Full stop

The full point, full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark. It is used for several purposes, the most frequent of which is to mark the end of a declaratory sentence (as opposed to a question or exclamation); this sentence-terminal use is properly, or the precise meaning of, full stop.

The full stop is also often used alone to indicate omitted characters (or in an ellipsis, "..." to indicate omitted words). It may be placed after an initial letter used to stand for a name, or sometimes after each individual letter in an initialism or acronym, for example, "U.S.A."; however, this style is declining, and many initialisms like UK or NATO have individually become accepted norms. A full stop is also frequently used at the end of word abbreviations – in British usage, primarily truncations like Rev., but not after contractions like Revd; however, in American English it is used in both cases.

The full point also has multiple contexts in mathematics and computing, where it may be called a point (short for decimal point) or a dot.[1] The full point glyph is sometimes called a baseline dot because, typographically, it is a dot on the baseline. This term distinguishes it from the interpunct (a raised dot).[1][2] While full stop technically only applies to the full point when used to terminate a sentence, the distinction – drawn since at least 1897[3] – is not maintained by all modern style guides and dictionaries.

The full stop symbol derives from the Greek punctuation introduced by Aristophanes of Byzantium in the 3rd century BC, In his system, there were a series of dots whose placement determined their meaning. The full stop at the end of a completed thought or expression was marked by a high dot ⟨˙⟩, called the stigmḕ teleía (στιγμὴ τελεία) or "terminal dot". The "middle dot" ⟨·⟩, the stigmḕ mésē (στιγμὴ μέση), marked a division in a thought occasioning a longer breath (essentially a semicolon) and the low dot ⟨.⟩, called the hypostigmḕ (ὑποστιγμή) or "underdot", marked a division in a thought occasioning a shorter breath (essentially a comma).[4] In practice, scribes mostly employed the terminal dot; the others fell out of use and were later replaced by other symbols. From the 9th century, the full stop began appearing as a low mark instead of a high one; by the advent of printing in Western Europe, the low mark was regular and then universal.[4]

The name period is first attested (as the Latin loanword peridos) in Ælfric of Eynsham's Old English treatment on grammar. There, it is distinguished from the full stop (the distinctio) and continues the Greek underdot's earlier function as a comma between phrases.[5] It shifted its meaning to a dot marking a full stop in the works of the 16th-century grammarians.[5] In 19th-century texts, both British English and American English were consistent in their usage of the terms period and full stop.[6][3] The word period was used as a name for what printers often called the "full point" or the punctuation mark that was a dot on the baseline and used in several situations. The phrase full stop was only used to refer to the punctuation mark when it was used to terminate a sentence.[3] This distinction seems to be eroding. For example, the 1998 edition of Fowler's Modern English Usage used full point for the character after an abbreviation, but full stop or full point at the end of a sentence;,[7] while the 2015 edition treats them as synonymous (and prefers full stop),[8] and New Hart's Rules does likewise (but prefers full point).[9] The last edition (1989) of the original Hart's Rules exclusively used full point.[10]

.
Full stop

Usage

Full stops are one of the most commonly used punctuation marks; analysis of texts indicate that approximately half of all punctuation marks used are full stops.[11][12]

Ending sentences

Full stops indicate the end of sentences that are not questions or exclamations.

After initials

It is usual to use full stops after initials; e.g. A. A. Milne,[13] George W. Bush.[14]

Abbreviations

A full stop is used after some abbreviations.[15] If the abbreviation ends a declaratory sentence there is no additional period immediately following the full stop that ends the abbreviation (e.g. "My name is Gabriel Gama, Jr."). Though two full stops (one for the abbreviation, one for the sentence ending) might be expected, conventionally only one is written. This is an intentional omission, and thus not haplography, which is unintentional omission of a duplicate. In the case of an interrogative or exclamatory sentence ending with an abbreviation, a question or exclamation mark can still be added (e.g. "Are you Gabriel Gama, Jr.?").

Abbreviations and personal titles of address

According to the Oxford A–Z of Grammar and Punctuation, "If the abbreviation includes both the first and last letter of the abbreviated word, as in 'Mister' ['Mr'] and 'Doctor' ['Dr'], a full stop is not used."[16][17] This does not include, for example, the standard abbreviations for titles such as Professor ("Prof.") or Reverend ("Rev."), because they do not end with the last letter of the word they are abbreviating.

