Full-time equivalent

Full-time equivalent (FTE) or whole time equivalent (WTE) is a unit that indicates the workload of an employed person (or student) in a way that makes workloads or class loads comparable[1] across various contexts. FTE is often used to measure a worker's or student's involvement in a project, or to track cost reductions in an organization. An FTE of 1.0 is equivalent to a full-time worker or student, while an FTE of 0.5 signals half of a full work or school load.[2]

U.S. Federal Government

In the U.S. Federal Government, FTE is defined by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) as the number of total hours worked divided by the maximum number of compensable hours in a full-time schedule as defined by law.[3] For example, if the normal schedule for a quarter is defined as 411.25 hours ( [35 hours per week * (52 weeks per year – 5 weeks regulatory vacation)] / 4), then someone working 100 hours during that quarter represents 100/411.25 = 0.24 FTE. Two employees working in total 400 hours during that same quarterly period represent 0.97 FTE.

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget, or OMB, the President's budget office, will often place upper limits on the total number of FTE that a given agency may utilize each year. In the past, if agencies were given a ceiling on the actual number of employed workers, which was reported on a given day of the year, the agency could employ more than this number for much of the year. Then, as the reporting deadline approached, employees could be let go to reduce the total number to the authorized ceiling on the reporting date. Providing agencies with an FTE ceiling, which is calculated based on the total number of hours worked by all employees throughout the year, irrespective of the total numbers employed at any point in time, prevents agencies from using such a strategy.

Although the generally accepted human-resources meaning for the "E" in FTE is "equivalent", the term is often overloaded in colloquial usage to indicate a "direct, as opposed to contract, full-time employee".[4] The term WYE is often used instead of FTE when describing the contractor work. WYE stands for work year equivalent.[5]

In education

Full-time equivalent students[6] is one of the key metrics for measuring enrollment in colleges and universities. The measure is often annualized to cover the average annual full-time equivalent students and is designated by the acronym AAFTE.

Academics can increase contribution by adopting a number of strategies: (a) increase class size; (b) teach new classes; (c) supervise more projects; (d) supervise more researchers. The latter strategy has the advantage of contributing to another key metric in universities – creating new knowledge and in particular publishing papers in highly ranked academic journals. It's also linked to another key metric – research funding that is often required to attract researchers.


A professor teaches two undergraduate courses, supervises two undergraduate projects and supervises four researchers by thesis only (i.e. researchers do not take any courses). Each undergraduate course is worth 1/10 of all credits for the undergraduate programme (i.e. 0.1 FTE). An undergraduate project is worth 2/10ths of all credits for the undergraduate programme (i.e. 0.2 FTE). A research thesis is worth all of the credits for the graduate programme (i.e. 1 FTE). The professor's contribution is 29.4 FTEs:

Contribution FTEs allocated Class size Total FTEs
Course 1 0.1 100 10
Course 2 0.1 150 15
U/G Projects 0.2 2 0.4
Research thesis 1 4 4
Totals 256 29.4

To encourage more research some universities offer 2 FTEs or even 3 FTEs for each full-time researcher.

In Australia, the equivalent to FTE for students is EFTSL (Equivalent Full-Time Student Load).


  1. ^ "Glossary:Full-time equivalent (FTE)". eurostat. Archived from the original on 2010-06-03.
  2. ^ Zimmermann, Polly Gerber (2002). Nursing management secrets, Issue 974; Volume 13 of Secrets series. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 55. ISBN 1-56053-529-6.
  3. ^ Orszag, Peter R. (June 22, 2009). "Implementing Guidance for the Reports on Use of Funds Pursuant to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" (PDF). Executive Office of the President of the United States of America.
  4. ^ Martinez, Homero (Oct 22, 2008). Dictionary for Air Travel and Tourism Activities. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  5. ^ "PROPOSAL for FY2011: NASA OSMA SARP". Office of Safety and Mission Assurance.
  6. ^ "Full-time equivalent student Definition". OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms. March 5, 2003. Definition: A full-time equivalent (FTE) measure attempts to standardise a student’s actual course load against the normal course load. Calculating the full-time/part-time status requires information on the time periods for actual and normal course loads.


Albertville High School

Albertville High School is a four-year public high school in Albertville, Alabama. It has an enrollment of 1,100 students and is accredited by the Alabama Department of Education. In 2008, 50% of Albertville High School students were female and 50% of students were male.

Albertville High School made AYP in 2007. Under No Child Left Behind, a school makes Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) if it achieves the minimum levels of improvement determined by the state of Alabama in terms of student performance and other accountability measures. See Albertville High School's test results to learn more about school performance.

In 2008, Albertville High School had 16 students for every full-time equivalent teacher. The Alabama average is 13 students per full-time equivalent teacher.

In 2007, Albertville High School had 38% of students were eligible for free or reduced price lunch programs. Alabama had 38% of eligible students for free or reduced price lunch programs. Eligibility for the National School Lunch Program is based on family income levels.

Albertville High School sports teams are known as the Albertville Aggies, for Albertville High School was originally an agricultural school.

Back Plains, Queensland

Back Plains is a locality in the Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia.

Bardon, Queensland

Bardon is an inner suburb of the City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It is located approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north-west of the Brisbane CBD. Bardon is a leafy residential suburb, much of which nestles into the foothills of Mount Coot-tha. In the 2016 census, Bardon had a population of 9,500 people.

