Fujian (福建; formerly romanised as Fukien or Hokkien), is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou (present Nanping), two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China.
As a result of the Chinese Civil War, Historical Fujian is now divided between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taiwan, and both territories are named the Fujian province in their respective administration divisions. The majority of the territory of historical Fujian (the mainland territory and a few islands) currently make up the Fujian province of the PRC. The Fujian province of the ROC is made up of the Matsu Islands, the Wuqiu Islands and the Kinmen Islands, the two latter archipelagos constituting Kinmen County.
|• Chinese||福建省 (Fújiàn Shěng)|
|• Hokkien POJ||Hok-kiàn|
Map showing the location of Fujian Province
|Divisions||9 prefectures, 85 counties, 1107 townships|
|• Secretary||Yu Weiguo|
|• Governor||Tang Dengjie|
|• Total||121,400 km2 (46,900 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,158 m (7,080 ft)|
|• Density||300/km2 (790/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||14th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han – 98%|
She – 1%
Hui – 0.3%
|• Languages and dialects||Min (inc. Hokkien dialects, Fuzhounese), Mandarin, Hakka|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-FJ|
|GDP (2017)||CNY 3.23 trillion|
USD 478.37 billion (10th)
|• per capita||CNY 82,976 |
USD 12,289 (6th)
|HDI (2014)||0.758 (high) (11th)|
"Fujian" in Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"Fu(zhou) and Jian(zhou)"|
|Literal meaning||[the Min River]|
Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, which is definitive evidence of weaving.
The Tanshishan (昙石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun (黄土崙) site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character.
Tianlong Jiao (2013) notes that the Neolithic appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B.P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on mostly on fishing and hunting, alongside with limited agriculture.
There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were highly distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures.
Fujian was also where the kingdom of Minyue was located. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (simplified Chinese: 闽; traditional Chinese: 閩; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), which is perhaps an ethnic name (simplified Chinese: 蛮; traditional Chinese: 蠻; pinyin: mán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), and "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably older.
Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status. In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang. The Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu was victorious and founded the Han dynasty. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.
After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, primarily in the 2nd century BC. This was stopped by the Han dynasty as it expanded southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end.
The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.
The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Lin (林), Huang (黄), Chen (陈), Zheng (郑), Zhan (詹), Qiu (邱), He (何), and Hu (胡). The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.
Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boosts from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.
The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China, which contributed to a boom in Fujian’s culture and economy. Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang dynasty saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to Fujian.
As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon absorbed by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.
Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom and was the largest seaport in the world. Its population is also greater than Fuzhou. Due to the Ispah Rebellion, Quanzhou was severely damaged.
The Lý dynasty monarchs of Vietnam were of Chinese ethnicity. Fujian province, Jinjiang village was the origin of Lý Thái Tổ 李公蘊, the ancestor of the Lý dynasty ruling family.[a] China, Fujian was the home of Lý Công Uẩn. The ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn has been accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng.
The founder of the Trần Dynasty in Vietnam, Emperor Trần Thái Tông, was the great-grandson of a Chinese person who came to Vietnam from Fujian from the Chinese Chen clan. Several members of the family, like the prince Trần Quốc Tuấn, continued to know how to speak Chinese. The name of the prince’s great grandfather was Trần Kinh.
People from the Song dynasty of China, like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao, fled to the Trân dynasty after the Mongol invasion of China. The Daoist cleric Xu Zongdaowho, who recorded the Mongol invasion and called them "Northern bandits", also came from Fujian.
Fujian was the origin of the ethnic Chinese Tran who migrated to Vietnam along with a large number of other Chinese, during the Vietnamese Ly dynasty, where they served as officials. Distinctly Chinese last names are found in the Tran and Ly dynasty Imperial exam records. Ethnic Chinese are recorded in Tran and Ly dynasty records of officials. Clothing, food, and language were all Chinese dominated in Van Don where the Tran had moved after leaving their home province of Fujian. The Chinese language could still be spoken by the Tran in Vietnam. The side of Vietnam that borders the ocean was colonized by Chinese migrants from Fujian. This included the Tran among them who settled in the capital's southeastern area. The Red River Delta was subjected to migration from Fujian. The Tran and Van Don port arose as a result of this interaction. Guangdong and Fujian Chinese moved to the Van Don coastal port during Ly Anh Tong's rule to engage in commerce. The usurpation of the Ly occurred after they married with the fishing Fujianese Tran family.
