Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe (462 or 467 – 1 January 527 or 533) was bishop of the city of Ruspe, Roman province of Africa, North Africa in modern day Tunisia, during the 5th and 6th century. He was also canonized as a Christian saint.
Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe
Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe
|Abbot and Bishop|
Thelepte, Roman province of Africa
|Died||1 January, either 527 or 533|
Ruspe, Kingdom of the Vandals
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
Eastern Orthodox Church
|Feast||1 January and 3 January (Augustinian Order)|
Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius was born in the year 462 at Telepte (modern-day Medinet-el-Kedima), Tunisia, North Africa, into a senatorial family. His grandfather, Gordianus, a senator of Carthage, was despoiled of his possessions by the invader Genseric, then banished to Italy. His two sons returned after his death; though their house in Carthage had been taken over by Arian priests, they recovered some property in Byzacene.
His father, Claudius died when Fulgentius was still quite young. His mother, Mariana taught him to speak Greek and Latin. Fulgentius became particularly fluent with the former, speaking it like a native. His biographer says that at an early age Fulgentius committed the entire works of Homer to memory. He quickly gained wide public respect for the conduct of his family's affairs. This reputation helped him to acquire a post as a procurator or tax collector of Byzacena. He quickly grew tired of the material life, and this combined with his religious studies, (particularly a sermon of Augustine of Hippo on Psalm 36, which dealt with the transitory nature of physical life), convinced him to become a monk.
Around the year 499 he set out to join the hermits of the Thebaid in Egypt, but changed his mind was once he learned of the influence of monophysitism on Egyptian monasticism from Eulalius, bishop of Syracuse.
He applied to Faustus, a bishop who had been forced from his diocese by the Vandal king Huneric and later set up a monastery at Byzacena. Faustus had serious concerns about Fulgentius's physical weakness, which might have made him a poor candidate for the rigorous life of the monastery, and tried to dissuade the twenty-two-year-old Fulgentius from his request. After Fulgentius persisted, Faustus relented and admitted him on a trial basis.
Upon learning of her son's decision, Mariana, who evidently had never been told of Fulgentius's wish, was very upset. She rushed to the gates of the monastery, demanding to know how a church, which was supposed to protect widows, could rob this widow of her only son. Her protestations were ineffective, and Fulgentius was ultimately confirmed in his vocation.
Renewed Arian attacks on the area forced Fulgentius to leave for another nearby monastery. The abbot there, Felix, gave Fulgentius the duty of managing the temporal affairs of the monastery, while he managed the spiritual affairs. The two of them worked well together, and so in 499, during another wave of persecution, they both fled for Sicca Veneria. A local Arian priest had them arrested and tortured after learning the pair were preaching the catholic Chalcedonian teaching regarding the two natures of Jesus.
In 500, he visited Rome, where he prayed at the tombs of the apostles. His visit coincided with a formal address to the people by king Theodoric, which confirmed Fulgentius in his low esteem for the earthly vanities of this world. He then returned to Byzacena, where he built a monastery, electing to live in an isolated cell. Fulgentius's reputation quickly spread, and he was several times offered the post of bishop of one of the dioceses which had been vacated through the actions of the Arian king Thrasamund. He chose not to accept these offers, knowing Thrasamund had specifically ordered that only Arians be permitted to fill those seats.
In 502 Fulgentius was persuaded to take the post of bishop of Ruspe in Tunisia. His obvious virtues made a strong impression on the people of his new diocese, but he was soon banished to Sardinia with some sixty other bishops who did not hold the Arian position. Pope Symmachus knew of their plight and sent them annual provisions of food and money.
While in Sardinia, Fulgentius turned a house in Cagliari into a monastery, and determined to write a number of works to help instruct the Christians of Africa. In 515, he returned to Africa, having been summoned there by Thrasamund for a public debate with his Arian replacement. His book, An Answer to Ten Objections is supposed to have been collected from the answers he had made regarding objections to the catholic Nicene position. Thrasamund, impressed by Fulgentius' knowledge and learning, and fearing social discord if these persuasive arguments fell into the hands of his Arian subjects, ordered that all Fulgentius' future statements could only be delivered orally. Fulgentius responded with a further rebuttal to the Arian position, now known as the Three Books to King Thrasamund. Thrasamund's respect for Fulgentius grew, leading him to allow Fulgentius to stay in Carthage, but after renewed complaints from the local Arian clergy he banished Fulgentius back to Sardinia in 520.
Fulgentius founded several communities not only in Africa, but also in Sardinia.
In 523, following the death of Thrasamund and the accession of his catholic son Hilderic, Fulgentius was allowed to return to Ruspe and try to convert the populace to the catholic position. He worked to reform many of the abuses which had infiltrated his old diocese in his absence. The power and effectiveness of his preaching was so profound that his archbishop, Boniface of Carthage, wept openly every time he heard Fulgentius preach, and publicly thanked God for giving such a preacher to his church.
Tensions with Quodvultdeus (died c.450) over precedence appear to have been overcome by Fulgentius' modest concessions.
