Fruitadens is a genus of heterodontosaurid dinosaur. The name means "Fruita tooth", in reference to Fruita, Colorado (USA), where its fossils were first found. It is known from partial skulls and skeletons from at least four individuals of differing biological ages, found in Tithonian (Late Jurassic) rocks of the Morrison Formation in Colorado. Fruitadens is the smallest known ornithischian dinosaur, with young adults estimated at 65 to 75 cm (26 to 30 in) in length and 0.5 to 0.75 kg (1.1 to 1.7 lb) in weight. It is interpreted as an omnivore and represents one of the latest-surviving heterodontosaurids.

Temporal range: Late Jurassic, 150 Ma
Artist's impression
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Family: Heterodontosauridae
Genus: Fruitadens
Butler et al., 2010
F. haagarorum
Binomial name
Fruitadens haagarorum
Butler et al., 2010

History of discovery

Fruitadens haagarorum
LACM 115747 (holotype), left maxilla

Fruitadens is known from fossils recovered under a valid paleontological permit in the 1970s and 1980s by teams led by George Callison, for the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (LACM). The discovery area, on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management, is known as the Fruita Paleontological Area; the specimens were found there in sandstones of the Brushy Basin Member. Roughly equivalent beds have been dated to 150.3 ± 0.3 million years old and 150.2 ± 0.5 million years old, indicating an early Tithonian age.[1]

The fossils now named Fruitadens were first thought to belong to a fabrosaurid similar to Echinodon,[2] a genus from the Early Cretaceous of England; Fabrosauridae at the time was considered a general group of primitive ornithopods, and Echinodon itself had not yet been reclassified as a heterodontosaurid. Fruitadens, although not formally described for a number of years, was briefly described in several works, usually as a relative of Echinodon or a new species of the genus.[3][4][5][6] Formal description came in January 2010, by Richard Butler and colleagues (though the paper was published online before print in late 2009). The type species is F. haagarorum, in recognition of support provided by Paul Haaga Jr., Heather Haaga, Blythe Haaga, Paul Haaga III, and Catalina Haaga for the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.[7]


Hind limb bones of several specimens

The cladogram below follows the analysis by Butler et al., 2011:[8]










Fruitadens NT
Life restoration

Fruitadens is based on LACM 115747, consisting of incomplete jaws, a number of vertebrae, and partial hind limbs, of a nearly fully grown individual. At least three other individuals have been found. LACM 115727 is another nearly fully grown individual, known from vertebrae and hind limb bones. This individual was about the same size as LACM 115747, and was five years old at death. LACM 120478 consists of the upper arm and most of the left leg of a juvenile, in its second year. Finally, LACM 128258 includes partial jaws and vertebrae of another juvenile. The largest individuals are estimated to have been about 65 to 75 cm (26 to 30 in) long and 0.5 to 0.75 kg (1.1 to 1.7 lb) in weight. This makes Fruitadens the smallest known ornithischian and comparable in size to the smallest known dinosaurs, outside of birds. Known material of Echinodon and Tianyulong, related heterodontosaurids, comes from similar-sized individuals, but it is not known how old they were upon death.[7]

Fruitadens was similar to Heterodontosaurus in anatomy, with relatively short arms and long distal sections of the legs (feet and shins). The lower jaws had an enlarged canine-like tooth, with a corresponding gap in the upper jaw. Unlike Echinodon, there wasn't an enlarged tooth in the upper jaw. Uniquely, a small peg-like tooth was present in front of the canine-like tooth. Replacement teeth were present in the jaws, unlike most other heterodontosaurids. The hind limb bones were hollow, like those of small theropod dinosaurs. Fruitadens seems to have been more closely related to Heterodontosaurus than Echinodon, which was closer in time.[7]

Paleoecology and paleobiology

Rotating CT scan of the right dentary of the holotype

The four individuals were found in localities at the base of the Morrison Formation's Brushy Basin Member, in crevasse splay sandstones deposited in floodplains. The Fruita localities preserved a contemporaneous fauna including snails, clams, crayfish, various insects (represented by trace fossils), the lungfish Ceratodus, ray–finned fish, the turtle Glyptops, rhynchocephalian reptiles Eilenodon and Opisthias, several genera of lizards, a mesosuchian crocodylomorph, and the mammals Fruitafossor, Glirodon, and Priacodon. Disarticulated dinosaur fossils are common in the area.[1]

Fruitadens was probably bipedal and cursorial, and is suggested to have been omnivorous. Like Echinodon and Tianyulong, other late-surviving heterodontosaurids, Fruitadens had less specialized jaws than Early Jurassic heterodontosaurids like Heterodontosaurus, and is interpreted as a generalist.[7] A 2012 study of the skull suggested its diet was composed of select plant material and possibly insects or other invertebrates.[9]