In the early Ming dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large-scale piracy by Wokou was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
The late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in the island of Taiwan.
The seaban implented by the Qing forced many people to evacuate the coast in order to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources. This has led to the myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of water".
Incoming refugees did not translate into a major labor force, owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan and annexed it into the Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed. Today, most Taiwanese are descendants of Hokkien people from Southern Fujian. Fujian arrived at its present extent after Taiwan was developed into an independent province (Fujian-Taiwan-Province) starting in 1885. Just ten years later, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan via the Treaty of Shimonoseki after losing the First Sino-Japanese War.
Owing to the mountainous landscape, Fujian was the most secluded province of the PRC in eastern China due to the lack of rail and underdeveloped networks of paved roads before the 1950s. The first railway to the province, the Yingtan-Xiamen Railway, was completed in 1957. Despite its secluded location, Fujian has had a strong academic tradition since the Southern Song dynasty. At the time, north China was occupied by the Jurchen Jin dynasty during the Jin-Song wars, which caused a shift of the cultural center of China to the south, benefiting Fuzhou and other southern cities. In the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, there are more members from Fuzhou than from any other city. Fujian's slow development in its early days has proved a blessing for the province's ecology; today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China whereas central China suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion, with frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage.
Since the late 1970s, the economy of coastal Fujian has greatly benefited from its geographic and cultural proximity to Taiwan. In 2003, Xiamen ranked number eight in GDP per capita among 659 Chinese cities, ahead of Shanghai and Beijing, while Fuzhou was no. 21 (number 4 among 30 provincial capitals). The development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the overpopulated areas in the north and west, and much of the farmland and forest as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings. The government faces challenges at all levels to sustain development while at the same time preserving Fujian's unique and vital natural and cultural heritage.
The province is mostly mountainous, and is traditionally said to be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. It is the most forested provincial level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009. Fujian's highest point is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2,157 metres (1.340 mi).
Fujian faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen) (controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island. Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors.
Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the 180 kilometres (110 mi)-wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. The islands of Quemoy and Matsu are under the administration of the Republic of China.
Fujian contains several faults, the result of collision between the Asiatic Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The Changle-Naoao and Longan-Jinjiang fault zones in this area have annual displacement rates of 3–5 mm. They could cause major earthquakes in the future.
Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January, the coastal regions average around 7–10 °C (45–50 °F) while the hills average 6–8 °C (43–46 °F). In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is 1,400–2,000 millimetres (55–79 in).
The province has improved its infrastructure considerably by adding 166 kilometres (103 mi) of new roads and 155 kilometres (96 mi) of railways.
As of 2012, there are 54,876 kilometres (34,098 miles) of highways in Fujian, including 3,500 kilometres (2,200 miles) of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi).
Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi, Guangdong and Zhejiang Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian has four rail links with Jiangxi to the northwest: the Yingtan–Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southern-most section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and links Fujian with Zhejiang with trains running at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph).
Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping–Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan–Xiamen Railways, (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to 2,500 km (1,553 mi).