In American English, the common convention is to include the period after all such abbreviations.[17]

Acronyms and initialisms

In acronyms and initialisms, the modern style is generally to not use full points after each initial (e.g.: DNA, UK, USSR). The punctuation is somewhat more often used in American English, most commonly with U.S. and U.S.A. in particular. However, this depends much upon the house style of a particular writer or publisher.[18] As some examples from American style guides, The Chicago Manual of Style (primarily for book and academic-journal publishing) deprecates the use of full points in acronyms, including U.S.,[19] while The Associated Press Stylebook (primarily for journalism) dispenses with full points in acronyms except for certain two-letter cases, including U.S., U.K., and U.N., but not EU.[20]

Mathematics

The period glyph is used in the presentation of numbers, but in only one of two alternate styles at a time.

In the more prevalent usage in English-speaking countries, the point it represents a decimal separator, visually dividing whole numbers from fractional (decimal) parts. The comma is then used to separate the whole-number parts into groups of three digits each, when numbers are sufficiently large.

  • 1.007 (one and seven thousandths)
  • 1,002.007 (one thousand two and seven thousandths)
  • 1,002,003.007 (one million two thousand three and seven thousandths)
Cologne Germany Max-Load-Sign-at-Harbour-Crane-34-01
A point as thousands separator on a sign in Germany.

The more prevalent usage in much of Europe, southern Africa, and Latin America (with the exception of Mexico due to the influence of the United States), reverses the roles of the comma and point, but sometimes substitutes a space for a point.

  • 1,007 (one and seven thousandths)
  • 1.002,007 or 1 002,007 (one thousand two and seven thousandths)
  • 1.002.003,007 or 1 002 003,007 (one million two thousand three and seven thousandths)

India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan follow the Indian numbering system, which utilizes commas and decimals much like the aforementioned system popular in most English-speaking countries, but separates values of one hundred thousand and above differently, into divisions of lakh and crore:

  • 1.007 (one and seven thousandths)
  • 1,002.007 (one thousand two and seven thousandths)
  • 10,02,003.007 (one million two thousand three and seven thousandths or ten lakh two thousand three and seven thousandths)

In countries that use the comma as a decimal separator, the point is sometimes found as a multiplication sign; for example, 5,2 . 2 = 10,4; this usage is impractical in cases where the point is used as a decimal separator, hence the use of the interpunct: 5.2 · 2 = 10.4. This notation is also seen when multiplying units in science; for example, 50 km/h could be written as 50 km·h−1. However, the point is used in all countries to indicate a dot product, i.e. the scalar product of two vectors.

Logic

In older literature on mathematical logic, the period glyph used to indicate how expressions should be bracketed (see Glossary of Principia Mathematica).

Computing

In computing, the full point, usually called a dot in this context, is often used as a delimiter, such as in DNS lookups, Web addresses, and file names:

www.wikipedia.org
document.txt
192.168.0.1

It is used in many programming languages as an important part of the syntax. C uses it as a means of accessing a member of a struct, and this syntax was inherited by C++ as a means of accessing a member of a class or object. Java and Python also follow this convention. Pascal uses it both as a means of accessing a member of a record set (the equivalent of struct in C), a member of an object, and after the end construct that defines the body of the program. In APL it is also used for generalised inner product and outer product. In Erlang, Prolog, and Smalltalk, it marks the end of a statement ("sentence"). In a regular expression, it represents a match of any character. In Perl and PHP, the dot is the string concatenation operator. In the Haskell standard library, it is the function composition operator.

In file systems, the dot is commonly used to separate the extension of a file name from the name of the file. RISC OS uses dots to separate levels of the hierarchical file system when writing path names—similar to / (forward-slash) in Unix-based systems and \ (back-slash) in MS-DOS-based systems and the Windows NT systems that succeeded them.

In Unix-like operating systems, some applications treat files or directories that start with a dot as hidden. This means that they are not displayed or listed to the user by default.

In Unix-like systems and Microsoft Windows, the dot character represents the working directory of the file system. Two dots (..) represent the parent directory of the working directory.

Bourne shell-derived command-line interpreters, such as sh, ksh, and bash, use the dot as a command to read a file and execute its content in the running interpreter. (Some of these also offer source as a synonym, based on that usage in the C-shell.)

