Fusobacteria are obligately anaerobic non-sporeforming Gram-negative bacilli. Since the first reports in the late nineteenth century, various names have been applied to these organisms, sometimes with the same name being applied to different species. More recently, not only have there been changes to the nomenclature, but also attempts to differentiate between species which are believed to be either pathogenic or commensal or both. Because of their asaccharolytic nature, and a general paucity of positive results in routine biochemical tests, laboratory identification of the fusobacteria has been difficult. However, the application of novel molecular biological techniques to taxonomy has established a number of new species, together with the subspeciation of Fusobacterium necrophorum and F. nucleatum, and provided new methods for identification. The involvement of fusobacteria in a wide spectrum of human infections causing tissue necrosis and septicaemia has long been recognised, and, more recently, their importance in intra-amniotic infections, premature labour and tropical ulcers has been reported.
Since the first reports of fusobacteria in the late nineteenth century, the variety of species names has led to some confusion within the genera Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia. However, newer methods of investigation have led to a better understanding of the taxonomy, with the description of several new species of fusobacteria. Among the new species described are F. ulcerans from tropical ulcers, and several species from the oral cavity. Subspeciation of the important species F. necrophorum and F. nucleatum has also been possible. It is probable that the taxonomy of the fusobacteria may be further developed in the future.
|Fusobacterium novum in liquid culture|
Garrity & Holt 2012
Staley & Whitman, 2012
Staley & Whitman, 2012
|Families and genera|
The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 by The All-Species Living Tree Project.
Note 1: Species not used in the All-Species Living Tree Project
♠ Strain found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN
New evidence is emerging that this bacteria may cause or be related to human colon cancer. In 2011 investigators reported the presence of fusobacteria in colon cancer tissue ( Genome Res 2012; 22:292 ) and a new multicenter study provides evidence that some cases-particularly right-sided might be caused by infection by Fusobacteria.(1)
1. Bullman S et al. Science 2017 Dec 15; 358:1443.
Cetobacterium is a Gram-negative, pleomorphic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and non-motile genus of bacteria from the family of Fusobacteriaceae.Cetobacterium ceti
Cetobacterium ceti is a Gram-negative, and rod-shaped obligately anaerobic bacterium from the genus of Cetobacterium which has been isolated from sea mammals. Cetobacterium ceti represents a hitherto unknown line of descent peripherally associated to the fusobacteria and low G + C relatives.There is no growth of Cetobacterium ceti at 25°C or 45°C.Cetobacterium somerae
Cetobacterium somerae is a Gram-negative, microaerotolerant, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium from the genus of Cetobacterium which has been isolated from human feces. Cetobacterium somerae occur in intestinal tracts of freshwater fish.
Cetobacterium somerae produces cobalamin.Fusiform
Fusiform means having a spindle-like shape that is wide in the middle and tapers at both ends. It may refer to:
Fusiform, a body shape common to many aquatic animals, characterized by being tapered at both the head and the tail
Fusiform, a classification of aneurysm
Fusiform bacteria (spindled rods, that is, fusiform bacilli), such as the fusobacteria
Fusiform cell (biology)
Fusiform face area, a part of the human visual system which seems to specialize in facial recognition
Fusiform gyrus, part of the temporal lobe of the brain
Fusiform muscle, where the fibres run parallel along the length of the muscle
Fusiform neuron, a spindle-shaped neuronFusobacterium
Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacteria, similar to Bacteroides. Individual cells are slender' rod-shaped bacilli with pointed ends.
Strains of Fusobacterium cause several human diseases, including periodontal diseases, Lemierre's syndrome, and topical skin ulcers.
Although older sources state that Fusobacterium is part of the normal flora of the human oropharynx, the current consensus is that Fusobacterium should always be treated as a pathogen. F. prausnitzii, a gut commensal associated with healthy patients, was moved out of Fusobacterium into its own genus, Faecalibacterium, in 2002.Fusobacterium necrophorum
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a species of bacteria responsible for Lemierre's syndrome and other medical problems.Ilyobacter delafieldii
Ilyobacter delafieldii is a motile, gram-negative, obligately anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria, with type strain 10cr1 (=DSM 5704). It is notable for metabolising beta-Hydroxybutyric acid.Ilyobacter insuetus
Ilyobacter insuetus is a mesophilic and anaerobic bacterium from the genus of Ilyobacter which has been isolated from marine anoxic sediments from Venice in Italy.Leptotrichia buccalis
Leptotrichia buccalis is an anaerobic, Gram-negative rod bacteria. It is a constituent of normal oral flora.
Leptotrichia buccalis can be clearly identified using live blood analysis in dark field. They have a distinct form, which separates them from other rod forms.Leptotrichia goodfellowii
Leptotrichia goodfellowii is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Leptotrichia which has been isolated from human blood of an endocarditis patient.Leptotrichia trevisanii
Leptotrichia trevisanii is an aerotolerant, filamentous and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Leptotrichia which has been isolated from human blood.List of bacterial orders
This article lists the orders of the Bacteria.Necrotizing periodontal diseases
Necrotizing periodontal diseases are a type of inflammatory periodontal (gum) disease caused by bacteria (notably fusobacteria and spirochaete species). The diseases appear to represent different severities or stages of the same disease process, although this is not completely certain. These diseases usually have a sudden onset, and so the term acute is often added to the diagnosis. The mildest on the spectrum is necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), followed by the successively more severe conditions necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP), necrotizing stomatitis and finally cancrum oris (noma), which is frequently fatal.Propionigenium modestum
Propionigenium modestum is a gram-negative, strictly anaerobic organism. It is rod-shaped and around 0.5-0.6 x 0.5-2.0μm in size. It is important in the elucidation of mechanism of ATP synthase.Sneathia
Sneathia is a Gram-negative,rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and non-motile genus of bacteria from the family of Leptotrichiaceae. Sneathia is named of the microbiologist H. A. Snaeth.Sneathia sanguinegens
Sneathia sanguinegens is a Gram-positive and anaerobic bacterium from the genus of Sneathia which has been isolated from humans.Sphingobacteriales
The order Sphingobacteriales comprises four families of environmental bacteria.Streptobacillus
Streptobacillus is a genus of aerobic, gram-negative facultative anaerobe bacteria, which grow in culture as rods in chains.
Species associated with infection - S. moniliformis
Reported susceptibilities and therapies - penicillin, erythromycinStreptobacillus moniliformis
Streptobacillus moniliformis is a non-motile, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that is a member of the family Leptotrichiaceae. The genome of S. moniliformis is one of two completed sequences of the order Fusobacteriales. Its name comes the Greek word streptos for "curved" or "twisted", and the Latin words bacillus meaning "small rod" and moniliformis for "necklace". S. moniliformis is microaerophilic, requiring less oxygen than is present in the atmosphere for its growth.
Extant Life phyla/divisions by domain