The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport, Longyan Guanzhishan Airport and Sanming Shaxian Airport. Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers as of 2011. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Hong Kong.
|Administrative divisions of Fujian|
|№||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|350000||Fujian Province||121400.00||36,894,217||Fuzhou city||29||44||12|
|1||350100||Fuzhou city||12155.46||7,115,369||Gulou District||6||6||1|
|2||350200||Xiamen city||1699.39||3,531,347||Siming District||6|
|6||350300||Putian city||4119.02||2,778,508||Chengxiang District||4||1|
|8||350400||Sanming city||22928.79||2,503,388||Meilie District||2||9||1|
|7||350500||Quanzhou city||11245.00||8,128,533||Fengze District||4||5*||3|
|9||350600||Zhangzhou city||12873.33||4,809,983||Longwen District||2||8||1|
|4||350700||Nanping city||26280.54||2,645,548||Jianyang District||2||5||3|
|3||350800||Longyan city||19028.26||2,559,545||Xinluo District||2||4||1|
|5||350900||Ningde city||13452.38||2,821,996||Jiaocheng District||1||6||2|
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|English||Chinese||Pinyin||Fuzhou BUC||Hokkien POJ|
|Fujian Province||福建省||Fújiàn Shěng||Hók-gióng-sēng||Hok-kiàn-séng|
|Fuzhou city||福州市||Fúzhōu Shì||Hók-ciŭ-chê||Hok-chiu-chhī|
|Xiamen city||厦门市||Xiàmén Shì||Â-muòng-chê||Ē-mn̂g-chhī|
|Putian city||莆田市||Pútián Shì||Può-dièng-chê||Phô͘-chhân-chhī|
|Sanming city||三明市||Sānmíng Shì||Săng-mìng-chê||Sam-bêng-chhī|
|Quanzhou city||泉州市||Quánzhōu Shì||Ciòng-ciŭ-chê||Choân-chiu-chhī|
|Zhangzhou city||漳州市||Zhāngzhōu Shì||Ciŏng-ciŭ-chê||Chiang-chiu-chhī|
|Nanping city||南平市||Nánpíng Shì||Nàng-bìng-chê||Lâm-pêng-chhī|
|Longyan city||龙岩市||Lóngyán Shì||Lṳ̀ng-ngàng-chê||Lêng-nâ-chhī|
|Ningde city||宁德市||Níngdé Shì||Nìng-dáik-chê||Lêng-tek-chhī|
All of the prefecture-level cities except Nanping, Sanming, and Longyan are found along the coast.
The nine prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (28 districts, 13 county-level cities, and 44 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 township-level divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 subdistricts).
The People's Republic of China claims the Republic of China-controlled Kinmen Islands as a Jinmen County of the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou. The ROC administers them as five of the six townships of its Kinmen County.
Finally, the PRC claims the ROC-controlled Matsu Islands as a Mazu Township of its Lianjiang County, which is part of the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou. The ROC administers the Matsu Islands as four townships making up its Lienchiang County (which is the same name but romanized differently).
Together, these three groups of islands make up the Republic of China's Fujian Province.
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(2)||Fuzhou (new district)[i]||278,007||682,626||see Fuzhou||2010-11-01|
|(10)||Longyan (new district)[iv]||136,496||362,658||see Longyan||2010-11-01|
|(14)||Nanping (new district)[v]||150,756||289,362||see Nanping||2010-11-01|
List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee
List of Governors
Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic.
|Historical GDP of Fujian Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)|
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017)
|year||GDP||GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
|GDP in millions||real
1 foreign currency
|USD 1||Int'l$. 1|
In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley. Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.
Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions.
Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.
Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.
By 2015 Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55 percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector.
As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions."
Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples (Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups of Han Chinese in Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people, Fuzhounese people, Teochew people and Putian people.
Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province bordering Guangdong. Hui'an, also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate Fujian's southeast coastline near Chongwu in Hui'an County. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province.
Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asia, trace their ancestries to Fujian. Descendants of Fujianese emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Fujian, especially Fuzhou City, is also the major source of Chinese immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s.
The predominant religions in Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, while 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.
Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from central China in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most linguistically diverse places in all Han Chinese areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does". Most varieties spoken in Fujian are assigned to a broad Min category. Early classifications, such as those of Li Fang-Kuei in 1937 and Yuan Jiahua in 1960, divided Min into Northern and Southern subgroups. More recent classifications subdivide Min into
As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities, although native Fujian peoples still converse in their native languages and dialects respectively.
Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min opera is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.
Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone and Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage).
Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Hokkien of the Min Nan languages. (Mandarin and Cantonese pronounce the word chá.)
Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.
Places of interest include:
The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement, and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable persons since the time of the Song dynasty, such as:
Corporations with headquarters in Fujian include:
Professional sports teams in Fujian include:
The Fujian People's Government (or spelt as the Fukien People's Government) is the common name for the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (1933–1934) (Chinese: 中華共和國人民革命政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó Rénmín Gémìng Zhèngfǔ), also known as the Fujian People's Government (Chinese: 福建人民革命政府; pinyin: Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ), was a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Republic of China's Fujian Province. The rebellion that led to its formation and its collapse are known as the Fujian Incident (閩變 Mǐnbiàn or 福建事變 Fújiàn Shìbiàn) or Fujian Rebellion.Fujian Province, Republic of China
Fujian ([fǔ.tɕjɛ̂n] (listen); Hokkien POJ: Hok-kiàn; Fuzhou BUC: Hók-gióng; Pu-Xian Min BUC: Ho̤h-ge̤̍ng; formerly romanized as Fukien or Fuchien) is a streamlined province of the Republic of China. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County.,The current Fujian Province under ROC control was once part of a larger Fujian Province, which consisted of a mainland portion and some islands. After the Chinese Civil War of 1949, the majority of the historical province became Fujian, People's Republic of China, while the remaining islands remained under ROC control, which compose 0.5% of the ROC's territories.Fuqing
Fuqing (Chinese: 福清; pinyin: Fúqīng; Wade–Giles: Fu2-ch'ing1; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-chhiaⁿ; Foochow Romanized: Hók-chiăng; also romanized as Hokchia) is a county-level city of Fuzhou in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.Fuzhou
Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong (lit. Eastern Fujian) linguistic and cultural area.
Fuzhou lies on the north (left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's Gutian County lies upriver. Its population was 7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05%. In 2015, Fuzhou was ranked as the 10th Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas in the world by Brookings Institution.
Fuzhou is listed as No.20 in China
Integrated City Index 2016's total ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform Commission.Henry Sy
Henry Tan Chi Sieng Sy Sr. (Chinese: 施至成; pinyin: Shī Zhìchéng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Si Chì-sêng; October 15, 1924 – January 19, 2019) was a Chinese-Filipino business magnate and philanthropist, known as the "father of modern Philippine retail". Born in Fujian, China, he moved with his family to the Philippines at age 12. While his family returned to China, he stayed behind and founded ShoeMart, a small Manilla shoe store, in 1958. Over the decades he developed ShoeMart into SM Investments, one of the largest conglomerates in the Philippines, including 77 SM malls in the Philippines and China, 62 department stores, 56 supermarkets and over 200 grocery stores. SM also owns Banco de Oro, the second largest bank in the Philippines, and real estate holdings.For eleven straight years until his death, Sy was named by Forbes as the richest person in the Philippines. When he died on January 19, 2019, his estimated net worth amounted to US$19 billion, making him the 53rd richest person in the world.Hokkien mee
Hokkien mee is a Malaysian and Singaporean dish that has its origins in the cuisine of China's Fujian (Hokkien) province. In its most common form, the dish consists of egg noodles and rice noodles stir-fried with egg, slices of pork, prawns and squid, and served and garnished with vegetables, small pieces of lard, sambal sauce and lime (for adding the lime juice to the dish).Jinjiang, Fujian
Jinjiang (simplified Chinese: 晋江; traditional Chinese: 晉江; pinyin: Jìnjiāng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chìn-kang) is a county-level city of Quanzhou City, Fujian Province, China. It is located in the southeastern part of the province, on the right or south bank of the Jin River, across from Quanzhou's urban district of Fengze. Jinjiang also borders the Taiwan Strait of the East China Sea to the south, and Quanzhou's other county-cities of Shishi and Nan'an to the east and west, respectively. It has an area of 721.7 square kilometres (278.6 sq mi) and a population of 1,986,447 as of 2010.Jinjiang has the only extant Manichean temple in China (Cao'an) and is near the eastern end of the world's longest estimated straight-line path over land, at 11,241 km (6,985 mi), ending near Sagres, Portugal.Kinmen