Telegraphy

The term STOP was used in telegrams in place of the full stop. The end of a sentence would be marked by STOP, because "communications was greatly increased during the World War, when the Government employed it widely as a precaution against having messages garbled or misunderstood, as a result of the misplacement or emission of the tiny dot or period."[21]

In conversation

In British English, the words "full stop" at the end of an utterance strengthen it, it admits of no discussion: "I'm not going with you, full stop." In American English the word "period" serves this function.

Punctuation styles when quoting

The practice in the United States and Canada is to place full stops and commas inside quotation marks in most styles.[22] In the British system, which is also called "logical quotation",[23] full stops and commas are placed according to grammatical sense:[22][24] This means that when they are part of the quoted material, they should be placed inside, and otherwise should be outside. For example, they are placed outside in the cases of words-as-words, titles of short-form works, and quoted sentence fragments.

  • Bruce Springsteen, nicknamed "the Boss," performed "American Skin." (American style)
  • Bruce Springsteen, nicknamed "the Boss", performed "American Skin". (logical or British style)
  • He said, "I love music." (both)

There is some national crossover. American style is common in British fiction writing.[25] British style is sometimes used in American English. For example, the Chicago Manual of Style recommends it for fields where comma placement could affect the meaning of the quoted material, such as linguistics and textual criticism.[26][27]

Use of placement according to logical or grammatical sense, or "logical convention", now the more common practice in regions other than North America,[28] was advocated in the influential book The King's English by Fowler and Fowler, published in 1906. Prior to the influence of this work, the typesetter's or printer's style, or "closed convention", now also called American style, was common throughout the world.

Spacing after a full stop

There have been a number of practices relating to the spacing after a full stop. Some examples are listed below:

  • One word space ("French spacing"). This is the current convention in most countries that use the ISO basic Latin alphabet for published and final written work, as well as digital media.[29][30]
  • Two word spaces ("English spacing"). It is sometimes claimed that the two-space convention stems from the use of the monospaced font on typewriters, but in fact that convention replicates much earlier typography — the intent was to provide a clear break between sentences.[31] This spacing method was gradually replaced by the single space convention in published print, where space is at a premium, and continues in much digital media.[30][32]
  • One widened space (such as an em space). This spacing was seen in historical typesetting practices (until the early 20th century).[33] It has also been used in other typesetting systems such as the Linotype machine[34] and the TeX system.[35] Modern computer-based digital fonts can adjust the spacing after terminal punctuation as well, creating a space slightly wider than a standard word space.[36]

Full stops in other scripts

Minuscule 1424, f. 317 r. 1 Tim 3,16
A New Testament manuscript with high dots as full stops.

Although the present Greek full stop (τελεία, teleía) is romanized as a Latin full stop[37] and encoded identically with the full stop in Unicode,[4] the historic full stop in Greek was a high dot and the low dot functioned as a kind of comma, as noted above. The low dot was increasingly but irregularly used to mark full stops after the 9th century and was fully adapted after the advent of print.[4] The teleia should also be distinguished from the ano teleia mark, which is named "high stop" but looks like an interpunct (a middle dot) and principally functions as the Greek semicolon.

The Armenian script uses the ։ (վերջակետ, verdjaket). It looks similar to the colon (:).

In some East Asian languages, notably Chinese and Japanese, a small circle is used instead of a solid dot: "。" (U+3002 "Ideographic Full Stop", simplified Chinese: 句号, traditional Chinese: 句號, Japanese: 句点). Notably, in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao usage, the full stop is written at center height instead of on the line.

The Limbu script uses the ⊚ (ᤂᤥᤄᤦᤌᤐ, khōghauthapa). It looks similar to the circled ring (⊚).

In the Devanagari script, used to write Hindi and Sanskrit among other Indian languages, a vertical line ("।") (U+0964 "Devanagari Danda") is used to mark the end of a sentence. It is known as poorna viraam (full stop) in Hindi, and Daa`ri in Bengali. Some Indian languages also use the full stop, such as Marathi. In Tamil, it is known as mutrupulli, which means end dot.[38]

In Sinhala, it is known as kundaliya: "෴" ((U+0DF4) symbol "full stop"). Periods were later introduced into Sinhala script after the introduction of paper due to the influence of Western languages. See also Sinhala numerals.

Urdu uses the "۔" (U+06D4) symbol.

In Thai, no symbol corresponding to the full stop is used as terminal punctuation. A sentence is written without spaces, and a space is typically used to mark the end of a clause or sentence.

