes. Thus adaptability is an important criterion in the concept of future-proofing” buildings. Adaptability is a theme that begins to come through in many of the other studies on future-proofing.[13]

There are examples of sustainable technologies that can be used in existing buildings to take “advantage of up-to-date technologies in the enhancement of the energetic performance of buildings.” The intent is to understand how to follow the new European Energy Standards to attain the best in energy savings. The subject speaks to historic buildings and specifically of façade renewal, focusing on energy conservation. These technologies include “improvement of thermal and acoustic performance, solar shadings, passive solar energy systems, and active solar energy systems.” The main value of this study to future-proofing is not the specific technologies, but rather the concept of working with an existing façade by overlapping it rather than modifying the existing one. The employment of ventilated facades, double skin glass facades, and solar shadings take advantage of the thermal mass of existing buildings commonly found in Italy. These techniques not only work with thermal mass walls, but also protect damaged and deteriorating historic facades to varying degrees.[14]

Architecture, engineering and construction

Use of the term “future-proofing” has been uncommon in the AEC industry, especially with relation to historic buildings until recently. In 1997, the MAFF laboratories at York, England were described in an article as “future-proof” by being flexible enough to adapt to developing rather than static scientific research. The standard building envelope and MEP services provided could be tailored for each type of research to be performed.[15] In 2009, “future-proof” was used in reference to “megatrends” that were driving education of planners in Australia.[16] A similar term, “fatigue proofing,” was used in 2007 to describe steel cover plates in bridge construction that would not fail due to fatigue cracking.[6] In 2012, a New Zealand-based organization outlined 8 principles of future-proof buildings: smart energy use, increased health and safety, increased life cycle duration, increased quality of materials and installation, increased security, increased sound control for noise pollution, adaptable spatial design, and reduced carbon footprint.[5]

Another approach to future-proofing suggests that only in more extensive refurbishments to a building should future-proofing be considered. Even then, the proposed time horizon for future-proofing events is 15 to 25 years. The explanation for this particular time horizon for future-proof improvements is unclear.[17] This author believes that time horizons for future-proofing are much more dependent on the potential service life of the structure, the nature of the intervention, and several other factors. The result is that time horizons for future-proof interventions could vary from 15 years (rapidly changing technology interventions) to hundreds of years (major structural interventions).

In the valuation of real estate, there are three traditional forms of obsolescence which affect property values: physical, functional, and aesthetic. Physical obsolescence occurs when the physical material of the property deteriorates to the point where it needs to be replaced or renovated. Functional obsolescence occurs when the property is no longer capable of serving the intended use or function. Aesthetic obsolescence occurs when fashions change, when something is no longer in style. A potential fourth form has emerged as well: sustainable obsolescence. Sustainable obsolescence proposes to be a combination of the above forms in many ways. Sustainable obsolescence occurs when a property no longer meets one or more sustainable design goals.[18] Obsolescence is an important characteristic of future-proofing a property because it emphasizes the need for the property to continue to be viable. Though not explicitly stated, the shocks and stresses to a property in the future are one potential way in which a property may become not future-proof. It is also important to note that each form of obsolescence can be either curable or incurable. The separation of curable and incurable obsolescence is ill-defined because the amount of effort one is willing to put into correcting it varies depending on several factors: people, time, budget, availability, etc.

However, the most informative realm within the AEC industry is the concept of resiliency. A new buzzword among preservationists and sustainable designers, resiliency has several clearly identified principles. In its common usage, “resilience” describes the ability to recoil or spring back into shape after bending, stretching, or being compressed. In ecology, the term “resilience” the capacity of an ecosystem to tolerate disturbance without collapsing into a qualitatively different state.[19] The principles of a resilient built environment include:

  • Local materials, parts and labor
  • Low energy input
  • High capacity for future flexibility and adaptability of use
  • High durability and redundancy of building systems
  • Environmentally responsive design
  • Sensitivity and responsiveness to changes in constituent parts and environment
  • High level of diversity in component systems and features

One reasonable approach to future-proof sustainable cities is an integrated multi-disciplinary combination of mitigation and adaptation to raise the level of resilience of the city. In the context of urban environments, resilience is less dependent on an exact understanding of the future than on tolerance of uncertainty and broad programs to absorb the stresses that this environment might face. The scale of the context is important in this view: events are viewed as regional stresses rather than local. The intent for a resilient urban environment is to keep many options open, emphasize diversity in the environment, and perform long-range planning that accounts for external systemic shocks.[20] Options and diversity are strategies similar to ecological resilience discussed above. This approach again points out the importance of flexibility, adaptability, and diversity to future-proofing urban environments.

