Fujiwara no Kaneie

Fujiwara no Kaneie (藤原 兼家, 929 – July 26, 990) was a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician during the Heian period.[1]

Fujiwara no Kaneie
藤原兼家
Fujiwara no Kaneie
Fujiwara no Kaneie by Kikuchi Yōsai
Born929
DiedJuly 26, 990 (aged 60–61)
NationalityJapanese
ParentsFujiwara no Morosuke (father)

Career

Kaneie served as a minister during the reigns of Emperor En'yū, Emperor Kazan and Emperor Ichijō.

After his rival brother Kanemichi's death in 977 he was appointed to Udaijin by his cousin Yoritada who became Kampaku after Kanemichi's death. He and his son Michikane encouraged Emperor Kazan to abdicate to accelerate Kaneie's accession to regent, and by the succession of Emperor Ichijō, he became Sesshō of Emperor Ichijō.

  • 969 (Anna 1): Ju Sammi (従三位)
  • 970 (Anna 2): Chūnagon
  • 972 (Tenroku 3, 11th month): Kaneie was promoted from the office of Chūnagon to Dainagon[2]
  • 978 (Jōgen 3, 10th month): Kaneie was named Udaijin.[3]
  • 986 (Kanna 2, 24th day of the 6th month): Sesshō (摂政) for Emperor Ichijō
  • 986 (Kanna 2, 20th day of the 7th month): retire from Udaijin
  • 989 (Eiso 1, 12th month): Kaneie is named daijō daijin.[4]
  • 990 (Shōryaku 1, 5th month): Kaneie fell seriously ill; and he abandoned his offices to become a Buddhist monk.[4]
  • July 26, 990 (Shōryaku 1, 2nd day of the 7th month): Kaneie died at the age of 62.[4]

Family

Kaneie had four brothers: Kanemichi,[5] Kinsue,[6] Koretada,[7] and Tamemitsu.[8][1]

  • Father: Fujiwara no Morosuke (藤原師輔, 909–960)[9]
  • Mother: Fujiwara no Moriko (藤原盛子, ?–943), daughter of Fujiwara no Tsunekuni (藤原経邦).[10]
    • Wife: Fujiwara no Tokihime (藤原時姫, ?–980), daughter of Fujiwara no Nakamasa (藤原中正).[11]
    • Wife: known as Udaisyō Michitsuna no Haha (Mother of Udaishō Michitsuna) (右大将道綱母, 936?-995). She wrote Kagerō Nikki (蜻蛉日記) and was the daughter of Fujiwara no Tomoyasu (藤原倫寧の娘).
      • 2nd son: Fujiwara no Michitsuna (藤原道綱, 955-1020), Dainagon.
    • Wife: Yasukonaishinnō (保子内親王, 949-987), third daughter of Emperor Murakami.
    • Wife: Tai no Ankata (対の御方), daughter of Fujiwara no Kuninori (藤原国章).
      • 3rd daughter: Fujiwara no Yasuko/Suishi (藤原綏子, 974–1004), consort of Emperor Sanjō.
    • Wife: name unknown, Chūjō miyasudokoro (中将御息所), possibly daughter of Fujiwara no Kanetada (藤原懐忠).
    • Wife: name unknown.
    • Wife: daughter of Fujiwara no Tadamoto (藤原忠幹の娘)
      • 4th son: Fujiwara no Michiyoshi (藤原道義)
    • Wife: daughter of Minamoto no Kanetada (源兼忠の娘)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Fujiwara no Kaneie" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 203, p. 203, at Google Books; Brinkley, Frank et al. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era, p. 203., p. 203, at Google Books
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 145, p. 145, at Google Books; see "Fousiwara-no Kane ye", pre-Hepburn romanization
  3. ^ Titsingh, p. 146, p. 146, at Google Books.
  4. ^ a b c Titsingh, p. 151, p. 151, at Google Books.
  5. ^ Nussbaum, "Fujiwara no Kanemichi" at p. 203, p. 203, at Google Books
  6. ^ Nussbaum, "Fujiwara no Kinsue" at p. 204, p. 204, at Google Books
  7. ^ Nussbaum, "Fujiwara no Koretada" at p. 205, p. 205, at Google Books
  8. ^ Brinkley, p. 259., p. 259, at Google Books
  9. ^ Brinkley, p. 259., p. 259, at Google Books
  10. ^ Brinkley, p. 259., p. 259, at Google Books
  11. ^ Nussbaum, "Fujiwara no Kanemichi" at p. 203, p. 203, at Google Books

References

  • Brinkley, Frank and Dairoku Kikuchi. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era. New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. OCLC 413099
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
929

Year 929 (CMXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

990

Year 990 $7 (CMXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Eien

Eien (永延) was a Japanese era (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kanna and before Eiso. This period spanned the years from April 987 through August 988. The reigning emperor was Ichijō-tennō (一条天皇).