In the Ge'ez script used to write Amharic and several other Ethiopian and Eritrean languages, the equivalent of the full stop following a sentence is the ˈarat nettib "።"—which means four dots. The two dots on the right are slightly ascending from the two on the left, with space in between.

Encodings

The character is encoded at U+002E . FULL STOP (HTML .).

There is also U+2E3C STENOGRAPHIC FULL STOP (HTML ⸼), used in several shorthand (stenography) systems.

The character is full-width encoded at U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP (HTML .). This form is used alongside CJK characters.[39]

In text messages

Researchers from Binghamton University performed a small study, published in 2016, on young adults and found that text messages that included sentences ended with full stops—as opposed to those with no terminal punctuation—were perceived as insincere, though they stipulated that their results apply only to this particular medium of communication: "Our sense was, is that because [text messages] were informal and had a chatty kind of feeling to them, that a period may have seemed stuffy, too formal, in that context," said head researcher Cecelia Klin.[40] The study did not find handwritten notes to be affected.[41]

A 2016 story by Jeff Guo in The Washington Post, stated that the line break had become the default method of punctuation in texting, comparable to the use of line breaks in poetry, and that a period at the end of a sentence causes the tone of the message to be perceived as cold, angry or passive-aggressive.[42]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Williamson, Amelia A. "Period or Comma? Decimal Styles over Time and Place" (PDF). Science Editor. 31 (2): 42–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  2. ^ Truss, Lynn (2004). Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. New York: Gotham Books. p. 25. ISBN 1-59240-087-6.
  3. ^ a b c "The Punctuation Points". American Printer and Lithographer. 24 (6): 278. August 1897. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d Nicolas, Nick. "Greek Unicode Issues: Punctuation Archived August 6, 2012, at Archive.today". 2005. Accessed 7 Oct 2014.
  5. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "period, n., adj., and adv." Oxford University Press, 2005,
  6. ^ "The Workshop: Printing for Amateurs". The Bazaar, Exchange and Mart, and Journal of the Household. 13: 333. 6 November 1875. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  7. ^ Burchfield, R. W. (2010) [1998]. "full stop". Fowler's Modern English Usage (Revised 3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 317–318. ISBN 978-0-19-861021-2.
  8. ^ Butterfield, Jeremy (2015). "full stop". Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 331–332. ISBN 978-0-19-966135-0.
  9. ^ Waddingham, Anne (2014). "4.6: Full point". New Hart's Rules (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-19-957002-7. Essentially the same text is found in the previous edition under various titles, including New Hart's Rules, Oxford Style Manual, and The Oxford Guide to Style.
  10. ^ Hart, Horace; et al. (1989) [1983]. Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers (Corrected 39th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 2–5, 41, etc. ISBN 0-19-212983-X.
  11. ^ A Comparison of the Frequency of Number/Punctuation and Number/Letter Combinations in Literary and Technical Materials
  12. ^ Charles F. Meyer (1987). A Linguistic Study of American Punctuation. Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-8204-0522-3., referenced in Frequencies for English Punctuation Marks Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Cindy Barden Grammar, Grades 4-5 2007 p9 "Use a period after a person's initials. Examples: A. A. Milne L.B.Peep W157 Use Periods With Initials Name. Initials are abbreviations for parts of a person's name. Date: Add periods at the ends of sentences, after abbreviations, and after initials".
  14. ^ The Brief Thomson Handbook David Blakesley, Jeffrey Laurence Hoogeveen – 2007 -p477 "Use periods with initials: George W. Bush Carolyn B. Maloney
  15. ^ New Hart's Rules: The handbook of style for writers and editors. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-861041-6.
  16. ^ Oxford A–Z of Grammar and Punctuation by John Seely.
  17. ^ a b "Punctuation in abbreviations". OxfordDictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. 2017. "Punctuation" section. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  18. ^ "Initialisms". OxfordDictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. 2017. "Abbreviations" section. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  19. ^ The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.
  20. ^ "abbreviations and acronyms". The Associated Press Stylebook. 2015. pp. 1–2.
  21. ^ Ross, Nelson (1928). "HOW TO WRITE TELEGRAMS PROPERLY". The Telegraph Office. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  22. ^ a b Lee, Chelsea (2011). "Punctuating Around Quotation Marks". Style Guide of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Style Guide" (PDF). Journal of Irish and Scottish Studies. Research Institute of Irish and Scottish Studies, University of Aberdeen. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 2015-09-15. Punctuation marks are placed inside the quotation marks only if the sense of the punctuation is part of the quotation; this system is referred to as logical quotation.