Historic buildings

The design of interventions in existing buildings which are not detrimental to the future of the building may be called “future-proofing.” Future-proofing includes the careful consideration of how “sustainable” alterations to historic structures affect the original historic material of the structure. This effect is significant for long service life structures in order to prevent them from deteriorating and being demolished. This effect is especially significant in designated structures where the intent is to do no harm to the historic fabric of the structure.

Historic buildings are particularly good candidates for future-proofing because they have already survived for 50 to 100 years or more. Given their performance to date and appropriate interventions, historic building structures are likely to be able to last for centuries. This durability is evident in the buildings of Europe and Asia which have survived centuries and millennia. Extension of the service life of our existing building stock through sensitive interventions reduces energy consumption, decreases material waste, retains embodied energy, and promotes a long-term relationship with our built environment that is critical to the future survival of the human species on this planet.

Future-proofing of designated historic structures adds a level of complexity to the concepts of future-proofing in other industries as described above. All interventions on historic structures must comply with the Secretary's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. The degree of compliance and the Standard selected may vary depending on jurisdiction, type of intervention, significance of the structure, and the nature of the intended interventions. The underlying principle is that no harm is done to the structure in the course of the intervention which would damage the structure or make it unavailable to future generations. In addition, it is important that the historic portions of the structure be able to be understood and comprehended apart from the newer interventions.[21]

Infrastructure projects

Future-proofing is also a new methodology to address vulnerabilities of infrastructure systems. For example, analysis of domestic water infrastructure in the Southern California and Tijuana area completed by Rich and Gattuso in 2016[22] demonstrates that potential vulnerabilities include levee failures, material deterioration, and climate change.[23] With changes in the hydrologic conditions due to climate change, there will be increased emphasis on ensuring that the water infrastructure systems continue to function after a natural hazard event where specific components or facilities in the system are compromised.[24] In addition to the aqueducts and pipelines, local or regional infrastructure such as reservoirs, dams, local pipeline systems, pump stations, water treatment, and desalination facilities could be impacted by any of several potential natural hazards. Imported water via aqueducts and pipelines stands as the most significant vulnerability due to the high volumes required, the length of travel, and the nature of the delivery system. Conventional piping infrastructure is at risk for damage in a seismic event as the materials do not generally react well to the shear stresses brought upon by earthquakes.

Many new potable water technologies, such as desalination, physical treatment, chemical treatment, and biological treatment systems, can help to address these vulnerabilities. However, development of a future-proof infrastructure system con have longer lasting benefits. The San Diego Regional Water System has been implementing a program of infrastructure improvements to ensure plentiful water sources in the future. These include developed an emergency storage program aimed at providing a 75% service level and includes several key elements of the regional water system.[24] The regional water authority is also in the middle of a multi-decade long project to reline the existing pipeline system to increase their service life (Water-technology.net, 2012). the region also seeks to supplement the water supply through diversification of sources of water which will support continued growth of the regional population. Priorities for development of new water sources (in order of preference) are seawater desalination, indirect potable reuse (wastewater recycling), and additional water from the Colorado River.[25] These projects and improvements are examples of ways in which a water infrastructure systems may be developed in a future-proof way while also addressing hazard mitigation concerns, long term adaptive cycles.

The strategies being employed in San Diego and Tijuana are future-proofing their potable water infrastructure systems by including seismic loops and flexible oversized systems to prevent damage in seismic events accommodate future changes in use and population growth. The San Diego Regional Water System is pursuing strategies that diversify and increase redundancy of water supplies by including metropolitan water district sources, irrigation water transfer, canal lining to prevent leakage, conservation or reduced consumption, recycled wastewater, desalination, groundwater sources, and surface water sources. Development of new water tunnels and relining water mains, branches, and canals extends the service life, and fortifies the system while reducing physical and functional obsolescence and preventing further deterioration of the system. Ongoing maintenance, diversification efforts, capacity development, and planning for future requirements will ensure an ongoing future-proof supply of water for the region.[22]

Life cycle analysis & life cycle assessment

Life-cycle assessment/Analysis (LCA) can be used as an indicator of long term impacts to the environment, and an important aspect of future-proofing our built environment, quantifying the impacts of initial construction, periodic renovation, and regular maintenance of a building over an extended time span. A study completed published in 2015 by Rich[26] compares the impacts of gymnasiums constructed of different building materials over a 200-year period using the Athena Impact Estimator. Rich developed the phrase "First Impacts" to describe the environmental impacts of new construction from raw material extraction to occupancy of the building. When the environmental impacts of maintenance and replacement are considered with first impacts for a building, a complete picture of the environmental impacts are formed.

