Frigg

In Germanic mythology, Frigg (/frɪɡ/;[1] Old Norse), Frija (Old High German), Frea (Langobardic), and Frige (Old English) is a goddess. In nearly all sources, she is described as the wife of the god Odin. In Old High German and Old Norse sources, she is also connected with the goddess Fulla. The English weekday name Friday (etymologically Old English "Frīge's day") bears her name.

Frigg is described as a goddess associated with foresight and wisdom in Norse mythology, the northernmost branch of Germanic mythology and most extensively attested. Frigg is the wife of the major god Odin and dwells in the wetland halls of Fensalir, is famous for her foreknowledge, is associated with the goddesses Fulla, Lofn, Hlín, and Gná, and is ambiguously associated with the Earth, otherwise personified as an apparently separate entity Jörð (Old Norse "Earth"). The children of Frigg and Odin include the gleaming god Baldr. Due to the significant thematic overlap, scholars have proposed a particular connection to the goddess Freyja.

After Christianization, the mention of Frigg continued to occur in Scandinavian folklore. In modern times, Frigg has appeared in modern popular culture, has been the subject of art and receives modern veneration in Germanic Neopaganism.

Frigg by Doepler
Frigg sits enthroned and facing the spear-wielding goddess Gná, flanked by two goddesses, one of whom (Fulla) carries her eski, a wooden box. Illustrated (1882) by Carl Emil Doepler.

Etymology, Friday, and toponymy

The theonyms Frigg (Old Norse) and Frija (Old High German) are cognate forms—linguistic siblings of the same origin—that descend from a substantivized feminine of Proto-Germanic *frijaz (via Holtzmann's law). *frijaz descends from the same source (Proto-Indo-European) as the feminine Sanskrit noun priyā and the feminine Avestan noun fryā (both meaning "own, dear, beloved").[2] In the modern period, an -a suffix is sometimes applied to denote femininity, resulting in the form Frigga.[3] This spelling also serves the purpose of distancing the goddess from the English word frig.[4]

The connection with and possible earlier identification of the goddess Freyja with Frigg in the Proto-Germanic period (Frigg and Freyja origin hypothesis) is a matter of scholarly debate.[5] Like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of Scandinavia. This is in contrast to the name of the goddess Frigg, who is attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, and whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Evidence does not exist for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Old Norse Freyja descends, but scholars have commented that this may simply be due to the scarcity of surviving sources.[5]

Regarding a Freyja–Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments that "the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess originally is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, and the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, and to see how well each can be supported."[6]

The English weekday name Friday comes from Old English Frīġedæġ, meaning 'day of Frig'. It is cognate with Old High German frîatac.[7] Several place names refer to Frigg in what are now Norway and Sweden, although her name is altogether absent in recorded place names in Denmark.[8]

Attestations

Origo Gentis Langobardorum and Historia Langobardorum

Wodan Frea Himmelsfenster by Emil Doepler
Godan and Frea look down from their window in the heavens to the Winnili women in an illustration by Emil Doepler, 1905
Wodan Frea Himmelsfenster II by Emil Doepler
Winnili women with their hair tied as beards look up at Godan and Frea in an illustration by Emil Doepler, 1905

The 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum, and Paul the Deacon's 8th-century Historia Langobardorum derived from it, recount a founding myth of the Langobards, a Germanic people who ruled a region of what is now Italy (see Lombardy). According to this legend, a "small people" known as the Winnili were ruled by a woman named Gambara who had two sons, Ybor and Agio. The Vandals, ruled by Ambri and Assi, came to the Winnili with their army and demanded that they pay them tribute or prepare for war. Ybor, Agio, and their mother Gambara rejected their demands for tribute. Ambra and Assi then asked the god Godan for victory over the Winnili, to which Godan responded (in the longer version in the Origo): "Whom I shall first see when at sunrise, to them will I give the victory."[9]

Meanwhile, Ybor and Agio called upon Frea, Godan's wife. Frea counseled them that "at sunrise the Winnil[i] should come, and that their women, with their hair let down around the face in the likeness of a beard should also come with their husbands". At sunrise, Frea turned Godan's bed around to face east and woke him. Godan saw the Winnili, including their whiskered women, and asked "who are those Long-beards?" Frea responded to Godan, "As you have given them a name, give them also the victory". Godan did so, "so that they should defend themselves according to his counsel and obtain the victory". Thenceforth the Winnili were known as the Langobards (Langobardic "long-beards").[10]

Second Merseburg Incantation

Wodan heilt Balders Pferd by Emil Doepler
"Wodan Heals Balder's Horse" by Emil Doepler, 1905

A 10th-century manuscript found in what is now Merseburg, Germany, features an invocation known as the Second Merseburg Incantation. The incantation calls upon various continental Germanic gods, including Old High German Frija and a goddess associated with her—Volla, to assist in healing a horse:

Old High German:
Phol ende uuodan uuoran zi holza.
du uuart demo balderes uolon sin uuoz birenkit.
thu biguol en sinthgunt, sunna era suister,
thu biguol en friia, uolla era suister
thu biguol en uuodan, so he uuola conda:
sose benrenki, sose bluotrenki, sose lidirenki:
ben zi bena, bluot si bluoda,
lid zi geliden, sose gelimida sin![11]
Bill Griffiths translation:
Phol and Woden travelled to the forest.
Then was for Baldur's foal its foot wrenched.
Then encharmed it Sindgund (and) Sunna her sister,
then encharmed it Frija (and) Volla her sister,
then encharmed it Woden, as he the best could,
As the bone-wrench, so for the blood wrench, (and) so the limb-wrench
bone to bone, blood to blood,
limb to limb, so be glued.[11]

