Further-eastern European Time

Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time, the zone immediately higher than the Eastern European Time. As of September 2016, it is used in Belarus, western Russia and Turkey, and is also called Minsk Time, Moscow Time (MSK), or Turkey Time (TRT).

The zone was established in October 2011 as the official time for the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, and then followed by Belarus. It was originally called Kaliningrad Time in Russia; however, on 26 October 2014, most of Russia moved the UTC offset back one hour meaning that Kaliningrad Time is now UTC+02:00, and Moscow Time is UTC+03:00.

Several African and Middle Eastern countries use UTC+03:00 all year long, where it called East Africa Time (EAT) and Arabia Standard Time (AST).

Time zones of Europe
Time in Europe:
light blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
red Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
yellow Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
golden Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
light green Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed.


Until 2011, Further-eastern European Time was identical to Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00; UTC+03:00 with daylight saving time). However, on 27 March 2011, Russia moved to the so-called "year-round daylight saving time",[1] so that clocks would remain on what had been the summer time all year round, making Kaliningrad Time permanently set to UTC+03:00, peculiarly placing its time ahead of countries to its east during winter. Belarus followed Russia on 15 September 2011,[2] and the same decision was made by the Ukrainian parliament on 20 September 2011.[3] After strong criticism from the mass media, on 18 October 2011 the Ukrainian parliament cancelled its previous decision. In 2014 Russia permanently returned to winter time all year round, making Kaliningrad Time permanently set to UTC+02:00 [4] Transnistria, a breakaway territory from Moldova on the eastern side of the Dniester river bordering Ukraine, followed Ukraine by at first adopting Further-eastern European Time[5] but later cancelling this decision.[6]

The name "Further-eastern European Time" seems to have come from work on the tz database.[7][8][9]

See also


  1. ^ Russia Time Change
  2. ^ Eternal Daylight Saving Time (DST) in Belarus
  3. ^ Ukraine cancels use of daylight saving time, Kyiv Post (September 20, 2011)
  4. ^ "Ukraine to return to standard time on Oct. 30 (updated)". Kyiv Post. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  5. ^ Transnistria stays on Daylight Saving Time
  6. ^ Transnistria's clocks move back October 30, 2011
  7. ^ Tim Parenti and Paul Eggert (Sep 20, 2011). "Ukraine adopts UTC+3 year-round". Retrieved 1 Dec 2011.
  8. ^ Alexander Bokovoy, employed at Red Hat Software (Sep 21, 2011). Дальневосточное Европейское время (in Russian). Retrieved 16 Oct 2011.
  9. ^ Edwin Groothuis, at freebsd.org (27 Sep 2011). "cvs commit: ports/misc/zoneinfo Makefile distinfo". Retrieved 16 Oct 2011.

External links

Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones.

As of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that during the winter use CET use Central European Summer Time (CEST) (or: UTC+02:00, daylight saving time) in summer (from last Sunday of March to last Sunday of October).A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time (WAT), although Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time.

East Africa Time

East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. The time zone is three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00), which is the same as Arabia Standard Time, Further-eastern European Time, Moscow Time and Eastern European Summer Time.As this Time Zone is predominantly in the equatorial region, there is no significant change in day length throughout the year and so daylight saving time is not observed.East Africa Time is used by the following countries:








South Sudan



Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+03:00 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) is used.

Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.

Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.

A number of African countries use UTC+02:00 all year long, where it is called Central Africa Time (CAT), although Egypt and Libya also use the term Eastern European Time.

Kaliningrad Time

Kaliningrad Time is the time zone two hours ahead of UTC (UTC+02:00) and 1 hour behind Moscow Time (MSK−1). It is used in Kaliningrad Oblast.

Until 2011, Kaliningrad Time was identical to Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00; UTC+03:00 with daylight saving time). On 27 March 2011, Russia moved to permanent DST, so that clocks would remain on what had been the summer time all year round, making Kaliningrad time permanently set to UTC+03:00. On 26 October 2014, this law was reversed, but daylight saving time was not reintroduced, so Kaliningrad is now permanently set to UTC+02:00.Main cities:




Moscow Time

Moscow Time (Russian: моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 permanently on 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round since 27 March 2011.Moscow Time is used to schedule trains, ships, etc. throughout Russia, but airplane travel is scheduled using local time. Trains are going to follow local time by 1 August. Times in Russia are often announced throughout the country on radio stations as Moscow Time, which is also registered in telegrams, etc. Descriptions of time zones in Russia are often based on Moscow Time rather than UTC. For example, Yakutsk (UTC+09:00) is said to be MSK+6 in Russia.

Time in Europe

Europe spans seven primary time zones (from UTC−01:00 to UTC+05:00), excluding summer time offsets (four of them can be seen on the map to the right, with one further-western zone containing the Azores, and two further-eastern zones spanning Georgia, Azerbaijan, eastern territories of European Russia, and the European part of Kazakhstan). Most European countries use summer time and harmonise their summer time adjustments; see Summer time in Europe for details.