Kinmen or Quemoy (; Standard Mandarin Pīnyīn: Jīnmén; Hokkien POJ: Kim-mn̂g (locally) or Kim-mûi), officially Kinmen County, is two groups of islands governed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The county consists of the Kinmen Islands (including Great Kinmen and Lesser Kinmen) and the Wuqiu Islands more than 110 kilometres (68 mi) to the northeast. It is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian Province of the Republic of China. The Kinmen Islands are located only about two kilometres (1.2 mi) east of the mainland city of Xiamen, and their strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has continuously claimed Kinmen County as part of its own Fujian Province, claiming the Kinmen Islands as a Jinmen County of Quanzhou prefecture-level city, and claiming the Wuqiu Islands as part of Xiuyu District in Putian prefecture-level city.Min Chinese
Min or Miin (simplified Chinese: 闽语; traditional Chinese: 閩語; pinyin: Mǐn yǔ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bân gú; BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by about 30 million people in Fujian province as well as by 45 million descendents of migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan. The name is derived from the Min River in Fujian, which is also the abbreviated name of Fujian Province. Min varieties are not mutually intelligible with each other or with any other varieties of Chinese.
There are many Min speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia. The most widely spoken variety of Min outside Fujian is Southern Min (Minnan), also known as Hokkien-Taiwanese (which includes Taiwanese and Amoy).
Many Min languages have retained notable features of the Old Chinese language, and there is linguistic evidence that not all Min varieties are directly descended from Middle Chinese of the Sui–Tang dynasties. Min languages are believed to have a significant linguistic substrate from the languages of the inhabitants of the region prior to its sinicization.Min River (Fujian)
The Min River (simplified Chinese: 闽江; traditional Chinese: 閩江; pinyin: Mǐn Jiāng; Foochow Romanized: Mìng-gĕ̤ng) is a 577 kilometres (359 mi)-long river in Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It is the largest river in Fujian, and an important water transport channel. Most of northern and central Fujian is within its drainage area.
The provincial capital, Fuzhou, sits on the lower Min River, with its historic center being on the northern side of the river,even closer to its fall into the East China Sea; the location historically made it an important port.Nan'an, Fujian
Nan'an (Chinese: 南安; pinyin: Nán'ān; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lâm-oaⁿ; literally: "southern peace") is a county-level city of southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Quanzhou City and as of 2010, had a total population of 1,500,000. More than 3,000,000 overseas Chinese trace their ancestry to Nan'an.Nanping
Nanping (Chinese: 南平; pinyin: Nánpíng) is a third-tier prefecture-level city in northwestern Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. It borders Ningde to the east, Sanming to the south, and the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi to the north and west respectively. Part of the famous Wuyi Mountains range is located in this prefecture. Its population was 3,212,600 at the 2016 census whom 2,660,000 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made up of Yanping urban district.
Nanping is a picturesque old city, located on a hill near the fall of the Jianxi Brook into the Min, and surrounded by high stone walls, which were used to prevent artillery fire. They formed a considerable obstacle to anything hostile in past conflicts. The city flower is lily.Ningde
Ningde (simplified Chinese: 宁德; traditional Chinese: 寧德; pinyin: Níngdé; Foochow Romanized: Nìng-dáik), also known as Mindong (simplified Chinese: 闽东; traditional Chinese: 閩東; pinyin: Mǐndōng; Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng; lit. East of Fujian), is a prefecture-level city located along the northeastern coast of Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Fuzhou to the south, Wenzhou (Zhejiang) to the north, and Nanping to the west. Ningde is listed as No.2 in China Integrated City Index 2016's environmental ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform Commission.Putian
Putian (Chinese: 莆田) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Fujian province, China. It borders Fuzhou City to the north, Quanzhou City to the south, and the Taiwan Strait's Xinghai Bay to the east. The Mulan River flows through the southern part of the city. It's built-up area made of 4 urban districts was home to 1,953,801 inhabitants as of 2010 census.Quanzhou
Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. It is Fujian's largest metropolitan region, with an area of 11,245 square kilometers (4,342 sq mi) and, as of 2010, a population of 8,128,530. Its built-up area is home to 6,107,475 inhabitants, encompassing the Licheng, Fengze, and Luojiang urban districts; Jinjiang, Nan'an, and Shishi cities; Hui'an County; and the Quanzhou District for Taiwanese Investment. Quanzhou was China's 12th-largest extended metropolitan area in 2010.
