Fritz Honegger

Fritz Honegger (25 July 1917 – 4 March 1999) was a Swiss politician.

He was elected to the Swiss Federal Council on 7 December 1977 and handed over office on 31 December 1982. He was affiliated to the Free Democratic Party.

During his time in office he held the Federal Department of Economic Affairs and was President of the Confederation in 1982.

Fritz Honegger
Fritz Honegger

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Preceded by
Ernst Brugger
Member of the Swiss Federal Council
1977–1982
Succeeded by
Rudolf Friedrich
1917

1917 (MCMXVII)

was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1917th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 917th year of the 2nd millennium, the 17th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1917, the Gregorian calendar was

13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1999

1999 (MCMXCIX)

was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1999th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 999th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1990s decade.

1999 was designated as the International Year of Older Persons.

Demographics of the Swiss Federal Council

The tables below show information and statistics about the members of the Swiss Federal Council (in German: Bundesrat, in French: conseil fédéral, in Italian: consiglio federale), or Federal Councilors (in German: Bundesräte, in French: conseillers fédéraux, in Italian: consiglieri federali).

The Swiss Federal Council (German: Schweizerischer Bundesrat, French: Conseil fédéral suisse, Italian: Consiglio federale svizzero, Romansh: Cussegl federal svizzer) is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the government as well as the head of state of Switzerland. Each of the seven Federal Councillors heads a department of the Swiss federal government. The members of the Federal Council are elected for a term of four years by both chambers of the federal parliament sitting together as the Federal Assembly. Each Councillor is elected individually by secret ballot by an absolute majority of votes. Since 1848, the seven Councillors have never been replaced simultaneously, thus guaranteeing a continuity of the government.

Once elected for a four-year-term, Federal Councillors can neither be voted out of office by a motion of no confidence nor can they be impeached. Reelection is possible for an indefinite number of terms, and it has historically been extremely rare for Parliament not to reelect a sitting Councillor and this has only happened four times. In practice, therefore, Councillors serve until they decide to resign and retire to private life, usually after three to five terms of office.

Eric Honegger

Eric Honegger Pierre Antoine (born 29 April 1946) is a Swiss politician, member of the FDP.The Liberals party, and manager.

Ernst Brugger

Ernst Brugger (10 March 1914, Bellinzona – 20 June 1998) was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council (1969–1978).

He was elected to the Federal Council on 10 December 1969 and handed over office on 31 January 1978. He was affiliated to the Free Democratic Party.

During his office time he headed up the Federal Department of Economic Affairs and was President of the Confederation in 1974.

Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research

The Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research (EAER, German: Eidgenössisches Departement für Wirtschaft, Bildung und Forschung; French: Département fédéral de l'économie, de la formation et de la recherche; Italian: Dipartimento federale dell'economia, della formazione e della ricerca) is one of the seven departments of the federal government of Switzerland, headed by a member of the Swiss Federal Council.

The department was renamed from Federal Department of Economic Affairs (FDEA) effective on 1 January 2013 based on decisions taken by the Federal Council in 2011.

Free Democratic Party of Switzerland

The Free Democratic Party or Radical Democratic Party (German: Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei, FDP; French: Parti radical-démocratique, PRD; Italian: Partito liberale-radicale svizzero, PLR; Romansh: Partida liberaldemocrata svizra, PLD) was a liberal political party in Switzerland. Formerly one of the major parties in Switzerland, on 1 January 2009 it merged with the Liberal Party of Switzerland to form FDP.The Liberals.

The FDP was formed in 1894 from the Radicals, who had dominated Swiss politics since

the 1830s, standing in opposition to the Catholic conservatives, and who from the creation of the federal state in 1848 until 1891 formed the federal government.

The FDP remained dominant until the introduction of proportional representation in 1919. From 1945 to 1987, it alternated with the Social Democratic Party to be the largest party. In 1959, the party took two seats in the magic formula. The party declined in the 1990s and 2000s (decade), as it was put under pressure by the Swiss People's Party. In response, the party formed closer relations with the smaller Liberal Party, leading to their formal merger in 2009.

Honegger (surname)

Honegger is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Arthur Honegger (1892–1955), Swiss composer

Blanche Honegger Moyse (1909-2011), American conductor

Doug Honegger (born 1968), Canadian-born former Swiss professional ice hockey defenceman

Elise Honegger (1839-1912), Swiss feminist and journalist

Eric Honegger (born 1946), Swiss politician, member of the FDP.The Liberals party, and manager

Fritz Honegger (1917–1999), Swiss politician

Gottfried Honegger (1917–2016), Swiss artist and graphic designer

Marc Honegger (1926-2003), French musicologist and choirmaster

Sylvia Honegger (born 1968), Swiss cross country skier

July 25

July 25 is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 159 days remaining until the end of the year.

List of Presidents of the Swiss Confederation

Below is a list of Presidents of the Swiss Confederation (1848–present). It presents the presiding member of the Federal Council, Switzerland's seven-member executive. Elected by the Federal Assembly for one year, the President of the Confederation chairs the meetings of the Federal Council and undertakes special representational duties.

Primus inter pares, he or she has no powers above the other councillors and continues to head his or her department. Traditionally, the duty rotates among the members in order of seniority and the previous year's vice president becomes president.

List of ambassadors of Switzerland to China

The Swiss ambassador in Beijing is the official representative of the Government in Bern to the Government of China.

List of members of the Federal Assembly from the Canton of Zürich

This is a list of members of both houses of the Federal Assembly from the Canton of Zürich.