The Life of Fulgentius, (generally attributed to Ferrandus of Carthage, but more recently to Redemptus a monk of Telepte) is of value to historians as a record of migrations of social élites to Italy, Sicily and Sardinia due to vicissitudes of the Vandal rulers in North Africa, navigation in the Western Mediterranean, estate management, and the development of an episcopal monastic familia.
As a theologian, Fulgentius's work shows knowledge of Greek and a strong agreement with Augustine of Hippo. He wrote frequently against Arianism and Pelagianism. Some letters and eight sermons survive by Fulgentius. During the Middle Ages, he was conflated with Fabius Planciades Fulgentius and considered the author of the famous Mythologies, but this identification is now questioned.
Fulgentius writes in his Letter to Peter on the Faith: "Hold most firmly and never doubt that the same Holy Spirit, who is the one Spirit of the Father and the Son, proceeds from the Father and the Son. For the Son says, 'When the Spirit of Truth comes, who has proceeded from the Father,' where he taught that the Spirit is his, because he is the Truth."
"Athleta Christi" (Latin: "Champion of Christ") was a class of Early Christian soldier martyrs, of whom the most familiar example is one such "military saint," Saint Sebastian.Dalua of Tibradden
Saint Dalua of Tibradden (Irish: Do-Lúe, Latin: Daluanus), also called Dalua of Craoibheach, was an early Irish saint who is said to have been a disciple of St. Patrick. He founded a church that became known as Dun Tighe Bretan (Tibradden) which is located today in the townland of Cruagh, Co. Dublin.Fabius Planciades Fulgentius
Fabius Planciades Fulgentius (fl. late 5th – early 6th century) was a Latin writer of late antiquity. Four extant works are commonly attributed to him, as well as a possible fifth which some scholars include in compilations with much reservation. His mythography was greatly admired and highly influential throughout much of the medieval period, but it is viewed with little favour today.Florus of Lyon
Florus of Lyon (Latin: Florus Lugdunensis), a deacon in Lyon, was an ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. He was probably born shortly before 810. There is no reliable evidence that he was alive after January 859, so his death can be placed around the year 860.
As one of the most brilliant spirits of his time, Florus composed impressive compilations of the Church Fathers on defined subjects (Paul's epistles). He had some acquaintance with Greek, which was rare in his time, and a little Hebrew. He directed the Lyons scriptorium in which he produced editions of many texts: we owe to Florus the transmission of some ancient texts : especially the Latin version (the only complete) of Irenæus' Adversus Hæreses and excerpts from the lost work Contra Fabianum of Fulgentius of Ruspe.
Florus was also much involved in contemporary debates. He was a partisan of Archbishop Agobard of Lyon, who was deposed in 835 for his role in the rebellion against Emperor Louis the Pious, and replaced by Amalarius. In Agobard's defence, Florus wrote a short treatise on how bishops should be appointed; he also attacked Amalarius on theological grounds, accusing him of heretical interpretation of the liturgy.
Florus also used his remarkable knowledge of Augustine to contribute to the Predestination debates of the mid ninth century, in which he defended Gottschalk of Orbais. In the course of these debates, Florus was able to show the inauthenticity of several Pseudo-Augustinian texts.
Almost forgotten for a thousand years, Florus was rediscovered thanks in part to the works of Dom Célestin Charlier, O.S.B., in the mid-twentieth century. Subsequent studies are beginning to provide the first critical editions of his works.Fulgencio
Fulgencio (Spanish pronunciation: [fulˈxensjo]) is a Spanish male given name. It is derived from the Latin name Fulgentius, which means "bright, brilliant".Fulgentius
Fulgentius is a Latin male given name which means "bright, brilliant". It may refer to:
Fabius Planciades Fulgentius (5th–6th century), Latin grammarian
Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe (5th–6th century), bishop of Ruspe, North Africa, possibly related to the above; some authorities believe them to be the same person
Fulgentius Ferrandus (6th century), deacon of Carthage, Fulgentius of Ruspe's pupil and biographer
Saint Fulgentius of Cartagena (6th–7th century), bishop of Écija, Hispania
Gottschalk of Orbais, nicknamed Fulgentius (9th century), monk, theologian and poetGalla of Rome
Galla of Rome was a 6th-century Roman widow and saint.Great martyr
Great Martyr or Great-Martyr (Greek: μεγαλομάρτυς or μεγαλομάρτυρ, megalomartys or megalomartyr, from megas, "great" + "martyr") is a classification of saints who are venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Rite of Constantinople.
Generally speaking, a Great Martyr is a martyr who has undergone excruciating tortures—often performing miracles and converting unbelievers to Christianity in the process—and who has attained widespread veneration throughout the Church. These saints are often from the first centuries of the Church, before the Edict of Milan. This term is normally not applied to saints who could be better described as hieromartyrs (martyred clergy) or protomartyrs (the first martyr in a given region).Johannine Comma
The Johannine Comma (Latin: Comma Johanneum) is an interpolated phrase in the First Epistle of John 5:7-8. It became a touchpoint for Protestant and Catholic debates over the doctrine of the Trinity in the early modern period.