See also


  1. ^ a b Butler, Richard J.; Galton, Peter M.; Porro, Laura B.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Henderson, D. M.; Erickson, Gregory M. (2010). "Electronic supplementary material to "Lower limits of ornithischian dinosaur body size inferred from a new Upper Jurassic heterodontosaurid from North America"" (PDF). 277 (1680). Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
  2. ^ Glut, Donald F. (1982). The New Dinosaur Dictionary. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. p. 280. ISBN 0-8065-0782-9.
  3. ^ Callison, George; Quimby, Helen M. (1984). "Tiny dinosaurs: are they fully grown?". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 3 (4): 200–209. doi:10.1080/02724634.1984.10011975.
  4. ^ Callison, George (1987). "Fruita: a place for wee fossils". In Averett, W. R. (ed.). Paleontology and Geology of the Dinosaur Triangle: Guidebook for 1987 Field Trip. Grand Junction, Colorado: Museum of Western Colorado. pp. 91–96.
  5. ^ Galton, Peter M. (2007). "Teeth of ornithischian dinosaurs (mostly Ornithopoda) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of the western United States". In Carpenter, Kenneth (ed.). Horns and Beaks: Ceratopsian and Ornithopod Dinosaurs. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 17–47. ISBN 0-253-34817-X.
  6. ^ Foster, John (2007). Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-253-34870-8. OCLC 77830875.
  7. ^ a b c d Butler, Richard J.; Galton, Peter M.; Porro, Laura B.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Henderson, D. M.; Erickson, Gregory M. (2010). "Lower limits of ornithischian dinosaur body size inferred from a new Upper Jurassic heterodontosaurid from North America" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 277 (1680): 375–381. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1494. PMC 2842649. PMID 19846460.
  8. ^ Richard J. Butler; Jin Liyong; Chen Jun; Pascal Godefroit (2011). "The postcranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the small ornithischian dinosaur Changchunsaurus parvus from the Quantou Formation (Cretaceous: Aptian–Cenomanian) of Jilin Province, north-eastern China". Palaeontology. 54 (3): 667–683. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01046.x.
  9. ^ Butler, R. J.; Porro, L. B.; Galton, P. M.; Chiappe, L. M. (2012). Farke, Andrew A (ed.). "Anatomy and Cranial Functional Morphology of the Small-Bodied Dinosaur Fruitadens haagarorum from the Upper Jurassic of the USA". PLoS ONE. 7 (4): e31556. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031556. PMC 3324477. PMID 22509242.

External links


Averostra, or "bird snouts", is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs that have a promaxillary fenestra (fenestra promaxillaris), an extra opening in the front outer side of the maxilla, the bone that makes up the upper jaw. Two groups of averostrans, the Ceratosauria and the Orionides, survived into the Cretaceous period. When the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event occurred, ceratosaurians and two groups of orionideans within the clade Coelurosauria, the Tyrannosauroidea and Maniraptoriformes, were still extant. Only one subgroup of maniraptoriformes, Aves, survived the extinction event and persisted to the present day.


Avetheropoda, or "bird theropods", is a clade that includes carnosaurians and coelurosaurs to the exclusion of other dinosaurs.


Cerapoda ("ceratopsians and ornithopods") is a clade of the dinosaur order Ornithischia.


Dinosauriformes is a clade of archosaurian reptiles that include the dinosaurs and their most immediate relatives. All dinosauriformes are distinguished by several features, such as shortened forelimbs and a partially to fully perforated acetabulum, the hole in the hip socket traditionally used to define dinosaurs. The oldest known member is Asilisaurus, dating to about 245 million years ago in the Anisian age of the middle Triassic period.


Echinodon (pronounced eh-KY-no-don) meaning "hedgehog tooth" in reference to the spines on its teeth (Ancient Greek: εχινος, romanized: echinos, lit. 'hedgehog', + ὀδών, odṓn, 'tooth'), occasionally known as Saurechinodon, is a genus of small European dinosaur of the early Cretaceous Period (Berriasian age), 140 million years ago.

Haya griva

Haya is an extinct genus of basal neornithischian dinosaur known from Mongolia.


Heterodontosauridae is a family of early ornithischian dinosaurs that were likely among the most basal (primitive) members of the group. Although their fossils are relatively rare and their group small in numbers, they lived across all continents except Australia for approximately 100 million years, from the Late Triassic to the Early Cretaceous.

Heterodontosaurids were fox-sized dinosaurs less than 2 metres (6.6 feet) in length, including a long tail. They are known mainly for their characteristic teeth, including enlarged canine-like tusks and cheek teeth adapted for chewing, analogous to those of Cretaceous hadrosaurids. Their diet was herbivorous or possibly omnivorous.