  24. ^ "Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers" (PDF). Cambridge University Press. 2002. Retrieved 4 September 2015. In the British style (OUP 1983), all signs of punctuation used with words and quotation marks must be placed according to the sense.
  25. ^ Butcher, Judith; et al. (2006). Butcher's Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Copy-editors and Proofreaders. Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-521-84713-1.
  26. ^ Wilbers, Stephen. "Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Punctuation". Retrieved 10 September 2015. The British style is strongly advocated by some American language experts. In defense of nearly a century and a half of the American style, however, it may be said that it seems to have been working fairly well and has not resulted in serious miscommunication. Whereas there clearly is some risk with question marks and exclamation points, there seems little likelihood that readers will be misled concerning the period or comma. There may be some risk in such specialized material as textual criticism, but in that case author and editors may take care to avoid the danger by alternative phrasing or by employing, in this exacting field, the exacting British system. In linguistic and philosophical works, specialized terms are regularly punctuated the British way, along with the use of single quotation marks. [quote attributed to Chicago Manual of style, 14th ed.]
  27. ^ Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2003. pp. 6.8&nbsp, – 6.10. ISBN 0-226-10403-6. According to what is sometimes called the British style (set forth in The Oxford Guide to Style [the successor to Hart's Rules]; see bibliog. 1.1.]), a style also followed in other English-speaking countries, only those punctuation points that appeared in the original material should be included within the quotation marks; all others follow the closing quotation marks. … In the kind of textual studies where retaining the original placement of a comma in relation to closing quotation marks is essential to the author's argument and scholarly integrity, the alternative system described in 6.10 ['the British style'] could be used, or rephrasing might avoid the problem.
  28. ^ Weiss, Edmond H. (2015). The Elements of International English Style: A Guide to Writing Correspondence, Reports, Technical Documents Internet Pages For a Global Audience. M. E. Sharpe. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7656-2830-5. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  29. ^ Einsohn, Amy (2006). The Copyeditor's Handbook: A Guide for Book Publishing and Corporate Communications (2nd ed.). Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-520-24688-1.
  30. ^ a b Manjoo, Farhad (January 13, 2011). "Space Invaders". Slate.
  31. ^ Heraclitus (1 November 2011). "Why two spaces after a period isn't wrong".
  32. ^ Felici, James (2003). The Complete Manual of Typography: A Guide to Setting Perfect Type. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-321-12730-7.; Bringhurst, Robert (2004). The Elements of Topographic Style (3.0 ed.). Washington and Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. p. 28. ISBN 0-88179-206-3.
  33. ^ See for example, University of Chicago Press (1911). Manual of Style: A Compilation of Typographical Rules Governing the Publications of The University of Chicago, with Specimens of Types Used at the University Press (Third ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago. p. 101. ISBN 1-145-26446-8.
  34. ^ Mergenthaler Linotype Company (1940). Linotype Keyboard Operation: Methods of Study and Procedures for Setting Various Kinds of Composition on the Linotype. Mergenthaler Linotype Company. ASIN B000J0N06M. cited in Simonson, Mark (5 March 2004). "Double-spacing after Periods". Typophile. Typophile. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  35. ^ Eijkhout, Victor (2008). "TeX by Topic, A TeXnician's Reference" (PDF). Lulu: 185–188.
  36. ^ Felici, James (2003). The Complete Manual of Typography: A Guide to Setting Perfect Type. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-321-12730-7.; Fogarty, Mignon (2008). Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing (Quick and Dirty Tips). New York: Holt Paperbacks. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-8050-8831-1.; Straus, Jane (2009). The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: An Easy-to-Use Guide with Clear Rules, Real-World Examples, and Reproducible Quizzes (10th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-470-22268-3.
  37. ^ Ελληνικός Οργανισμός Τυποποίησης [Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs, "Hellenic Organization for Standardization"]. ΕΛΟΤ 743, 2η Έκδοση [ELOT 743, 2ī Ekdosī, "ELOT 743, 2nd ed."]. ELOT (Athens), 2001. (in Greek).
  38. ^ ta:முற்றுப்புள்ளி (தமிழ் நடை)
  39. ^ Lunde, Ken (2009). CJKV Information Processing. O'Reilly. pp. 502–505. ISBN 9780596514471.
  40. ^ "You Should Watch The Way You Punctuate Your Text Messages – Period". National Public Radio. 2015-12-20. Retrieved 2015-12-20.
  41. ^ Gunraj, Danielle; Drumm-Hewitt, April; Dashow, Erica; Upadhyay, Sri Siddhi; Klim, Celia (February 2016) [2015], "Texting insincerely: The role of the period in text messaging", Computers in Human Behavior, 55: 1067–1075, doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.11.003, archived from the original on 2015-11-25
  42. ^ Guo, Jeff (June 13, 2016). "Stop. Using. Periods. Period.". The Washington Post.
ASLwrite