While choice of materials is important to initial impacts of a building or product, less durable materials lead to more frequent maintenance, operating expenses and replacement. By contrast, more durable materials may have more significant initial impacts, but those impacts will pay off in the long run by reducing maintenance, repairs, and operations expenses. Durability of all components of a building system should have equivalent service lives or allow for disassembly in order to maintain the shorter service life materials. This allows retention of materials that have longer service lives rather than disposing of them when removed to perform maintenance. Proper maintenance of a building is critical to long term service life because it prevents deterioration of less durable materials that can expose additional materials to deterioration.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Rich, Brian. “The Principles of Future-Proofing: A Broader Understanding of Resiliency in the Historic Built Environment.” Journal of Preservation Education and Research, vol. 7 (2014): 31–49.
  2. ^ Rich, Brian (2014). "The Principles of Future-Proofing: A Broader Understanding of Resiliency in the Historic Built Environment". Journal of Preservation Education and Research. 7: 31–49.
  3. ^ Coley, David, Tristan Kershaw, and Matt Eames. “A Comparison of Structural and Behavioural Adaptations to Future Proofing Buildings against Higher Temperatures.” Building and Environment 55 (2012): 159–66. Print.
  4. ^ Barreneche, Raul A. “Wiring Buildings for the Future.” Architecture 84.4 (1995): 123–29. Print.
  5. ^ a b CMS. "What Is Future-Proof Building?" Construction Marketing Services Limited 2012. Web. 18 November 2013.
  6. ^ a b Albrecht, P., and A. Lenwari. "Fatigue-Proofing Cover Plates." Journal of Bridge Engineering 12.3 (2007): 275–83. Print.
  7. ^ Roberson, G. H., and Y. Y. Shieh. "Radiology Information Systems, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, Teleradiology – Overview and Design Criteria." Journal of Digital Imaging 11.4 (1998): 2–7. Print.
  8. ^ Kerr, Joseph Robert. "Future-Proof Design: Must All Good Things Come to an End?" M.E.Des. University of Calgary (Canada), 2011. Print.
  9. ^ Bloomer, Dan, and Phillipa Page. Hawke's Bay Water Demand 2050: a Report for Hawke's Bay Regional Council: Page Bloomer Associates Ltd., 28 February 2012. Print.
  10. ^ Godfrey, Patrick, Jitendra Agarwal, and Priyan Dias. "Systems 2030–Emergent Themes." (2010). Print.
  11. ^ Georgiadou, M. C., T. Hacking, and P. Guthrie. "A Conceptual Framework for Future-Proofing the Energy Performance of Buildings." Energy Policy 47 (2012): 145–55. Print.
  12. ^ Carthey, Jane, et al. "Flexibility: Beyond the Buzzword – Practical Findings from a Systematic Literature Review." Health Environments Research and Design Journal 4.4 (Summer 2011): 89–108. Print.
  13. ^ Coley, David, Tristan Kershaw, and Matt Eames. "A Comparison of Structural and Behavioural Adaptations to Future Proofing Buildings against Higher Temperatures." Building and Environment 55 (2012): 159–66. Print.
  14. ^ Brunoro, Silvia. "An Assessment of Energetic Efficiency Improvement of Existing Building Envelopes in Italy." Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 19.6 (2008): 718–30. Print.
  15. ^ Lawson, Bryan. "Future Proof: The Maff Laboratories at York." Architecture today.82 (1997): 26–26. Print.
  16. ^ Meng, Lee Lik. "Megatrends Driving Planning Education: How Do We Future-Proof Planners?" Australian planner 46.1 (2009): 48–50. Print.
  17. ^ Shah, Sunil. Sustainable Refurbishment. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.
  18. ^ Is Sustainability the 4th Form of Obsolescence? PRRES 2010: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Real Estate Society 16th Annual Conference. 2012. Pacific Rim Real Estate Society (PPRES). Print.
  19. ^ Applegath, Craig, et al. "Resilient Design Principles and Building Design Principles." ResilientCity.org 2010. Web.
  20. ^ Thornbush, M., O. Golubchikov, and S. Bouzarovski. "Sustainable Cities Targeted by Combined Mitigation-Adaptation Efforts for Future-Proofing." Sustainable Cities and Society 9 (2013): 1–9. Print.
  21. ^ Weeks, Kay D. "The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties : With Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring & Reconstructing Historic Buildings." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships, Heritage Preservation Services, 1995. Print.
  22. ^ a b Rich, Brian D. and Gattuso, Meghan. 2016. “Future-Proofing Critical Water Infrastructure from an Economic and Hazard Resilience Perspective.” Originally published in the Association of Collegiate Schools or Architecture, 104th Annual Meeting Proceeding, Shaping New Knowledges., Seattle, WA. Corser, Robert and Haar, Sharon, Co-chairs. Pp. 636–643.
  23. ^ California Department of Water Resources (CDWR). 2009. “Delta Risk Management Strategy: Executive Summary.” http://www.water.ca.gov/ floodmgmt/dsmo/sab/drmsp/docs/drms_execsum_ ph1_final_low.pdf.
  24. ^ a b San Diego Regional Water Management Group (RWMG). 2013 San Diego Integrated Regional Water Management Plan: An Update of the 2007 IRWM Plan. http://sdirwmp.org/pdf/SDIRWM_Highlights_Sept2013.pdf and http://sdirwmp.org/pdf/SDIRWM_03_Region_Description_Sep2013.pdf
  25. ^ CDM. 2010. “Section 3: Assessment of Current Conditions.” “Section 5: Population, Growth and Land use Projections.” Section 6: Water Demand Projections.” “Section 9: Development of Water and Wastewater Alternatives.” Comisión Estatal de Servicios Públicos de Tijuana. http://www.riversimulator.org/Resources/Mexico/TijuanaWaterSupply.pdf
  26. ^ a b Rich, Brian D. Future-Proof Building Materials: A Life Cycle Analysis. Intersections and Adjacencies. Proceedings of the 2015 Building Educators’ Society Conference, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Gines, Jacob, Carraher, Erin, and Galarze, Jose, editors. Pp. 123–130.

