The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. It is one of the most prestigious and competitive fellowship programs in the world. Via the program, competitively-selected American citizens including students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists may receive scholarships or grants to study, conduct research, teach, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States of America. The program was founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946 and is considered to be one of the most widely recognized and prestigious scholarships in the world. The program provides 8,000 grants annually.
The Fulbright Program is administered by cooperating organizations such as the Institute of International Education and operates in over 160 countries around the world. The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. Department of State sponsors the Fulbright Program and receives funding from the United States Congress via annual appropriation bills. The current funding of the program is $240 million per year; however, President Donald Trump has proposed a 71% cut to its funding in 2018. Additional direct and in-kind support comes from partner governments, foundations, corporations, and host institutions both in and outside the U.S. In each of 49 countries, a bi-national Fulbright Commission administers and oversees the Fulbright Program. In countries without a Fulbright Commission but that have an active program, the Public Affairs Section of the U.S. Embassy oversees the Fulbright Program. More than 370,000 people have participated in the program since it began; 59 Fulbright alumni have won Nobel Prizes; 82 have won Pulitzer Prizes.
The Fulbright Program aims to bring a little more knowledge, a little more reason, and a little more compassion into world affairs and thereby increase the chance that nations will learn at last to live in peace and friendship.— Senator J. William Fulbright
In 1945, Senator J. William Fulbright proposed a bill to use the proceeds from selling surplus U.S. government war property to fund international exchange between the U.S. and other countries. With the crucial timing of the aftermath of the Second War and with the pressing establishment of the United Nations, the Fulbright Program was an attempt to promote peace and understanding through educational exchange. The bill devised a plan to forgo the debts foreign countries amassed during the war and in return for funding an international educational program. It was through the belief that this program would be an essential vehicle to promote peace and mutual understanding between individuals, institutions and future leaders wherever they may be.
If we do not want to die together in war, we must learn to live together in peace.— President Harry S. Truman
On August 1, 1946, President Harry S. Truman signed the bill into law, and Congress created the Fulbright Program in what became the largest education exchange program in history.
Since it began, the program has operated on a bi-national basis; each country active in the Fulbright Program has entered into an agreement with the U.S. government. The first countries to sign agreements were China in 1947 and Burma, the Philippines, and Greece in 1948.
Educational exchange can turn nations into people, contributing as no other form of communication can to the humanizing of international relations.— Senator J. William Fulbright
The Fulbright Program works two ways: U.S. citizens may receive funding to go to a foreign country (U.S. Student Program, U.S. Scholar Program, Teacher Exchange Program, etc.) and non-U.S. citizens may come to the U.S. (Foreign Student Program, Visiting Scholar Program, Teacher Exchange Program, etc.).
Candidates recommended for Fulbright grants have high academic achievement, a compelling project proposal or statement of purpose, demonstrated leadership potential, and flexibility and adaptability to interact successfully with the host community abroad.
Fulbright grants are offered in almost all academic disciplines except clinical medical research involving patient contact. Fulbright grantees' fields of study span the fine arts, humanities, social sciences, mathematics, natural and physical sciences, and professional and applied sciences.
The program is coordinated by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) of the U.S. Department of State under policy guidelines established by the Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board (FSB), with the help of 50 bi-national Fulbright commissions, U.S. embassies, and cooperating organizations in the U.S.
The United States Department of State is responsible for managing, coordinating and overseeing the Fulbright program. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs is the bureau in the Department of State that has primary responsibility for the administration of the program.
The Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board is a twelve-member board of educational and public leaders appointed by the President of the United States that determines general policy and direction for the Fulbright Program and approves all candidates nominated for Fulbright Scholarships.
Bi-national Fulbright commissions and foundations, most of which are funded jointly by the U.S. and partner governments, develop priorities for the program, including the numbers and categories of grants. More specifically, they plan and implement educational exchanges, recruit and nominate candidates for fellowships; designate qualified local educational institutions to host Fulbrighters; fundraise; engage alumni; support incoming U.S. Fulbrighters; and, in many countries, operate an information service for the public on educational opportunities in the United States.
In a country active in the program without a Fulbright commission, the Public Affairs Section of the U.S. Embassy administers the Fulbright Program, including recruiting and nominating candidates for grants to the U.S., overseeing U.S. Fulbrighters on their grant in the country, and engaging alumni.
Established in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I, the Institute of International Education was created to catalyze educational exchange. In 1946, the U.S. Department of State invited IIE to administer the graduate student component and CIES to administer the faculty component of the Fulbright Program—IIE's largest program to date.
The Council for International Exchange of Scholars is a division of IIE that administers the Fulbright Scholar Program.