Heterodontosaurinae is an extinct subfamily of heterodontosaurid ornithischian dinosaurs from the earliest to the mid Middle Jurassic (Hettangian - Bajocian) of Africa and South America. Currently, the basalmost known heterodontosaurine is Lycorhinus angustidens from the Early Jurassic of Cape Province, South Africa. Heterodontosaurines are small-bodied ornithischians characterized by their cheek tooth crowns that are taller than wide, and jaw joint set below the axis of occlusion between maxillary and dentary teeth. Heterodontosaurinae was implicitly named in 1966 by Oskar Kuhn as he is the author of the family Heterodontosauridae. It is a stem-based taxon defined phylogenetically for the first time by Paul Sereno in 2012 as "the most inclusive clade containing Heterodontosaurus tucki Crompton and Charig 1962 but not Tianyulong confuciusi Zheng et al. 2009, Fruitadens haagarorum Butler et al. 2010, Echinodon becklesii Owen 1861."


Jeholosaurids were herbivorous neornithischian dinosaurs from the Cretaceous Period (Aptian - Santonian, with a possible Campanian record) of Asia. The family was first proposed by Han et al. in 2012. The jeholosaurids were defined as those ornithischians more closely related to Jeholosaurus shangyuanensis than to Hypsilophodon foxii, Iguanodon bernissartensis, Protoceratops andrewsi, Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis, or Thescelosaurus neglectus. The Jeholosauridae includes the type genus Jeholosaurus and Yueosaurus.


Jingshanosaurus (meaning "Jingshan lizard") is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaurs from the early Jurassic period.


Manidens is a genus of heterodontosaurid dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia. Fossils have been found in the Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina, dating to the Bajocian.


The Melanorosauridae were a family of sauropodomorph dinosaurs which lived during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The name Melanorosauridae was first coined by Friedrich von Huene in 1929. Huene assigned several families of dinosaurs to the infraorder "Prosauropoda": the Anchisauridae, the Plateosauridae, the Thecodontosauridae, and the Melanorosauridae. Since then, these families have undergone numerous revisions. Galton and Upchurch (2004) considered Camelotia, Lessemsaurus, and Melanorosaurus members of the family Melanorosauridae. A more recent study by Yates (2007) indicates that the melanorosaurids were instead early sauropods.


Neotheropoda (meaning "new theropods") is a clade that includes coelophysoids and more advanced theropod dinosaurs, and the only group of theropods who survived the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Yet all of the neotheropods became extinct during the early Jurassic period except for Averostra.


Orionides is a clade of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs from the Middle Jurassic to the Present. The clade includes most theropod dinosaurs, including birds.


Ornithischia () is an extinct clade of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs characterized by a pelvic structure similar to that of birds. The name Ornithischia, or "bird-hipped", reflects this similarity and is derived from the Greek stem ornith- (ὀρνιθ-), meaning "of a bird", and ischion (ἴσχιον), plural ischia, meaning "hip joint". However, birds are only distantly related to this group as birds are theropod dinosaurs.Ornithischians with well known anatomical adaptations include the ceratopsians or "horn-faced" dinosaurs (e.g. Triceratops), armored dinosaurs (Thyreophora) such as stegosaurs and ankylosaurs, pachycephalosaurids and the ornithopods. There is strong evidence that certain groups of ornithischians lived in herds, often segregated by age group, with juveniles forming their own flocks separate from adults. Some were at least partially covered in filamentous (hair- or feather- like) pelts, and there is much debate over whether these filaments found in specimens of Tianyulong, Psittacosaurus, and Kulindadromeus may have been primitive feathers.


Orodrominae is a subfamily of parksosaurid dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia.


Riojasauridae is a family of sauropod-like dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic. It is known primarily from the genera Riojasaurus and Eucnemesaurus. Sites containing Riojasauridae include the Lower Elliot Formation of Orange Free State, South Africa (where fossils of Eucnemesaurus have been found), and Ischigualasto, in La Rioja Province, Argentina ( where fossils of Riojasaurus have been recovered).


Tianyulong (Chinese: 天宇龍; Pinyin: tiānyǔlóng; named for the Shandong Tianyu Museum of Nature where the holotype fossil is housed) was a genus of heterodontosaurid ornithischian dinosaur. The only species was T. confuciusi, whose remains were discovered in Jianchang County, Western Liaoning Province, China.


In the geological timescale, the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 Ma and 145.0 ± 4 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Kimmeridgian and followed by the Berriasian stage (part of the Cretaceous).


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