Quanzhou was China's major port for foreign traders, who knew it as Zaiton, during the 11th through 14th centuries. It was visited by both Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta; both travelers praised it as one of the most prosperous and glorious cities in the world. It was the naval base from which the Mongol attacks on Japan and Java were primarily launched and a cosmopolitan center with Buddhist and Hindu temples, Islamic mosques, and Christian churches, including a Catholic cathedral and Franciscan friaries. A failed revolt prompted a massacre of the city's foreign communities in 1357. Economic dislocations—including piracy and an imperial overreaction to it during the Ming and Qing—reduced its prosperity, with Japanese trade shifting to Ningbo and Zhapu and other foreign trade restricted to Guangzhou. Quanzhou became an opium-smuggling center in the 19th century but the siltation of its harbor hindered trade by larger ships.Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), literally "Southern Fujian" while "Min" is short for "Fujian" and "Nan" is "South", is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in certain parts of south and eastern China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), most of Taiwan (many citizens are descendents of settlers from Fujian), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese subgroup.
In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min originating from Southern Fujian in Mainland China. It is spoken mainly in Fujian, Taiwan, as well as certain parts of Southeast Asia. The Quanzhang variety is often called simply "Minnan Proper" (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語). It is considered the mainstream Southern Min Chinese Langauge.
In the wider scope, Southern Min also includes other Min Chinese varieties that are linguistically related to Minnan proper (Quanzhang). Most variants of Southern Min have significant differences from the Quanzhang variety, some having limited mutual intelligibility with it, others almost none. Teochew, Longyan, and Zhenan may be said to have limited mutual intelligibility with Minnan Proper, sharing similar phonology and vocabulary to a small extent. On the other hand, variants such as Datian, Zhongshan, and Qiong-Lei have historical linguistic roots with Minnan Proper, but are significantly divergent from it in terms of phonology and vocabulary, and thus have almost no mutual intelligibility with the Quanzhang variety. Linguists tend to classify them as separate Min languages.
Southern Min is not mutually intelligible with other branches of Min Chinese nor other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin.Taiwan Strait
The Taiwan Strait, or Formosa Strait, is a 180-kilometre (110 mi)-wide strait separating the island of Taiwan from mainland China. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north. The narrowest part is 130 km (81 mi) wide.Xiamen
Xiamen, formerly known from its Hokkien pronunciation as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, China, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289. This area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers (4 mi) away.
Xiamen Island possessed a natural harbor in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong. Due to the siltification of Quanzhou's harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen be opened to foreign trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium War in 1842. Under the Qing, both before and after the war, there was a large-scale emigration of Chinese from southern Fujian who spread Hokkien-speaking communities to Singapore, Malaysia (especially in Penang), Indonesia (Medan and Riau Province) and the Philippines. The overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamen's educational and cultural institutions. As part of the Opening Up Policy under Deng Xiaoping, Xiamen became one of China's original four special economic zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s. Its former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the city's expansion, however, the city continues to remain an island connected by bridges to the rest of mainland China.The city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien culture and Gulangyu Island, as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou (), formerly romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen. During the 2010 census, the entire area of Zhangzhou was home to 4,809,983 inhabitants. Along with the 1.9 million people of central Xiamen, its urban districts of Longwen and Xiangcheng, together with Longhai, form a single metropolitan area of about 5 million people (2010).