Eiso

Eiso (永祚) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Eien and before Shōryaku. This period spanned the years from August 988 through November 990. The reigning emperor was Ichijō-tennō (一条天皇).

Emperor En'yū

Emperor En'yū (円融天皇, En'yū-tennō, 12 April 959 – 1 March 991) was the 64th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.En'yū's reign spanned the years from 969 through 984.

Emperor Go-Ichijō

Emperor Go-Ichijō (後一条天皇, Go-Ichijō-tennō, October 12, 1008 – May 15, 1036) was the 68th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Ichijō's reign spanned the years from 1016 through 1036.This 11th century sovereign was named after Emperor Ichijō and go- (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Ichijō", or, in some older sources, may be identified as " Emperor Ichijō, the second."

Emperor Go-Reizei

Emperor Go-Reizei (後冷泉天皇, Go-Reizei-tennō, August 28, 1025 – May 22, 1068) was the 70th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Reizei's reign spanned the years 1045–1068.This 11th century sovereign was named after the 10th century Emperor Reizei and go- (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Reizei". The Japanese word "go" has also been translated to mean the "second one;" and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Reizei, the second," or as "Reizei II."

Emperor Go-Sanjō

Emperor Go-Sanjō (後三条天皇, Go-Sanjō-tennō, September 3, 1032 – June 15, 1073) was the 71st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Sanjō's reign spanned the years from 1068 through 1073.This 11th century sovereign was named after Emperor Sanjō and go- (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Sanjō", or, in some older sources, may be identified as "Sanjō, the second" or as "Sanjo II."

Emperor Go-Suzaku

Emperor Go-Suzaku (後朱雀天皇, Go-Suzaku-tennō, December 14, 1009 – February 7, 1045) was the 69th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Suzaku's reign spanned the years from 1036 through 1045.This 11th-century sovereign was named after the 10th-century Emperor Suzaku and go- (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Suzaku". The Japanese word "go" has also been translated to mean the "second one;" and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Suzaku, the second" or as "Suzaku II."

Emperor Ichijō

Emperor Ichijō (一条天皇, Ichijō-tennō, July 15, 980 – July 25, 1011) was the 66th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Ichijō's reign spanned the years from 986 to 1011.

Emperor Kazan

Emperor Kazan (花山天皇, Kazan-tennō, November 29, 968 – March 17, 1008) was the 65th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Kazan's reign spanned the years from 984 through 986.

Emperor Sanjō

Emperor Sanjō (三条天皇, Sanjō-tennō, February 5, 976 – June 5, 1017) was the 67th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Sanjō's reign spanned the years from 1011 through 1016.

Fujiwara no Michitaka

Fujiwara no Michitaka (藤原 道隆, 953 – May 16, 995), the first son of Kaneie, was a Kugyō (Japanese noble) of the Heian period. He served as regent (Sesshō) for the Emperor Ichijō, and later as Kampaku. Ichijō married Michitaka's daughter Teishi (Sadako), thus continuing the close ties between the Imperial family and the Fujiwara.

Michitaka is sometimes referred to as Nijō Kampaku (二条関白) or Naka-no-Kampaku (中関白).

Kagerō Nikki

Kagerō Nikki (蜻蛉日記, The Mayfly Diary) is a work of classical Japanese literature, written around 974, that falls under the genre of nikki bungaku, or diary literature. The author of Kagerō Nikki was a woman known only as the Mother of Michitsuna. Using a combination of waka poems and prose, she conveys the life of a noblewoman during the Heian period.

Kagerō Nikki is often called The Gossamer Years in English, which is the title given to the first English translation by Edward Seidensticker. The term kagerō has three possible meanings: it may mean a mayfly; a heat wave; or a thin film of cobweb, which is the meaning proposed by English Orientalist Arthur Waley.