Blackwater, Queensland

Blackwater is both a town and a locality in the Central Highlands Region, Queensland, Australia, 190 km west of Rockhampton. It is a town in a significant coal mining area in Central Queensland. The name of the township was inspired by the dark colour of local waterholes.

Bray Park, Queensland

Bray Park is a suburb of Moreton Bay Region, Queensland, Australia. It is a part of Brisbane metropolitan area. In the 2016 census, Bray Park had a population of 10,246 people.

Cambrian School District

The Cambrian School District operates four elementary schools (K-5), one middle school (6-8) and one alternative school in San Jose, California, USA. As of the 2011–12 fiscal year, the district has 142.8 full-time equivalent teachers serving 3,324 students.

Note: Based on 2006-07 school year data

Cooroy, Queensland

Cooroy is a town and a locality in the Shire of Noosa, Queensland, Australia, but between 2008 and 2013 it was in Sunshine Coast Region.

Farleigh, Queensland

Farleigh is a town and a locality in the Mackay Region, Queensland, Australia.

Gladstone, Queensland

Gladstone is a city in the Gladstone Region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately 550 km (340 mi) by road north of Brisbane and 100 km (62 mi) south-east of Rockhampton. Situated between the Calliope and Boyne Rivers, Gladstone is home to Queensland's largest multi-commodity shipping port.

Gladstone is the largest settlement within and the seat of the Gladstone Regional Council, which formed in 2008 amalgamating three former local government areas.

Kirwan, Queensland

Kirwan is a suburb in the City of Townsville, Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Kirwan had a population of 21,418 people.

Kirwan State High School

Kirwan State High School is a coeducational state school located in Kirwan, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, approximately 12 kilometres (7 mi) from the Townsville CBD. In 2017, it has 1997 students with 156 teachers (145 full-time equivalent) and 75 non-teaching staff (59 full-time equivalent), making it the largest high school in North Queensland. It is located in the former city of Thuringowa.

Lincoln University (New Zealand)

Lincoln University (Māori: Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki) is a New Zealand university that was formed in 1990 when Lincoln College, Canterbury was made independent of the University of Canterbury. Its undergraduate study areas include agriculture, commerce, computing, engineering, environment, food, forestry, horticulture, hospitality, landscape, Māori planning, property, recreation, sciences, transport and winemaking.

Lincoln University has a student population from more than 60 countries. Its primary campus is situated on 50 hectares (123 acres) of land located about 15 km (9 mi) outside the city of Christchurch in Lincoln, Canterbury.

In 2017 Lincoln University had 2695 Equivalent Full Time Students (EFTS) and total full time equivalent staff count of 643 (200 Academic, Administration and Support 277, Research and Technical 94, Trading and operational 72)

Martins Ferry High School

Martins Ferry High School is a public high school in Martins Ferry, Ohio, United States. It is the only high school in the Martins Ferry City School District. Athletic teams compete as the Martins Ferry Purple Riders in the Ohio High School Athletic Association as a member of the Buckeye 8 Athletic League as well as the Ohio Valley Athletic Conference.

The Martins Ferry City School District has median household income of $23,960, thus making the school eligible for a Title I program, including access to state and federal assistance to help low-income and at risk students. The head school administrator, Joe Mamone, oversees the school's staff, including thirty full-time "equivalent" teachers serving the student body with an average class size of 17.8. The majority of students enrolled are White, making up about eighty-three percent of all students.

Mossman, Queensland

Mossman is a town and a locality in Far North Queensland, Australia, on the Mossman River. It is within the local government area of Shire of Douglas (between 2008 and 2013, it was within the Cairns Region). In the 2016 census, Mossman had a population of 1,937 people.

Mundingburra, Queensland

Mundingburra is a suburb in the City of Townsville, Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Mundingburra had a population of 3620 people.

Selkirk College

Selkirk College is a community college in British Columbia, Canada. Founded in 1966, it was the first regional community college in British Columbia. The college offers over 60 programs. Selkirk has grown into one of the largest organizations in the West Kootenay and Boundary regions of south eastern British Columbia. Each year, the college is responsible for over $75 million in economic activity, employing over 550 full and part-time staff and providing post-secondary learning experiences for over 2400 full-time equivalent students.

Sunnybank, Queensland

Sunnybank is a suburb in the City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Sunnybank had a population of 8697 people.Sunnybank is known for its high level of Asian population and the Asian shops and restaurants in the area.

Tannum Sands, Queensland

Tannum Sands is a coastal town and locality on the central east coast of Queensland, Australia within the Gladstone Region. At the 2016 census, Tannum Sands had a population of 5,145. The population of Tannum Sands and neighbouring twin town Boyne Island is approaching 10,000. The two localities are separated only by the Boyne River and joined by a bridge.

Warwick, Queensland

Warwick is a town and locality in southeast Queensland, Australia, lying 130 kilometres (81 mi) south-west of Brisbane. It is the administrative centre of the Southern Downs Region local government area. The surrounding Darling Downs have fostered a strong agricultural industry for which Warwick, together with the larger city of Toowoomba, serve as convenient service centres. The town had an urban population of 15,130 as at the 2016 Census.

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