Fuad Masum

Muhammad Fuad Masum (Arabic: محمد فؤاد معصوم‎, translit. Muḥammad Fū’ād Ma‘ṣūm; Kurdish: محەممەد فوئاد مەعسووم, born 1 January 1938)[1] is an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as President of Iraq from 24 July 2014 to 2 October 2018. He was elected as President following the 2014 parliamentary election.[2] Masum is the second non-Arab president of Iraq, succeeding Jalal Talabani, also Kurdish, and was a confidant of Talabani.

Fuad Masum
Fuad Masum 2014
President of Iraq
In office
24 July 2014 – 2 October 2018
Prime MinisterNouri al-Maliki
Haider al-Abadi
Vice PresidentKhodair al-Khozaei
Nouri al-Maliki,
Osama al-Nujaifi and
Ayad Alawi
Preceded byJalal Talabani
Succeeded byBarham Salih
Speaker of the Council of Representatives
Acting
In office
14 June 2010 – 11 November 2010
PresidentJalal Talabani
Preceded byAyad al-Samarrai
Succeeded byOsama al-Nujaifi
1st Prime Minister of Kurdistan (PUK)
In office
4 July 1992 – 26 April 1994
PresidentSaddam Hussein
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byKosrat Rasul Ali
Personal details
Born
Muhammad Fuad Masum
محەممەد فوئاد مەعسووم

1 January 1938 (age 81)
Koya, Kingdom of Iraq
Political partyKurdistan Patriotic (1974–present)
Other political
affiliations
Iraqi Communist (1962–1964)
Kurdistan Democratic (1964–1974)
Spouse(s)Rounak Abdulwahid Mustafa (1967–present)
ChildrenShereen
Juwan
Showan
Zozan
Shilan
Veian
Alma materUniversity of Baghdad
Al-Azhar University
ReligionSunni Islam
Signature
Fuad Masum's signature

Early life and education

Fuad Masum was born in the city of Koya. He was the son of Sheikh Mohammed Mullah Fuad Masum, a former head of the Association of Muslim Scholars in Kurdistan, who belongs to an established political dynasty with Muslim clerical links.[3][4] His family descends from the village of Khabanen, which is part of Hawraman.[5] He studied at various religious schools in Iraqi Kurdistan until the age of 18. He studied law and Sharia at Baghdad University.[6] In 1958, Masum traveled to Cairo to complete his higher education at Al-Azhar University.[7] He worked as a professor in Basrah University in 1968.[6] He earned his PhD in Islamic philosophy from Al-Azhar in 1975.[6]

Political career

Communist Party

Masum joined the Iraqi Communist Party in 1962, until 1964, where he travelled to Syria to meet the Communist Party secretary there, Khalid Bakdash.[5] After Masum discovered Bakdash's attitudes against the Kurds, he quit the party to join the Kurdistan Democratic Party (PDK).[8][9]

Kurdistan Democratic Party

In 1968, Masum was the PDK representative in Basra. He was also the representative of the Kurdish Revolution in Cairo until 1975.[5]

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan

Masum was one of the founders of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in 1976.[8] By 1992, he was the first prime minister of Kurdistan.[8] In 2003, following the invasion of Iraq, Masum returned to Baghdad to be a member of the delegation representing Kurdistan, and was a member of the constitution drafting committee.[5] In 2010, Masum became the first Speaker of the Council of Representatives.[6]

Presidency

President Rouhani with Iraqi President Fuad Masum in Saadabad Palace 4
Masum with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani in Saadabad Palace

In 2014, he was elected by the parliament representatives as the seventh president of Iraq.[10] Masum won 211 votes while his closest competitor, Barham Salih,[10] a former prime minister of Iraqi Kurdistan from October 2009 to April 2012, only received 17.[11] The decision was made during a secret vote of Kurdish MPs, who traditionally have control over the presidency for the sake of political balance.[10] United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon was present in Iraq when the decision was made, meeting with Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki about the need for a more inclusive government.[12] Masum accepted the position, noting the "huge security, political and economic tasks" he faces as president.[13]

On 26 August, Masum appointed a new prime minister, Haider al-Abadi.[14]