ASLwrite (ASL: ) is a somacheirographic writing system that developed from si5s. It was created to be an open-source, continuously-developing orthography for American Sign Language (ASL), trying to capture the nuances of ASL's features. ASLwrite is currently used by no more than a handful of people, primarily revolving around discussions happening on Facebook and, previously, Google Groups. However, it is currently spreading, with comic strips, posters and more becoming available.Its core components are digits, locatives, marks and movements which are written in a fairly rigid order (though in a fairly flexible configuration) from left to right. Its digits are representations of handshapes – or the configuration of the hand and fingers – where the locatives represent locations on the body (or, in theory, in space), the marks represent anything from location (e.g., edge mark) to small movements (e.g., flutter) to facial expressions (e.g., raised eyebrow mark ) and the movements indicate the movement of the hands in space by modifying the digits (and for shoulder shift /head nod modifying the body).

The order of the writing is from left to right, top to bottom, with locatives or certain marks often beginning words. Sentences are ended by the full stop mark (). Questions in written ASL are denoted by eyebrow marks bounding the question not unlike Spanish's "¿ ?." Question words or wh-questions in ASL can also form the interrogative.

There are in total 105 characters in ASLwrite with 67 digits, five diacritic marks, twelve locatives, sixteen extramanual marks and five movement marks.

Since its creation, it has evolved to include more digits, locatives, movements and marks as well as modify those already present.

Bullet (typography)

In typography, a bullet ( • ) is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list. For example:

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3The bullet symbol may take any of a variety of shapes, such as circular, square, diamond or arrow. Typical word processor software offers a wide selection of shapes and colors. Several regular symbols, such as * (asterisk), - (hyphen), . (period), and even o (lowercase O), are conventionally used in ASCII-only text or other environments where bullet characters are not available. Historically, the index symbol ☞ (representing a hand with a pointing index finger) was popular for similar uses.

Lists made with bullets are called bulleted lists. The HTML element name for a bulleted list is "unordered list", because the list items are not arranged in numerical order (as they would be in a numbered list). Usually bullet points are used to list things.

F-number

The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is a dimensionless number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed, and an important concept in photography. It is also known as the focal ratio, f-ratio, or f-stop. It is the reciprocal of the relative aperture. The f-number is commonly indicated using a hooked f with the format f/N, where N is the f-number.

Filename extension

A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file. The extension indicates a characteristic of the file contents or its intended use. A file extension is typically delimited from the filename with a full stop (period), but in some systems it is separated with spaces.

Some file systems implement filename extensions as a feature of the file system itself and may limit the length and format of the extension, while others treat filename extensions as part of the filename without special distinction.

Full stop law

The Full stop law, Ley de Punto Final, was passed by the National Congress of Argentina in 1986, three years after the end of the military dictatorship of the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (1976 to 1983) and restoration of democracy. Formally, this law is referred to by number (Law No. 23492), like all others in Argentine legislation, but Ley de Punto Final is the designation in common use, even in official speeches.

It was passed after the government in 1985 had prosecuted men at the top of the military hierarchies in the Trial of the Juntas for crimes committed during the Dirty War against political dissidents. Several officers were convicted and sentenced; the government's security and military forces had "disappeared" and killed an estimated 15,000-30,000 people.The law mandated the end of investigation and prosecution of people accused of political violence during the dictatorship and up to the restoration of democratic rule on 10 December 1983. It was passed on 24 December 1986, after only a 3-week debate. Its text is very short; it has seven articles. Article No. 5 excepts from the application of the law the cases of identity forgery and forced disappearance of minors.

The Ley de Punto Final was extremely controversial in its time and afterward. Under pressure from the military, the law was proposed by the Radical administration of President Raúl Alfonsín as a means to stop prosecution of additional suspects among military and security officers after General Jorge Videla, Admiral Emilio Massera, General Roberto Viola, Admiral Armando Lambruschini, and General Orlando Agosti had been prosecuted. Alfonsín was initially opposed to this law, but under threat of a coup d'état, he accepted the legislation. In the Chamber of Deputies, 114 deputies voted for the law, 17 against, and two abstained; in the Senate, 25 senators voted for, and 10 against.