The passage first appeared as an addition to the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Bible, and entered the Greek manuscript tradition in the 15th century. It does not appear in the oldest Latin manuscripts, and appears to have originated as a gloss around the end of the 4th century. Some scribes gradually incorporated this annotation into the main text over the course of the Middle Ages.
The first Greek manuscript of the New Testament that contains the comma dates from the 15th century. The comma is absent from the Ethiopic, Aramaic, Syriac, Slavic, Armenian, Georgian, and Arabic translations of the Greek New Testament. It appears in some English translations of the Bible via its inclusion in the first printed edition of the New Testament, Erasmus's Nouum instrumentum omne, who added it to his text in 1522.Judas Barsabbas
Judas Barsabbas was a New Testament prophet and one of the 'leading men' in the early Christian community in Jerusalem at the time of the Council of Jerusalem in around 50 A.D.Junillus
Junillus Africanus (floruit 541–549) was Quaestor of the Sacred Palace (quaestor sacri palatii) in the court of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. He is best known for his work on biblical exegesis, Instituta regularia divinae legis. According to M.L.W. Laistner, Junillus' work was based on the writings of one of the teachers of the School of Nisibis, Paul the Persian, and because Paul had been influenced by the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Junillus' Instituta helped make Western theologians familiar with the Antiochene school of exegesis.Susan Stevens identifies Junillus with a kinsman of the aristocrat Venantia who had the same name; she was a correspondent of Fulgentius of Ruspe, and possibly a member of the gens Decii.Michael of Synnada
Michael of Synnada (Michael the Confessor) (died 818) was a bishop of Synnada from 784. He represented Byzantium in diplomatic missions to Harun al-Rashid and Charlemagne. He was exiled by Emperor Leo V the Armenian because of his opposition to iconoclasm. Honored by the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, his feast day is May 23.Mididi
Mididi (Punic: 𐤌𐤃𐤃𐤌, mddm, or 𐤌𐤃𐤃𐤉𐤌, MDDYM) was a Carthaginian and Roman settlement during antiquity, located at what is now Henchir-Medded, Tunisia.Præsidium
Præsidium also known as Praesidium Diolele was a town of the Roman Province of Byzacena in North Africa during the Roman Empire.
The location of the town was lost for some time though it is tentatively identified with the ruins at Henchir-Somâa.Fulgentius of Ruspe was from near this town.The town was also the seat of a Christian bishopric, Praesidium, which survives today as an ancient suppressed and titular see of the Roman Catholic Church in North Africa. The bishopric dates from the Roman era and a bishop called Faustus is known from this time. He was exiled by the Vandal King Huneric in 484AD.The current Bishop is Roger William Gries of the United States.Ruspe
Ruspe or Ruspae was a town in the Roman province of Byzacena. It served as the episcopal see of Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe. It is now a Roman Catholic titular bishopric.Saint Fulgentius
Saint Fulgentius may refer to:
Fulgentius of Cartagena (fl. 7th century) Bishop of Cartagena and Ecija (Astigi), in Hispania
Fulgentius of Ruspe (462 or 467 — 527 or 533), bishop of the city of Ruspe, North AfricaSilas
Silas or Silvanus (; Greek: Σίλας/Σιλουανός; fl. 1st century AD) was a leading member of the Early Christian community, who accompanied Paul the Apostle on parts of his first and second missionary journeys.Theodorus (consul 505)
Theodorus (floruit 505–523) was an Italian politician during the reign of Theodoric the Great. He held the consulship with Flavius Sabinianus as his colleague in 505.
Theodorus was son of Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius (consul in 480), and brother of Albinus iunior (consul in 493), Avienus (consul in 501), and Inportunus (consul in 509).While helping his brother Inportunus organize the games to celebrate Inportunus' consulate, the two of them were accused by the Greens of attacking them and killing one of their members. A surviving letter of Theodoric commands both of them to provide answers to these allegations before the tribunal of the inlustrius Caelianus and Agapitus.John Moorhead identifies Theodorus as the recipient of a surviving letter from bishop Fulgentius of Ruspe, written in 520. While Fulgentius admits they do not know each other, he is writing Theodorus on account of a number of mutual friends, providing him a good deal of spiritual advice, and ends by asking Theodorus to pass his greetings to his mother and wife. "The letter," Moorhead notes, "providing as it does scarcely any concrete information about Theodorus, is doubtless chiefly of interest to the historian of spirituality, but it does enable us to locate Theodorus within another context, that of the circle of Fulgentius' correspondents."In 523, he was part of the entourage of Pope John I, who had been ordered by king Theodoric to proceed to Constantinople and obtain a moderation of Emperor Justin's decree of 523 against the Arians. Theodoric threatened that if John should fail in his mission, there would be reprisals against the orthodox Catholics in the West. Other Senators accompanying Pope John included his brother Inportunus, Agapitus, and the patrician Agapitus.Thélepte
Thelepte (Berber languages: تلابت) was a city in the Roman province of Byzacena, now in western Tunisia. It is located 5 km from the modern town of Fériana, near the border with Algeria, at around 34°58′33″N 8°35′38″E.