Masum's appointment of Haider al-Abadi as new prime minister was considered illegal by Nouri al-Maliki and in violation of the constitution.[15] Maliki said that in spite of his erosion of power it was his duty to remain in power because the appointment was a conspiracy rooted from outside of Iraq.[16] Al-Maliki referred the matter to the federal court claiming, "the insistence on this until the end is to protect the state."[17] However, on 14 August 2014, in the face of growing calls from world leaders and members of his own party, the embattled prime minister announced he was stepping down, paving the way for al-Abadi to take over.[18]

Personal life

Masum is married to Rounak Abdulwahid Mustafa and has five daughters: Shereen (b. 1969), Juwan (b. 1972), Zozan (b. 1977), Shilan (b. 1979) and Veian (b. 1982). He had a son, Showan (1974–1989), who died from a childhood illness.[19]

References

  1. ^ Iraq President's biography
  2. ^ "Moderate Kurd leader elected as Iraq president". Iraq Sun. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  3. ^ "Biography of President Fuad Masum, new President of the Republic of Iraq". Iraqi Dinar. 24 July 2014.
  4. ^ "Iraq profile - leaders". BBC News. 11 August 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d "Who is Fuad Masum, the President of Iraq?". ALSUMARIA. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d "Who is Fuad Masum, the new Iraqi President?". BBC. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  7. ^ "Talabani's old time friend becomes candidate for Iraqi President | BAS NEWS". Bas News. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  8. ^ a b c "Who is the new Iraqi president, Fuad Masum Hawrami?". Al Hayat. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  9. ^ Heath-Brown, Nick (2017-02-07). The Statesman's Yearbook 2016: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World. Springer. ISBN 9781349578238.
  10. ^ a b c "Iraq selects senior Kurdish politician Fuad Masum president". World Bulletin. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  11. ^ "Iraq parliament elects Fuad Masum president: speaker". InterAksyon. Agence France-Presse. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  12. ^ "Iraq gets new president in Fuad Masum, UN chief Ban Ki-moon seeks more urgency". The Times of India. Agence France-Presse. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  13. ^ "Iraq elects Fuad Masum as president". The Hindu. Associated Press. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  14. ^ Madi, Mohamed (11 August 2014). "Profile: Haider al-Abadi, Iraqi PM in waiting". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
  15. ^ "Power struggle on Baghdad streets as Maliki replaced but refuses to go". Reuters. August 2014. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  16. ^ Morris (August 13, 2014). "Maliki asserts 'duty' to cling to power in Iraq; Iran's supreme leader weighs in". Washington Post.
  17. ^ "Iraq's Incumbent PM Nouri Al-Maliki Grows More Isolated As He Clings To Power". Huffington Post. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  18. ^ "Baghdad's Shiites in bid to oust Kurdish president of Iraq". Rudaw. 14 September 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  19. ^ "Who is Dr. Fuad Masum? | Iraqi Dinar News Today". Iraqi Dinar News Today. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.

External links

Political offices
New office Prime Minister of Kurdistan (PUK)
1992–1993
Succeeded by
Kosrat Rasul Ali
Preceded by
Ayad al-Samarrai
Speaker of the Council of Representatives
2010
Succeeded by
Usama al-Nujayfi
Preceded by
Jalal Talabani
President of Iraq
2014–2018
Succeeded by
Barham Salih
1992 Iraqi Kurdistan parliamentary election

On 19 May 1992 elections were held to the Kurdistan National Assembly, the parliament of the Kurdish Autonomous Region in Iraq. At the time, the National Assembly had 105 seats, of which 5 were reserved for the Assyrian community. Parties had to achieve more than 7% of the vote to be elected. There were 178 polling stations around the region.The election resulted in a narrow victory for the Kurdish Democratic Party, which won 51 seats, its main rival, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan's Alliance won 49 seats. However, due to fraud allegations KDP gave up one seat to the PUK so that each would have 50 seats, they proceeded to form a unity government which lasted until May 1994, when the Kurdish Civil War broke out.

On 4 June 1992, KDP Secretary General Jawhar Namiq Salim was elected Speaker of the Kurdistan National Assembly and prominent PUK member Fuad Masum was elected Prime Minister of Kurdistan.

2015 in Iraq

The following lists events that happened in 2015 in Iraq.