External links

1080p

1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as full HD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens.

1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, smartphones, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders, smartphones and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution.

C

C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet. It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee (pronounced ) in English.

Chase Paymentech

Chase Paymentech is the payment processing and merchant acquiring business of JPMorgan Chase (NYSE: JPM). Paymentech payment platforms support businesses of all sizes to process payments, including credit, debit, and digital, alternative, mobile payment options. Paymentech can authorize payment transactions in more than 130 currencies. The company also provides business analytics, payment fraud detection, and data security solutions.In 2012, Chase Paymentech processed 29.5 billion transactions with a value of $655.2 billion.

Feature detection (web development)

Feature detection (also feature testing) is a technique used in web development for handling differences between runtime environments (typically web browsers or user agents), by programmatically testing for clues that the environment may or may not offer certain functionality. This information is then used to make the application adapt in some way to suit the environment: to make use of certain APIs, or tailor for a better user experience.Its proponents claim it is more reliable and future-proof than other techniques like user agent sniffing and browser-specific CSS hacks.

Futureproof

Futureproof may refer to:

Future proof, the process of anticipating future developments and events in the development of a product or system

Futureproof (album), a 1999 album by Pitch Black

Futureproof (novel), 2006 novel by N. Frank Daniels

Futureproof (band), an act from the fourth series of The X Factor

GSMA

The GSM Association (commonly referred to as 'the GSMA' or Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile) is a trade body that represents the interests of mobile network operators worldwide. Approximately 800 mobile operators are full GSMA members and a further 300 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem are associate members. The GSMA represents its members via industry programmes, working groups and industry advocacy initiatives. It also organises the mobile industry’s largest annual exhibition and conference, the Mobile World Congress, and several other events.The GSMA is headquartered in London with regional offices in Atlanta, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Barcelona, Brussels, Brasilia, Nairobi and New Delhi.The present Director General of the GSMA is Mats Granryd.