AMIDEAST administers Fulbright Foreign Student grants for grantees from the Middle East and North Africa (except Israel).
LASPAU: Affiliated with Harvard University LASPAU brings together a valuable network of individuals, institutions, leaders and organizations devoted to building knowledge-based societies across the Americas. Among other functions, LASPAU administers the Junior Faculty Development Program, a part of the Fulbright Foreign Student Program, for grantees from Central and South America and the Caribbean.
American Councils for International Education (ACTR/ACCELS) administers the Junior Faculty Development Program (JFDP), a special academic exchange for grantees from the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Southeast Europe.
The Academy for Educational Development administers the Fulbright Classroom Teacher Exchange Program and the Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program.
The Fulbright Association is an organization independent of the Fulbright Program and not associated with the U.S. Department of State. The Fulbright Association was established on Feb. 27, 1977, as a private nonprofit, membership organization with over 9,000 members. The late Arthur Power Dudden was its founding president. He wanted alumni to educate members of the U.S. Congress and the public about the benefits of advancing increased mutual understanding between the people of the United States and those of other countries. In addition to the Fulbright Association in the U.S., independent Fulbright Alumni associations exist in over 75 countries around the world.
The Fulbright Academy is an organization independent of the Fulbright Program and not associated with the U.S. Department of State. A non-partisan, non-profit organization with members worldwide, the Fulbright Academy focuses on the professional advancement and collaboration needs among the 100,000+ Fulbright alumni in science, technology and related fields. The Fulbright Academy works with individual and institutional members, Fulbright alumni associations and other organizations interested in leveraging the unique knowledge and skills of Fulbright alumni.
Fulbright alumni have occupied key roles in government, academia, and industry. Of the 325,000+ alumni:
The following list is a selected group of notable Fulbright grant recipients:
The J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding, established in 1993, is awarded by the Fulbright Association to recognize individuals or organisations which have made extraordinary contributions toward bringing peoples, cultures, or nations to greater understanding of others.
The recipients are listed below.
|Nelson Mandela||1993||South Africa|
|Jimmy Carter||1994||United States|
|Václav Havel||1997||Czech Republic|
|Fernando Henrique Cardoso||2003||Brazil|
|Colin Powell||2004||United States|
|Bill Clinton||2006||United States|
|Desmond Tutu||2008||South Africa|
|Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation||2010||United States|
|Médecins Sans Frontières||2012||France|
|Richard Lugar||2016||United States|
Ailbhe Ní Ghearbhuigh is an Irish poet who writes in the Irish language. Born in Tralee, County Kerry, in 1984, she graduated from NUI Galway in 2005 with a BA in Irish and French. She spent time in Bordeaux, France, before returning to Ireland to do an MA in Modern Irish, again at NUI Galway.She went to New York in August 2007 to teach Irish with the Fulbright program in the CUNY Institute for Irish-American Studies at Lehman College in the Bronx. The Arts Council of Ireland (An Chomhairle Ealaíon) awarded her an artist’s bursary in 2008.
She has helped to translate her own work into English.
Ní Ghearbhuigh’s first collection, Péacadh, was published in 2008. It has been noted that, although its general tenor is optimistic, many of the collection’s stronger pieces are marked by a disorientating sense of alienation and an awareness of the world’s capricious nature.Her doctoral dissertation, “An Fhrainc Iathghlas? Tionchar na Fraince ar Athbheochan na Gaeilge, 1893-1922″ (NUI, Galway), won the Adele Dalsimer Prize for Distinguished Dissertation in 2014.Andrea Sisson
Andrea Sisson is an American multidisciplinary and conceptual artist working with installation, performance, video, imagery, and writing. She is a 2010 U.S. Fulbright Program Fellow for academia and art, and named a Filmmaker Magazine "25 New Face of Independent Film" 2013.Center for Global Initiatives
The Center for Global Initiatives (CGI) is a research center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is part of the National Resource Center program of the U.S. Department of Education. CGI offers grants and scholarships to students and faculty to travel abroad, complete internships, and develop internationally focused courses. CGI also serves as the home to the Fulbright Program at UNC-Chapel Hill.Frank Hindman Golay
Frank Hindman Golay (July 2, 1915 – August 31, 1990) was an American economist.