The time zones actually in use in Europe differ significantly from uniform zoning based purely on longitude, as used for example under the nautical time system. The world could in theory be divided into 24 time zones, each of 15 degrees of longitude. However, due to geographical and cultural factors it is not practical to divide the world so evenly, and actual time zones may differ significantly from those based purely on longitude. In Europe, the widespread use of Central European Time (CET) causes major variations in some areas from solar time. Based on solar time, CET would range from 7.5 to 22.5°E. However, for example Spain (almost entirely in the Western hemisphere) and France (almost entirely west of 7.5°E, as illustrated in the map below) should theoretically use UTC, as they did before the Second World War. The general result is a solar noon which is much later than clock noon, and later sunrises and sunsets than should theoretically happen. The Benelux countries should also theoretically use GMT.

Russia and Belarus observed "permanent summer time" between March 2011 and October 2014. Since October 2014 Russia has observed "permanent winter time". Iceland can be considered to be on "de facto" permanent summer time because, since 1968, it uses UTC time all year, despite being located more than 15° west of the prime meridian. It should therefore be located in UTC−01:00, but chooses to remain closer to continental European time, resulting in legal times significantly in advance of local solar time; this is of little practical significance owing to the wide variations in daylight hours in that country.

The European Commission has proposed ending the observance of summer time in the EU after the autumn of 2019. However, the decision lies with the EU's Member States as a group; however, many member states see the timetable as "unrealistic" and implementation is likely to be pushed back to 2021.

Time in Germany

The time zone in Germany is Central European Time (Mitteleuropäische Zeit, MEZ; UTC+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit, MESZ; UTC+02:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March (02:00 CET) to the last Sunday in October (03:00 CEST). The doubled hour during the switch back to standard time is named 2A (02:00 to 03:00 CEST) and 2B (02:00 to 03:00 CET).

Time in Gibraltar

Gibraltar uses Standard Time or Central European Time (UTC+01:00) and daylight saving time or Central European Summer Time (UTC+02:00).

Time in Turkey

Time in Turkey is given by UTC+03:00 year-round. This time is also called Turkey Time (TRT) or Türkiye Saati İle (TSİ). The time is currently same as in the Arabia Standard Time, Further-eastern European Time and Moscow Time zone. Turkey Time was adopted by the Turkish government on September 8, 2016. It was also in use in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus until it reverted to EET in October 2017.

Time in Ukraine

Time in Ukraine is defined as UTC+02:00 and in summer as UTC+03:00. Locally it is referred to as the Kiev Time (Ukrainian: Київський час, Kyivskyi chas) and is part of the Eastern European Time. The change for the summer time take place in the last week of March at 03:00 when the time changes an hour ahead and the last week of October at 04:00 when the time changes an hour back; this way the clocks in Ukraine are 1 hour ahead of those in central Europe at all times.


Treriksrøysa (Three-Country Cairn) is a cairn which marks the tripoint where the borders between Norway, Finland and Russia meet. The site is on a hill called Muotkavaara, in Pasvikdalen, west of the Pasvikelva and 15 km southwest of Nyrud just west of Krokfjellet in Sør-Varanger municipality of Finnmark, Norway. It's the only place where three time zones meet, Central European Time, Eastern European Time and Further-eastern European Time.

In Scandinavia there are two three-country border cairns located along the country's frontier, both called Treriksrøysa in Norwegian (Swedish Treriksröse). One marks the border point between Norway, Finland and Russia (west of Grensefoss in Pasvikdalen, Finnmark) and the other one marks the border point between Norway, Sweden and Finland (southeast of Skibotn in Troms).

Western European Time

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe. The following countries and regions use WET in winter months:

Canary Islands, since 1946 (rest of Spain is CET, UTC+01:00)

Faroe Islands, since 1908

North Eastern Greenland (Danmarkshavn and surrounding area)

Iceland, since 1968, without summer time changes

Portugal, since 1912 with pauses (except Azores, UTC−01:00)

Madeira islands, since 1912 with pauses

Ireland (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1916, except between 1968 and 1971

United Kingdom and Crown dependencies (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1847 in England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, and since 1916 in Northern Ireland, with pausesAll the above countries except Iceland implement daylight saving time in summer (from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year), switching to Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00), which is one hour ahead of WET. WEST is called British Summer Time in the UK and is officially known as Irish Standard Time in Ireland.

The nominal span of the time zone is 7.5°E to 7.5°W (0° ± 7.5°), but the WET zone does not include the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Gibraltar or Spain which use Central European Time (CET), although these are mostly (France) or completely (the rest) west of 7.5°E. Conversely, Iceland and eastern Greenland are included although both are west of 7.5°W. In September 2013, a Spanish parliamentary committee recommended switching to WET.

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