IEC 61850

IEC 61850 is an international standard defining communication protocols for intelligent electronic devices at electrical substations. It is a part of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 57 reference architecture for electric power systems. The abstract data models defined in IEC 61850 can be mapped to a number of protocols. Current mappings in the standard are to MMS (Manufacturing Message Specification), GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Event), SMV (Sampled Measured Values), and soon to Web Services. These protocols can run over TCP/IP networks or substation LANs using high speed switched Ethernet to obtain the necessary response times below four milliseconds for protective relaying.

Interlaced video

Interlaced video is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra bandwidth. The interlaced signal contains two fields of a video frame captured at two different times. This enhances motion perception to the viewer, and reduces flicker by taking advantage of the phi phenomenon.

This effectively doubles the time resolution (also called temporal resolution) as compared to non-interlaced footage (for frame rates equal to field rates). Interlaced signals require a display that is natively capable of showing the individual fields in a sequential order. CRT displays and ALiS plasma displays are made for displaying interlaced signals.

Interlaced scan refers to one of two common methods for "painting" a video image on an electronic display screen (the other being progressive scan) by scanning or displaying each line or row of pixels. This technique uses two fields to create a frame. One field contains all odd-numbered lines in the image; the other contains all even-numbered lines.

A Phase Alternating Line (PAL)-based television set display, for example, scans 50 fields every second (25 odd and 25 even). The two sets of 25 fields work together to create a full frame every 1/25 of a second (or 25 frames per second), but with interlacing create a new half frame every 1/50 of a second (or 50 fields per second). To display interlaced video on progressive scan displays, playback applies deinterlacing to the video signal (which adds input lag).

The European Broadcasting Union has argued against interlaced video in production and broadcasting. They recommend 720p 50 fps (frames per second) for the current production format—and are working with the industry to introduce 1080p 50 as a future-proof production standard. 1080p 50 offers higher vertical resolution, better quality at lower bitrates, and easier conversion to other formats, such as 720p 50 and 1080i 50. The main argument is that no matter how complex the deinterlacing algorithm may be, the artifacts in the interlaced signal cannot be completely eliminated because some information is lost between frames.

Despite arguments against it, television standards organizations continue to support interlacing. It is still included in digital video transmission formats such as DV, DVB, and ATSC. New video compression standards like High Efficiency Video Coding are optimized for progressive scan video, but sometimes do support interlaced video.

Jubilee line

The Jubilee line is a London Underground line that runs between Stratford in east London and Stanmore in the suburban north-west, via the Docklands, South Bank and West End. Opened in 1979, it is the newest line on the network, although some sections of track date back to 1932 and some stations to 1879.

The western portion beyond Baker Street was previously a branch of the Bakerloo line, while the new build was completed in two major sections: initially in 1979 to Charing Cross, then in 1999 with an extension to Stratford. The later stations are larger and have special safety features, both aspects being attempts to future-proof the line. Following the extension to east London, serving areas once poorly connected to the Underground, the line has seen a huge growth in passenger numbers and is the third-busiest on the network (after the Northern and Central lines), with over 213 million passenger journeys in 2011/12.

Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park the Jubilee line shares its route with the Metropolitan line and Chiltern Main Line. Between Canning Town and Stratford it runs parallel to the Stratford International branch of the Docklands Light Railway. The Jubilee line is coloured silver on the Tube map, to mark the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II, after which the line was named.

Next Generation Touring Car

Next Generation Touring Car, also known as NGTC and by its Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) designation TCN-1, is an FIA and TOCA specification and classification for production based race cars. The specification covers national level touring car racing. The goal of the limited choices in engines and parts in the NGTC classification is to allow more manufacturers and privateers to race by reducing the cost of a competitive car and to reduce reliance on the increasingly expensive Super 2000 equipment. The only significant differences between different models is the external body shells and the use of front- or rear-wheel drive; the suspension, brakes and transmissions are common to all cars, and engines are of uniform performance.

The specification was created for use in the British Touring Car Championship and was phased in over three years from the 2011 British Touring Car Championship season. NGTC engines were first used in the 2010 season by Pinkney Motorsport, Pirtek Racing and Special Tuning UK.The introduction of these new technical regulations were designed to fulfil the following criteria:

Dramatically reduce the design, build and running costs of the cars and engines

Maintain present levels of performance until 2013 to ensure performance parity with current S2000 cars until that point

Reduce the potential for significant performance disparities between cars

‘Future-proof’ the regulations by being able to easily modify the various performance parameters

Reduce reliance on WTCC S2000 equipment, due to increasing costs/complexity and concerns as to its future sustainability/directionIn December 2014 the FIA ratified support for technical regulations used in BTCC, designating the specification as TCN-1. The specification is a model for higher class national touring car championships to follow.