Golay was born in Windsor, Missouri, on July 2, 1915, and served in the United States Navy during World War II. After his military service, Golay obtained a doctorate in economics from the University of Chicago in 1951, and worked for the Federal Reserve Board until 1953, when he joined the Cornell University as an assistant professor of economics and Asian studies. In 1960, Golay received a Guggenheim fellowship. He was named chair of the Cornell Department of Economics in 1963, and left the position in 1967. He taught at SOAS, University of London as a visiting professor on a Fulbright grant from 1965 to 1966. Between 1970 and 1976, Golay led the Cornell Southeast Asia Program. Golay was a visiting professor at the University of the Philippines from 1973 to 1974 as a recipient of a Rockefeller Foundation grant. He retired from Cornell in 1981, and served as president of the Association for Asian Studies in 1985. Golay died on August 31, 1990, at the veterans' hospital in Oxford, New York.He was awarded an honorary L.L.D. degree by Aterneo de Manila University in 1966, and he received fellowships from Henry Luce foundation, Social Science Research Council, National Endowment for the Humanities, and Fulbright Program.Fulbright Association
Established on February 27, 1977, the Fulbright Association is a private, nonprofit organization whose members are Fulbright Program alumni and friends of international education. The association supports and promotes international educational and cultural exchange and the ideal most associated with the Fulbright name—mutual understanding among the peoples of the world.Fulbright Austria
The Austrian-American Educational Commission/ Fulbright Austria (AAEC) is one of the 50 bi-national commissions under the Fulbright Program, which exists in order to promote “mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the peoples of other countries.”The program was established in 1946 as part of a bill dealing with the liquidation of surplus US assets left in Europe after World War II. Over 60 years later, the Fulbright Program has over 310,000 alumni and carries out its mission in 155 countries.The Fulbright Program fulfills its mission of mutual understanding by facilitating the exchange of students and scholars between countries. The AAEC provides grants for US citizens to teach, engage in research or study in Austria, and offers Austrian citizens parallel opportunities in the United States. AAEC programs are primarily funded by direct contributions from the Austrian and American governments.ITT International Fellowship Program
The ITT International Fellowship Program was a program of grants promoting international educational student exchanges, similar to the Fulbright Program, sponsored by the International Telephone & Telegraph Corporation. The program was administered by the Institute of International Education from 1973 until the mid-1980s.J. William Fulbright
James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a United States Senator representing Arkansas from January 1945 until his resignation in December 1974. Fulbright is the longest serving chairman in the history of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. A Southern Democrat and a staunch multilateralist who supported the creation of the United Nations, he was also a segregationist who signed the Southern Manifesto. Fulbright opposed McCarthyism and the House Un-American Activities Committee and later became known for his opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War. His efforts to establish an international exchange program eventually resulted in the creation of a fellowship program which bears his name, the Fulbright Program.J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board
The J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board was established by Congress for the purpose of supervising the Fulbright Program and certain programs authorized by the Fulbright-Hays Act and for the purpose of selecting students, scholars, teachers, trainees, and other persons to participate in the educational exchange programs.
Appointed by the President of the United States, the 12-member Board meets quarterly in Washington, D.C. The Board establishes worldwide policies and procedures for the Program and issues an annual report on the state of the Program. The Board maintains a close relationship with both the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) and the executive directors of all the binational Fulbright Commissions. The office within ECA is headed by Executive Director Lisa Helling.Joan Redwing
Joan M. Redwing is an American Professor of materials science and engineering at the Pennsylvania State University.
Joan Redwing had obtained her B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh and in 1994 got her Ph.D. in the same field from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. After graduating, she had worked as a research engineer at the Advanced Technology Materials and in 1999 joined the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Pennsylvania State University and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. She is a senior member of an IEEE and is a fellow of the American Physical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Materials Research Society. In 2017, as a part of the Fulbright Program, she had traveled to Sweden, where she had conducted a research of the semiconductor materials at Lund University. In 2018 Joan Redwing had led Penn State researchers to develop a scalable 2-D materials that could potentially advance the future-generation electronics by using a single crystal.Juan R. Francisco
Juan R. Francisco is a Filipino Indologist who discovered the Maranao version of the Ramayana, that is native to the Philippines. He then translated it into English. He is also a professor at the University of the Philippines in Manila. For several years he served as the Executive Director of the Philippine-American Educational Foundation (PAEF), administering the Fulbright Program in the Philippines.Nazareth College (New York)
Nazareth College is a private college in Pittsford, New York. Founded by the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1924, the college offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and more than two dozen graduate programs. Alumni and locals commonly refer to the school as "Naz" for short.Sabina Magliocco
Sabina Magliocco (born December 30, 1959), is a professor of Anthropology and Religion at the University of British Columbia and formerly at California State University, Northridge (CSUN). She is an author of non-fiction books and journal articles about folklore, religion, religious festivals, foodways, witchcraft and Neo-Paganism in Europe and the United States.
A recipient of fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, Fulbright Program and Hewlett Foundation, Magliocco is an honorary fellow of the American Folklore Society. From 2004 to 2009, she served as editor of Western Folklore, the quarterly journal of the Western States Folklore Society. At CSUN, she is faculty advisor for the CSUN Cat People, an organization dedicated to humane population control and maintenance of feral cats on the university’s campus.Samuel Reid Spencer Jr.