This law had a complement in the Law of Due Obedience, passed in 1987, which exempted subordinates from prosecution when they were carrying out orders. Both laws were repealed by the National Congress in 2003. The Supreme Court of Justice ruled both laws were unconstitutional on 14 June 2005.

The government re-opened prosecution of cases for crimes against humanity. The first of such cases, against the former Buenos Aires Provincial Police second-in-command Miguel Etchecolatz, ended in September 2006 with his conviction on several counts of kidnapping, torture and murder. In sentencing him to life imprisonment, the tribunal said that the dictatorship's state terrorism against political dissidents was a form of genocide. It was the first time in the Argentine trials that genocide had been applied to the assaults against the class of political dissidents.

Fully qualified domain name

A fully qualified domain name (FQDN), sometimes also referred to as an absolute domain name, is a domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS). It specifies all domain levels, including the top-level domain and the root zone. A fully qualified domain name is distinguished by its lack of ambiguity: it can be interpreted only in one way.

The DNS root domain is unnamed which is expressed by having an empty label in the DNS hierarchy, resulting in a fully qualified domain name ending with the top-level domain. However, in some cases the full stop (period) character is required at the end of the fully qualified domain name.

In contrast to a domain name that is fully specified, a domain name that does not include the full path of labels up to the DNS root is often called a partially qualified domain name.

ISO 2145

International standard ISO 2145 defines a typographic convention for the "numbering of divisions and subdivisions in written documents". It applies to any kind of document, including manuscripts, books, journal articles, and standards.

Ibid.

Ibid. is an abbreviation for the Latin word ibīdem, meaning "in the same place", commonly used in an endnote, footnote, bibliography citation, or scholarly reference to refer to the source cited in the preceding note or list item. This is similar to īdem, literally meaning "the same", abbreviated Id., which is commonly used in legal citation.Ibid. may also be used in the Harvard (name-date) system for in-text references where there has been a close previous citation from the same source material. The previous reference should be immediately visible, e.g. within the same paragraph or page. Some academic publishers now prefer that "ibid." not be italicized, as it is a commonly found term.Since ibid. is an abbreviation where the last two letters of the word are omitted, it takes a full stop (period) in both British and American usage.

Idem

idem is a Latin term meaning "the same". It is commonly abbreviated as id.,

which is particularly used in legal citations to denote the previously cited source (compare ibid.). It is also used in academic citations to replace the name of a repeated author.

Id. is employed extensively in Canadian legislation and in legal documents of the United States to apply a short description to a section with the same focus as the previous.Id is masculine and neuter; ead. (feminine), is the abbreviation for eadem, which also translates to "the same".

As an abbreviation, Id. always takes a period (or full stop) in both British and American usage (see usage of the full stop in abbreviations). Its first known use dates back to the 14th century.

Italian Braille

Italian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Italian language, both in Italy and in Switzerland. It is very close to French Braille, with some differences in punctuation.

Japanese punctuation

Japanese punctuation (Japanese: 約物, Hepburn: yakumono) includes various written marks (besides characters and numbers), which differ from those found in European languages, as well as some not used in formal Japanese writing but frequently found in more casual writing, such as exclamation and question marks.

Japanese can be written horizontally or vertically, and some punctuation marks adapt to this change in direction. Parentheses, curved brackets, square quotation marks, ellipses, dashes, and swung dashes are rotated clockwise 90° when used in vertical text (see diagram).

Japanese punctuation marks are usually full width (that is, occupying an area that is the same as the surrounding characters).

Punctuation was not widely used in Japanese writing until translations from European languages became common in the 19th century.

Leke script

The Leke script, previously known as Karen Chicken Scratch script, is an abugida used to write the Pwo Karen language and Sgaw language in Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand. It has 25 consonants, 17 vowels and 3 tones. The script also has a unique set of numerals and punctuation, such as a full stop (period) and a comma.

In the traditional reading style most of the words the pronunciation came first then spelling came later. For example: (pronoun first School the “s.c.h.o.o.l” then repeat the same pronoun school again). In the modern Leke script, consonants come first, then the vowels follow. In writing system consonant always came first then following by vowels and tones. But just only two vowels have to apply first then consonant have to write down latter (just only for if you writing with hand). In the case of Leke script consonants are written horizontally from left to right, with vowels arranged below, above, to the left or to the right or combination of two vowels positions below of the consonants.