NuBus

NuBus (pron. 'New Bus') is a 32-bit parallel computer bus, originally developed at MIT and standardized in 1987 as a part of the NuMachine workstation project. The first complete implementation of the NuBus was done by Western Digital for their NuMachine, and for the Lisp Machines Inc. LMI Lambda. The NuBus was later incorporated in Lisp products by Texas Instruments (Explorer), and used as the main expansion bus by Apple Computer and NeXT. It is no longer widely used outside the embedded market.

Optical Transport Network

ITU-T defines an Optical Transport Network (OTN) as a set of Optical Network Elements (ONE) connected by optical fiber links, able to provide functionality of transport, multiplexing, switching, management, supervision and survivability of optical channels carrying client signals. An ONE may Re-time, Re-Amplify, Re-shape (3R) but it does not have to be 3R – it can be purely photonic.

RenderMan Interface Specification

The RenderMan Interface Specification, or RISpec in short, is an open API developed by Pixar Animation Studios to describe three-dimensional scenes and turn them into digital photorealistic images. It includes the RenderMan Shading Language.

As Pixar's technical specification for a standard communications protocol (or interface) between modeling programs and rendering programs capable of producing photorealistic-quality images, RISpec is a similar concept to PostScript but for describing 3D scenes rather than 2D page layouts. Thus, modelling programs which understand the RenderMan Interface protocol can send data to rendering software which implements the RenderMan Interface, without caring what rendering algorithms are utilized by the latter.

The interface was first published in 1988 (version 3.0) and was designed to be sufficiently future proof to encompass advances in technology for a significant number of years. The current revision is 3.2.1, released in November 2005.

What set the RISpec apart from other standards of the time was that it allowed using high-level geometric primitives, like quadrics or bicubic patches, to specify geometric primitives implicitly, rather than relying on a modeling application to generate polygons approximating these shapes explicitly beforehand. Another novelty introduced by the RISpec at the time was the specification of a shading language.

The RenderMan shading language allows material definitions of surfaces to be described not only by adjusting a small set of parameters, but in an arbitrarily complex fashion by using a C-like programming language to write shading procedures commonly known as procedural textures and shaders. Lighting, and displacements on the surface, are also programmable using the shading language. The shading language allows each statement to be executed in a SIMD manner, but does not insist on it. Another feature that sets renderers based on the RISpec apart from many other renderers is the ability to output arbitrary variables as an image: surface normals, separate lighting passes and pretty much anything else can be output from the renderer in a single pass.

RenderMan has much in common with OpenGL (developed by the now-defunct Silicon Graphics), despite the two APIs being targeted to different sets of users (OpenGL to real-time hardware-assisted rendering and RenderMan to photorealistic off-line rendering). Both APIs take the form of a stack-based state machine with (conceptually) immediate rendering of geometric primitives. It is possible to implement either API in terms of the other.

S1850M

The S1850M is a long range passive electronically scanned array radar for wide area search. The S1850M is produced by BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies (formerly AMS UK) and Thales. It is a modified version of the Thales Nederland SMART-L radar. The S1850M is advertised as being capable of fully automatic detection, track initiation and tracking of up to 1,000 targets at a range of 400 kilometres (250 mi). It is also claimed to be highly capable of detecting stealth targets, and is able to detect and track outer atmosphere objects at short range, making it capable of forming part of a Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence system.

The contract for initial production of the S1850M was signed in 2001; 2 for the UK, 1 for France and 1 for Italy, with a common prototype based in Toulon. In 2005 a follow-on contract was signed for 5 more for the UK, 1 more for France and 1 more for Italy.

An even stronger version of the S1850M is under testing, which is actually an updated version of the current SMART-L radar that the Dutch Navy will call the SMART-L-EWC (Early Warning Capability) Radar. This will have a greater search radius, be capable of detecting ballistic missiles and have a tracking range of 2000 km for ballistic missile defence and 480 km for air defence. SMART-L EWC is an programmable AESA radar which is characterized by full flexibility. Additional capabilities can be introduced during lifetime according to customer needs. This makes the radar future proof in case of evolving requirements.