2016 in Iraq

The following lists events that happened during 2016 in Iraq.

2017 Riyadh summit

The 2017 Riyadh summit (Arabic: قمة الرياض 2017‎) was a series of three summits held on 20–21 May 2017 on the occasion of the visit of United States President Donald Trump to Saudi Arabia, his first trip overseas. The summit included one bilateral meeting, between the United States and Saudi Arabia, and two multilateral meetings, one between the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council and the other with Arab and Muslim countries. Leaders and representatives of 55 Arab and Muslim countries were in attendance.

2017 in Iraq

Events in the year 2017 in Iraq.

2018 in Iraq

Events in the year 2018 in Iraq.

Adel Murad

Adel Murad (Kurdish: عادل موراد‎ or Adil Murad; 11 December 1949 – 18 May 2018 ) was an Iraqi Kurdish politician whom along with Jalal Talabani, Nawshirwan Mustafa, Kamal Fuad, Ali Askari, Fuad Masum and Abdul Razaq Faily, was the co-founder of the main opposition party, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. He had previously served as representative of PUK in Baghdad under Iraq's Transitional Government and a Representative of Jalal Talabani in Damascus. He was a graduate of the University of Baghdad, with an MSC in Chemistry. Once a commander and Peshmerga veteran, Murad has since been calling for international support and armament from including Russia to support the Peshmerga forces.

Barham Salih

Barham Ahmed Salih (Kurdish: بەرھەم ئەحمەد ساڵح‎, translit. Berhem Ehmed Salih; Arabic: برهم أحمد صالح‎; born 12 September 1960) is an Iraqi Kurdish politician who serves as President of Iraq. He is the former prime minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraqi Kurdistan and a former deputy prime minister of the Iraqi federal government.

Haider al-Abadi

Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi; Arabic: حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي‎, born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from September 2014 until October 2018. Previously he served as Minister of Communication from 2003 to 2004, in the first government after Saddam Hussein was deposed.

He was designated as Prime Minister by President Fuad Masum on 11 August 2014 to succeed Nouri al-Maliki and was approved by the Iraqi parliament on 8 September 2014.

Juwan

Juwan is a given name. It may refer to:

Juwan Chung (born 1983), American film director and writer

Juwan Fuad Masum (born 1970), Iraqi politician and minister

Juwan Howard (born 1973), American basketball player

Juwan Simpson (born 1984), Canadian football linebacker

Juwan Staten (born 1992), American basketball player

Juwan Thompson (born 1992), American football running backFamily nameNaeem Juwan, better known by his stage name Spank Rock, American rapper and songwriter

Juwan Fuad Masum

Juwan Fuad Masum (born 1972) is an Iraqi politician who was the Minister of Telecommunications, serving in the Iraqi Transitional Government.Juwan Fouad Masum is the daughter of Fuad Masum, the current Iraqi president. She graduated from King's College London with a PhD in communications.

Koy Sanjaq

The town Koy Sanjaq (Sorani Kurdish: کۆیە‎, Kurmanji Kurdish: Koye, also known as Koya; Arabic: كوي سنجق‎, from Turkoman, koy, "town", "village", sanjaq, "district", together: district town), original Kurdish name Bijhenjar, is located in the Erbil Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan, close to the Iranian border.

Most of the town was property of two families (the Ghafuri’s and the Hawezi’s) Which were also known by the title of Agha which represents them for being wealthy.

Wallace Lyon, travelling through the town in 1923, compared it to Sulaymaniyah and noted that it was a centre for tobacco. The governor at the time was Jamil Agha Hawezi, succeeding the late Hama Agha Ghafuri. In the 1960s then it was all passed on to Fatih Agha Hawezi.

The population is between 50,000 and 100,000.

A specific variant of the Aramaic language, Koy Sanjaq Surat, a dialect of Aramaic, is spoken by about 1,000 Armota Assyrians who settled in the town by the end of the 1800s.