List of members of the Swiss Federal Council

The seven members of the Swiss Federal Council (German: Schweizerischer Bundesrat; French: Conseil fédéral suisse; Italian: Consiglio federale svizzero; Romansh: Cussegl federal svizzer) constitute the federal government of Switzerland and serve as the country's head of state. Each of the seven Councillors heads a department of the Swiss federal administration.The members of the Federal Council are elected for a term of four years by both chambers of the federal parliament sitting together as the Federal Assembly. Each Councillor is elected individually by secret ballot by an absolute majority of votes. A person elected to the Council by the Federal Assembly is considered a Federal Councillor even if he or she declines the election. Accordingly, the five persons who did so and never assumed office are listed in a separate table below. For the same reason, the principal table only records the date of election, and not the date on which the Councillors assumed their office.

Once elected for a four-year-term, Federal Councillors can neither be voted out of office by a motion of no confidence nor can they be impeached. Re-election is possible for an indefinite number of terms. Parliament has decided not to re-elect a sitting Councillor only four times, and only twice (in 2003 and 2007) since the beginning of the 20th century. In practice, therefore, Councillors serve until they decide to resign and retire to private life, usually after three to five terms of office.

List of members of the Swiss Federal Council by date

This is a list of members of the Swiss Federal Council, in chronological order and for any given year since inauguration of the federal council, from 1848 to present. The Council's seven members constitute the federal government of Switzerland and serve as the country's head of state. Each of the seven Councillors heads a department of the Swiss federal administration.The members of the Federal Council are elected for a term of four years by both chambers of the federal parliament sitting together as the Federal Assembly. Each Councillor is elected individually by secret ballot by an absolute majority of votes. A person elected to the Council by the Federal Assembly is considered a Federal Councillor even if he or she declines the election. Accordingly, the five persons who did so and never assumed office are listed in a separate table below. For the same reason, the principal table only records the date of election, and not the date on which the Councillors assumed their office.

Once elected for a four-year-term, Federal Councillors can neither be voted out of office by a motion of no confidence nor can they be impeached. Re-election is possible for an indefinite number of terms. Parliament has decided not to re-elect a sitting Councillor only four times, and only twice (in 2003 and 2007) since 1872. In practice, therefore, Councillors serve until they decide to resign and retire to private life, usually after three to five terms of office.

List of state leaders in 1980

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1980.

List of state leaders in 1981

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1981.

Rudolf Friedrich

Rudolf Friedrich (4 July 1923 – 15 October 2013) was a Swiss politician, lawyer and member of the Swiss Federal Council (1982–1984). He was elected to the Swiss Federal Council on 8 December 1982 and, for health reason, resigned his office on 20 October 1984. He is affiliated to the Free Democratic Party. During his office time he held the Federal Department of Justice and Police.

Swiss Federal Council election

The Swiss Federal Council is elected by the 246 members of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland by secret ballot.

Regular elections take place every four years, in the first session following the Swiss federal elections. Additionally, an election is held to replace Federal Councillors who have announced their retirement or who have died in office.

The procedure of the election is guided both by legal requirements set down in the Swiss Constitution, and by informal understandings between the major parties, such as the Zauberformel which describes a long-standing Concordance system in which the four major Swiss parties, the Free Democratic Party, the Christian Democratic People's Party and the Social Democratic Party, mutually concede the right to a representation in the Federal Council roughly corresponding to each party's ballot in the general election.

The legal requirements for the election is in article 175 of the constitution and in articles 132f. of the parliamentary law of 2003.

It is customary to confirm sitting councillors seeking re-election. Non-reelection of a candidate has occurred only four times in the history of the Swiss federal state, twice in the 19th century (Ulrich Ochsenbein 1854), Jean-Jacques Challet-Venel 1872) and twice in the 21st (Ruth Metzler-Arnold 2003, Christoph Blocher 2007).

Councillors once elected have the right to serve their term and there is no mechanism by which the parliament could enforce their retirement. Each of the seven seats is subject to an individual election, held in sequence of seniority.

It is customary for the major parties to name candidates. These candidacies aren't in any way binding or legally official, but especially when there are several vacancies to be filled, the individual fractions tend to honour these nominations in order to increase the likelihood of their own nominations being honoured. There have still been many cases where such candidacies have been ignored, with another, non-nominated member of the same party elected instead.

Since 1999, the constitution requires that the Federal Council should be composed so that all regions and linguistic groups are duly represented. Prior to 1999, it was merely required that only one Councillor from any given canton may hold office at any time.

Beyond the legal requirements, there are a number of long-standing traditions in the composition of the Council:

The Federal Council never consisted of German-speaking members only, in spite of the Swiss German cantons recruiting a clear majority of the Federal Assembly. Councillors from the German-speaking cantons have, however, always been in the majority, usually in a 4:3 or 5:2 ratio. A majority of six German-speaking Councillors occurred only once, in the 1876 to 1880 term. The "Stammlande" principle traditionally elected only Councillors whose party held a majority in their own canton of origin.

There have been repeated attempts to reform the system of election to one of direct popular election. A popular initiative to this effect was repudiated in 1900 and again in 1942. The main argument against a popular election is the problematic balance of linguistic and regional minorities. A pure plurality voting system would likely result in a Federal Council composed exclusively of representatives of the urban, German-speaking cantons which account for a majority of Swiss population.

University of Zurich

The University of Zurich (UZH, German: Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing colleges of theology, law, medicine and a new faculty of philosophy.

Currently, the university has seven faculties: Philosophy, Human Medicine, Economic Sciences, Law, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Theology and Veterinary Medicine. The university offers the widest range of subjects and courses of any Swiss higher education institution. As of October 2018, 23 Nobel laureates and 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with University of Zurich as alumni, faculty or researchers.

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