NATO phonetic alphabet

The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet. Although often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are unrelated to phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet, so that critical combinations of letters and numbers are most likely to be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel.The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu.Strict adherence to the prescribed spelling words is required in order to avoid the problems of confusion that the spelling alphabet is designed to overcome. As noted in a 1955 NATO memo:

It is known that [the ICAO spelling alphabet] has been prepared only after the most exhaustive tests on a scientific basis by several nations. One of the firmest conclusions reached was that it was not practical to make an isolated change to clear confusion between one pair of letters. To change one word involves reconsideration of the whole alphabet to ensure that the change proposed to clear one confusion does not itself introduce others.

The same memo notes a potential confusion between ZERO and SIERRA is overcome when following the procedures in ACP 125, which specify the use of the procedure word FIGURES in many instances in which digits need to be read.

Period

Period may refer to:

Era, a length or span of time

Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark

Menstruation, also called a "period"

Semicolon

The semicolon or semi colon (;) is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements. A semicolon can be used between two closely related independent clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction. Semicolons can also be used in place of commas to separate items in a list, particularly when the elements of that list contain commas.

Sentence spacing

Sentence spacing is the space between sentences in typeset text. It is a matter of typographical convention. Since the introduction of movable-type printing in Europe, various sentence spacing conventions have been used in languages with a Latin alphabet. These include a normal word space (as between the words in a sentence), a single enlarged space, and two full spaces.

Until the 20th century, publishing houses and printers in many countries used additional space between sentences. There were exceptions to this traditional spacing method—some printers used spacing between sentences that was no wider than word spacing. This was French spacing—a term synonymous with single-space sentence spacing until the late 20th century. With the introduction of the typewriter in the late 19th century, typists used two spaces between sentences to mimic the style used by traditional typesetters. While wide sentence spacing was phased out in the printing industry in the mid-20th century, the practice continued on typewriters and later on computers. Perhaps because of this, many modern sources now incorrectly claim that wide spacing was created for the typewriter.The desired or correct sentence spacing is often debated but many sources now say additional space is not necessary or desirable. From around 1950, single sentence spacing became standard in books, magazines and newspapers, and the majority of style guides that use a Latin-derived alphabet as a language base now prescribe or recommend the use of a single space after the concluding punctuation of a sentence. However, some sources still state that additional spacing is correct or acceptable. The debate continues. Many people prefer double sentence spacing because that was how they were taught to type. There is a debate on which convention is more readable; the few recent direct studies conducted since 2002 have produced inconclusive results.

Sign

A sign is an object, quality, event, or entity whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or occurrence of something else. A natural sign bears a causal relation to its object—for instance, thunder is a sign of storm, or medical symptoms signify a disease. A conventional sign signifies by agreement, as a full stop signifies the end of a sentence; similarly the words and expressions of a language, as well as bodily gestures, can be regarded as signs, expressing particular meanings. The physical objects most commonly referred to as signs (notices, road signs, etc., collectively known as signage) generally inform or instruct using written text, symbols, pictures or a combination of these.

The philosophical study of signs and symbols is called semiotics; this includes the study of semiosis, which is the way in which signs (in the semiotic sense) operate.

Touch-and-go landing

In aviation, a touch-and-go landing (TGL) or circuit is a maneuver that is common when learning to fly a fixed-wing aircraft. It involves landing on a runway and taking off again without coming to a full stop. Usually the pilot then circles the airport in a defined pattern known as a circuit and repeats the maneuver. This allows many landings to be practiced in a short time.If the pilot brings the aircraft to a full stop before taking off again then it is known as "stop-and-go".

Touch-and-go landings are also crucial when a plane lands with not enough space to come to a complete stop, but has enough space to accelerate and take off again to carry out a go-around.

In British parlance, the maneuver is often called circuits and bumps.

Viz.

The abbreviation viz. (or viz without a full stop), short for the Latin videlicet, which itself is a contraction from Latin of videre licet meaning "it is permitted to see", is used as a synonym for "namely", "that is to say", "to wit","which is", or "as follows". It is typically used to introduce examples or further details to illustrate a point. For example: "all types of data viz. text, audio, video, pictures, graphics etc. can be transmitted through networking".

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.