Famous people from the city include the Kurdish poet Haji Qadir Koyi, Sheikh Jangi Talabani (older brother of former Iraqi President Jalal Talabani), Zeki Ahmed Henari, Haji Agha, Hama Aghai Gewre Ghafuri, Kaka Ziad Aghai Ghafuri (Co-Founder and Vice President of KDP), Zozik Hamid Ghafuri, Jalal Talabani, Omar Debaba, Tahir Tewfiq, Mamosta Aziz, Malay Gewre, Jalal Aghai Hawezi, Fatih Aghai Hawezi, Haji Bakir Aghai Hawezi, Sajid Abdulwahid, Dildar, Dr Xalid Ghafuri, Amin Agha, Mela Masoum, Dr Fuad Masum, Sewa Koyi.

The former president of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, who was born in the nearby village of Kelkan, went to school here. In 1949 he joined the town's branch of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP).A university, known in English as "Koya University" was set up in the town in 2003.

List of Presidents of Iraq

This is a list of Presidents of Iraq since 1958.

List of wars involving Iraq

This is a list of wars involving the Republic of Iraq and its predecessor states.

Mohammad Saber Ismail

Dr. Mohammad Saber Ismail (born 1 July 1947) is an Iraqi Kurdish diplomat and politician from the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. He was Iraq's Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva from 2013 to 2016. He was nominated by the PUK in August 2018 as their candidate to succeed Fuad Masum as President of Iraq.

Omer Fattah Hussain

Omer Fattah Hussain (Born: As-Sulaymaniyah) is the former deputy prime minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in Iraq. Due to political problems in the PUK, he handed his resignation in on 24 February 2009. He also served as acting Prime Minister of Jalal Talebani's Suleimaniyeh based Kurdish administration from July 2004 (when Barham Salih resigned to become Deputy Prime Minister for the Iraqi Interim Government until June 2005 with the re-unification of Iraq's Kurdish autonomous Republic.

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan

The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK; Sorani Kurdish: یەکێتیی نیشتمانیی کوردستان‎, translit. Yekêtiy Niştîmaniy Kurdistan; Kurmanji Kurdish: یه‌کیتیا نیشتمانی یا کوردستانێ, translit. Yekîtiya Nîştimanî ya Kurdistanê) is a Kurdish political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. The PUK describes its goals as self-determination, human rights, and democracy and peace for the Kurdish people of Kurdistan and Iraq. The current Secretary General is Kosrat Rasul Ali. Fuad Masum, co-founder of the PUK, was the President of Iraq from 2014 to 2018. It was founded on 22 May 1975 in Iraqi Kurdistan by Adel Murad, Nawshirwan Mustafa, Ali Askari, Fuad Masum, Jalal Talabani and Abdul Razaq Feyli.

Prime Minister of Iraqi Kurdistan

The Prime Minister of Iraqi Kurdistan is the head of the Kurdistan Regional Government, governing an autonomous region in northern Iraq. The government is elected as part of the Iraqi Kurdistan Parliament.

Vice President of Iraq

Iraq has three vice presidents or deputy presidents, although a debate is ongoing about a political reform to abolish their posts.

The office of Vice-President was historically largely ceremonial but prestigious. In post-war Iraq, the Constitution of Iraq, in its "Transitional Guidelines," creates a three-member Presidency (or Presidential) Council, consisting of the President of the Republic and two deputy presidents, who must act in unison. The Presidency Council had three members to accommodate Iraq's three largest groups: Sunni Muslim Arabs, Shiite Muslim Arabs, and the mostly Sunni Kurds. As a unit, the Presidency Council was meant to symbolize the unity of the nation. This arrangement is required by the constitution to continue until the Council of Representatives, enters its second set of sessions. At this point, the Presidency Council would be replaced by a solitary President of the Republic, who would have only one deputy, the Vice-President. In any case, the Presidency is appointed by the Council of Representatives. The three-member arrangement was a hold-over from the Iraqi interim government and the Iraqi Transitional Government.

On September 2014, three new Vice Presidents were elected: former Prime Ministers Nouri al-Maliki and Ayad Allawi and former Speaker of Parliament Osama al-Nujaifi.On August 11, 2015 the Council of Representatives approved the al Abadi government plan to abolish the posts of both Vice President and Deputy Prime Minister. Later, Osama al-Nujaifi filed a complaint against the decision, considering it to be against the Constitution. Also Nuri al-Maliki promised to cling to his post. On 10 October 2016, the three posts of Vice President were restored by the Supreme Court of Iraq which deemed their abolition unconstitutional.

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