Samuel Reid Spencer Jr. was the 14th president of Davidson College. Originally from South Carolina, Spencer graduated from Davidson in 1940, then serving in the US Army during World War II. After the war, he matriculated at Harvard University to receive a Ph.D. Afterward, Spencer returned to his alma mater to serve as an assistant to then-President John Rood Cunningham, while also becoming a professor of history. Spencer left Davidson to become president of Mary Baldwin College, returning as president in 1968.As president, Spencer led Davidson's successful attempt to become a co-educational institution. He also focused on minority student recruitment and retention and expanded the endowment. Spencer was also appointed by President Jimmy Carter to the Board of Foreign Scholarships, which oversees the Fulbright Program.After leaving Davidson, Spencer became the president of the Virginia Foundation of Independent Colleges.Shih Hsin University
Shih Hsin University (SHU; Chinese: 世新大學), founded in Beiping in 1932, is a private university in Wenshan District, Taipei, Taiwan.
Ranked 1st overall out of 113 non-medical private universities in Taiwan in 2019 in terms of registration rate. Shih Hsin University's College of Journalism and Communications is the oldest and most prestigious in the ROC. Shih Hsin University is a member of U12 Consortium. SHU's journalism, information technology and broadcasting scholars were hosting and recipients of Fulbright Program. Outstanding students of Graduate Institute of Intellectual Property Rights have participated an intensive summer program in Japan. Transparency International's Chinese Taipei Chapter is headquartered in Shih Hsin University. Shih Hsin University has extensive inter-library agreements among research institutes （including Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research）, universities and technological universities in the Greater China region. Shih Hsin University is a member of University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific. SHU is one of four ROC Northern Chinese Universities that resumed operation in Taiwan after 1949 besides National Tsing Hua University, Fu Jen Catholic University and Providence University. Empirically, Shih Hsin University Alumni have employment networking opportunities and lifelong privilege to unlimited access of SHU's online e-book and e-journal databases remotely and by mobile phone, such as updated Harvard Business Review, MIT Technology Review and EBSCO Information Services with free of charge.U.S.-Italy Fulbright Commission
The U.S.- Italy Fulbright Commission is a bi-national, non-profit organization promoting the opportunities for study, research, and teaching in Italy and the United States. The commission acts as executor of the Fulbright Program to and from Italy. Since 1948, the commission has fostered mutual cultural understanding through educational exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. The commission offers competitive, merit-based grants for students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists.United States Cultural Exchange Programs
United States cultural exchange programs, particularly those programs with ties to the
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) of the United States Department of State, seek to develop cultural understanding between United States citizens and citizens of other countries. Exchange programs do not necessarily exchange one individual for another individual of another country; rather, "exchange" refers to the exchange of cultural understanding created when an individual goes to another country. These programs can be regarded as a form of cultural diplomacy within the spectrum of public diplomacy.Exchange programs played a vital role in official and unofficial relations between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. Examples of cultural exchange programs include student exchanges, sports exchanges, and scholarly or professional exchanges, among many others. While many exchange programs are funded by the government, many others are private-sector organizations, either non-profit or for-profit.United States Department of State
The United States Department of State (DOS), commonly referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department. The current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned.
The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and representing the United States at the United Nations. It is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad. The Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C.; "Foggy Bottom" is thus sometimes used as a metonym.Western Connecticut State University
Western Connecticut State University (also known as Western, Western Connecticut, Western Connecticut State, WestConn, and WCSU) is a public university located in Danbury, Connecticut, United States.
WCSU consists of four schools and one division: the Ancell School of Business (which includes the Justice & Law Administration program), the Macricostas School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Visual and Performing Arts, the School of Professional Studies, and the Division of Graduate Studies.
Founded in 1903, WCSU is part of the Connecticut State University (CSU) system, the primary division of the Connecticut State Colleges & Universities (CSCU) system, which includes Eastern, Southern and Central Connecticut state universities; CSCU as a whole consists of those universities in addition to a number of community colleges. Between the four state universities, more than 34,000 students are enrolled, with more than 5,700 students enrolled at Western. (As of the Fall 2016 semester.)
WCSU is home to the Jane Goodall Center for Excellence in Environmental Studies, which is the result of a partnership between WCSU and the Jane Goodall Institute (a private non-profit organization that promotes research, education and wildlife conservation).
The university's Westside campus houses the Ives Concert Park, one of the premier performance venues in the area.
Western is part of the Little East Conference and New Jersey Athletic Conference.