SHEFA-2

SHEFA-2 is an undersea communication cable linking the Faroe Islands to mainland Scotland via the Northern Isles. It is named after the route on which it is being deployed (SHEtland-FAroes) and succeeds an earlier cable called SHEFA-1 on the same route.

SHEFA-2 runs from Tórshavn in the Faroe Islands to Maywick in Shetland, then from Sandwick in Shetland onwards to Ayre of Cara in Orkney, and from Manse Bay in Orkney to Banff in Aberdeenshire, on mainland Scotland. Establishing the SHEFA-2 cable took less than two years, from the planning of the project in June 2006 until March 2008, when the cable became ready for use.

SHEFA-1 was deployed from 1971 to 1994, when CANTAT-3 (the fibre-optic submarine cable between Canada and Europe, with branches to both Iceland and the Faroe Islands), was established. It was a coaxial cable with 120 channels, carrying 120 telephone conversations at a time.

SHEFA-2 is a fibre-optic submarine cable and the capacity with today’s technology is 57x10 gigabits per second. The total length of the cable is around 1000 km. SHEFA-2 includes the world’s longest purely passive optical fibre cable link (390 km), entirely without amplifiers. With no submarine repeaters and no power feeds, repair and maintenance of the submarine cable is minimized. At the same time, the solution is future proof, as the end-point technology is the only item in need of change to increase the capacity.

In the spring of 2013, the cable was cut at the south of Orkney. This led to major broadband disruptions throughout Shetland. Internet traffic was redirected onto the older and slower microwave links and the FARICE-1 cable.

In the summer of 2013, the cable was cut for the second time where it crosses the Moray Firth on the north-east coast of Scotland, causing more disruption to Internet connections. It is believed that fishing vessels are to blame for both cable breaks.

Thread (network protocol)

Thread is an IPv6-based, low-power mesh networking technology for IoT products, intended to be secure and future-proof. The Thread protocol specification is available at no cost, however this requires agreement and continued adherence to an EULA which states that "Membership in Thread Group is necessary to implement, practice, and ship Thread technology and Thread Group specifications." Membership of the Thread Group is subject to an annual membership fee except for the "Academic" tier.In July 2014, the "Thread Group" alliance was announced, which is a working group with the companies Nest Labs (a subsidiary of Alphabet/Google), Samsung, ARM Holdings, Qualcomm, NXP Semiconductors/Freescale, Silicon Labs, Big Ass Solutions, Somfy, OSRAM, Tyco International, and the lock company Yale in an attempt to have Thread become the industry standard by providing Thread certification for products. In August 2018 Apple joined the group raising hopes it will help popularize the protocol.Thread uses 6LoWPAN, which in turn uses the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol with mesh communication, as does Zigbee and other systems. Thread however is IP-addressable, with cloud access and AES encryption. A BSD licensed open-source implementation of Thread (called "OpenThread") has also been released by Nest.

Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware

Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware or simply Tiki, originally known as TikiWiki, is a free and open source Wiki-based content management system and online office suite written primarily in PHP and distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) license. In addition to enabling websites and portals on the internet and on intranets and extranets, Tiki contains a number of collaboration features allowing it to operate as a Geospatial Content Management System (GeoCMS) and Groupware web application.

Tiki includes all the basic features common to most CMSs such as the ability to register and maintain individual user accounts within a flexible and rich permission / privilege system, create and manage menus, RSS-feeds, customize page layout, perform logging, and administer the system. All administration tasks are accomplished through a browser-based user interface.

Tiki features an all-in-one design, as opposed to a core+extensions model followed by other CMSs. This allows for future-proof upgrades (since all features are released together), but has the drawback of an extremely large codebase (more than 1,000,000 lines).

Tiki can run on any computing platform that supports both a web server capable of running PHP 5 (including Apache HTTP Server, IIS, Lighttpd, Hiawatha, Cherokee, and nginx) and a MySQL database to store content and settings.

WebRoots Democracy

WebRoots Democracy is a youth-led think tank based in London which focuses on the intersection of technology and political participation. Its aim is to "modernise, enhance, and future-proof" democracy in the United Kingdom. It produces research on digital democracy and advocates for the introduction of online voting in elections.

The current Chief Executive is Areeq Chowdhury who founded WebRoots Democracy in 2014 at the age of 21 whilst a civil servant at the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The organisation is run by volunteers and is non-partisan.

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