Michitsuna no Haha

Michitsuna no Haha (c.935-995) was a Heian period writer in Japan. Her true name is unknown to history. The term Michitsuna no Haha literally translates to Michitsuna's mother. She is a member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals (中古三十六歌仙, chūko sanjurokkasen).

She wrote the Kagerō Nikki, a classic of Japanese literature, about her troubled marriage to Fujiwara no Kaneie who served as Sesshō and Kampaku.

Minamoto no Mitsunaka

Minamoto no Mitsunaka (源 満仲, April 29, 912? – October 6, 997), was born as Myoomaru (明王丸) son of Minamoto no Tsunemoto, was a samurai and Court official of Japan's Heian period. Mitsunaka belonged to the Seiwa Genji branch of the Minamoto clan, which traced its ancestry to Emperor Seiwa. He loyally (if not selflessly) served several successive Fujiwara regents (sessho and kampaku) beginning with Fujiwara no Morotada. Mitsunaka allied himself with Morotada in 969, by implicating Minamoto no Takaakira—Morotada's major political rival—in a plot against the throne. It is not clear whether these accusations were true, but Takaakira was sent into exile, placing Mitsunaka firmly in Morotada's good graces. Later, Mitsunaka would assist Fujiwara no Kaneie in his plot to coerce Emperor Kazan into taking Buddhist vows and abdicating in favor of Fujiwara's seven-year-old grandson.Mitsunaka's association with Fujiwara clan made him one of the richest and most powerful courtiers of his day. He served as the acting governor (kokushi) of ten provinces, most notably Settsu, which became the mainstay of his military and economic power. In addition, Mitsunaka inherited his father's title of Chinjufu-shōgun, Commander-in-chief of the Defense of the North. The patron/client relationship between the Fujiwara and the Seiwa Genji continued for nearly two hundred years after Mitsunaka's death; indeed, the Seiwa Genji came to be known as the "teeth and claws" of the Fujiwara.Mitsunaka married the daughter of Minamoto no Suguru, from the Saga Genji branch of the Minamoto. He was the father of three sons: Minamoto no Yorimitsu (who became the hero of a large body of folklore), Minamoto no Yorinobu, and Minamoto no Yorichika.

"He had many sons, all of them accomplished in the way of the warrior, except one who was a monk. His name was Genken." This monk of the Tendai Sect, with the aid of Genshin, was able to convert his father to Buddhism. Upon his conversion, Minamoto no Mitsunaka built a hall to atone for his sins. "What is known as Tada Temple is a cluster of halls that began to be built with this one."In his later years, Mitsunaka retired to his manor in Tada, a town in Settsu province; for this reason, he is also known as Tada Manjū. (Manjū is the Sino-Japanese reading of the characters for "Mitsunaka"). His descendants are sometimes referred to as the "Settsu Genji" or the "Tada Genji".Mitsunaka appears in the anime Otogi Zoshi, along with fictionalized versions of a number of other historical figures.

Sesshō and Kampaku

In Japan, Sesshō (摂政) was a title given to a regent who was named to act on behalf of either a child emperor before his coming of age, or an empress regnant. The Kanpaku (関白) was theoretically a sort of chief advisor for the emperor, but was the title of both first secretary and regent who assists an adult emperor. During a certain period in the Heian era, they were the effective rulers of Japan. There was little, if any, effective difference between the two titles, and several individuals merely changed titles as child emperors grew to adulthood, or adult emperors retired or died and were replaced by child emperors. The two titles were collectively known as Sekkan (摂関), and the families that exclusively held the titles were called Sekkan-ke or Sekkan family. After the Heian era, shogunates took over the power.

Both sesshō and kanpaku were styled as denka (or tenga in historical pronunciation; 殿下; translated as ‘’(Imperial) Highness’’), as were imperial princes and princesses.

A retired kanpaku is called Taikō (太閤), which came to commonly refer to Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Shōryaku-ji

Shōryaku-ji (正暦寺) is a Shingon temple in the southeast of Nara, Japan. Founded in 992, it is the head temple of the Bodaisen Shingon sect.

Tengen (era)

Tengen (天元) was a Japanese era (年号, nengō, "year name") after Jōgen and before Eikan. This period spanned the years from November 978 through April 983. The reigning emperor was En'yū-tennō (円融天皇).

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