Poetic Edda

In the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material, Frigg is mentioned in the poems Völuspá, Vafþrúðnismál, the prose of Grímnismál, Lokasenna, and Oddrúnargrátr.[12]

Frigg receives three mentions in the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá. In the first mention, the poem recounts that Frigg wept for the death of her son Baldr in Fensalir.[13] Later in the poem, when the future death of Odin is foretold, Odin himself is referred to as the "beloved of Frigg" and his future death is referred to as the "second grief of Frigg".[14] Like the reference to Frigg weeping in Fensalir earlier in the poem, the implied "first grief" is a reference to the grief she felt upon the death of her son, Baldr.[15]

Frigg and Odin in Grímnismál by Frølich
The goddess Frigg and her husband, the god Odin, sit in Hliðskjálf and gaze into "all worlds" and make a wager as described in Grímnismál in an illustration by Lorenz Frølich, 1895

In the prose introduction to the poem Grímnismál, Frigg plays a prominent role. The prose introduction recounts that two sons of king Hrauðungr, Agnar (age 10) and Geirröðr (age 8), once sailed out with a trailing line to catch small fish. However, wind drove them out into the ocean and, during the darkness of night, their boat wrecked. The brothers went ashore and there they met a crofter. They stayed on the croft for one winter. During that winter, the couple separately fostered the two children: the old woman fostered Agnar and the old man fostered Geirröðr. Upon the arrival of spring, the old man brought them a ship. The old couple took the boys to the shore, and the old man took Geirröðr aside and spoke to him. The boys entered the boat and a breeze came.[16]

The boat returned to the harbor of their father. Geirröðr, forward in the ship, jumped to shore and pushed the boat, containing his brother, out and said "go where an evil spirit may get thee."[17] Away went the ship and Geirröðr walked to a house, where he was greeted with joy; while the boys were gone, their father had died, and now Geirröðr was king. He "became a splendid man".[16] The scene switches to Odin and Frigg sitting in Hliðskjálf, "look[ing] into all the worlds".[16] Odin says: "'Seest thou Agnar, thy foster-son, where he is getting children a giantess [Old Norse gȳgi] in a cave? while Geirröd, my foster son, is a king residing in his country.' Frigg answered, 'He is so inhospitable that he tortures his guests, if he thinks that too many come.'"[18]

Odin replied that this was a great untruth and so the two made a wager. Frigg sent her "waiting-maid" Fulla to warn Geirröðr to be wary, lest a wizard who seeks him should harm him, and that he would know this wizard by the refusal of dogs, no matter how ferocious, to attack the stranger. While it was not true that Geirröðr was inhospitable with his guests, Geirröðr did as instructed and had the wizard arrested. Upon being questioned, the wizard, wearing a blue cloak, said no more than that his name is Grímnir. Geirröðr has Grímnir tortured and sits him between two fires for 8 nights. Upon the 9th night, Grímnir is brought a full drinking horn by Geirröðr's son, Agnar (so named after Geirröðr's brother), and the poem continues without further mention or involvement of Frigg.[18]

In the poem Lokasenna, where Loki accuses nearly every female in attendance of promiscuity and/or unfaithfulness, an aggressive exchange occurs between the god Loki and the goddess Frigg (and thereafter between Loki and the goddess Freyja about Frigg). A prose introduction to the poem describes that numerous gods and goddesses attended a banquet held by Ægir. These gods and goddesses include Odin and, "his wife", Frigg.[19]

Prose Edda

Frigg is mentioned throughout the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Frigg is first mentioned in the Prose Edda Prologue (Prose Edda), wherein a euhemerized account of the Norse gods is provided. The author describes Frigg as the wife of Odin, and, in a case of folk etymology, the author attempts to associate the name Frigg with the Latin-influenced form Frigida.[20] The Prologue adds that both Frigg and Odin "had the gift of prophecy".[20]

In the next section of the Prose Edda, Gylfaginning, High tells Gangleri (the king Gylfi in disguise) that Frigg, daughter of Fjörgynn (Old Norse Fjörgynsdóttir) is married to Odin and that the Æsir are descended from the couple, and adds that "the earth [Jörðin] was [Odin's] daughter and his wife".[21] According to High, the two had many sons, the first of which was the mighty god Thor.[21]

Frigg and Fulla 1874
Frigg reaches into a box presented to her by a handmaid, Ludwig Pietsch, 1865

Later in Gylfaginning, Gangleri asks about the ásynjur, a term for Norse goddesses. High says that "highest" among them is Frigg and that only Freyja "is highest in rank next to her". Frigg dwells in Fensalir "and it is very splendid".[22] In this section of Gylfaginning, Frigg is also mentioned in connection to other ásynjur: Fulla carries Frigg's ashen box, "looks after her footwear and shares her secrets"; Lofn is given special permission by Frigg and Odin to "arrange unions" among men and women; Hlín is charged by Frigg to protect those that Frigg deems worthy of keeping from danger; and Gná is sent by Frigg "into various worlds to carry out her business".[23]

In section 49 of Gylfaginning, a narrative about the fate of Frigg's son Baldr is told. According to High, Baldr once started to have dreams indicating that his life was in danger. When Baldr told his fellow Æsir about his dreams, the gods met together for a thing and decided that they should "request immunity for Baldr from all kinds of danger". Frigg subsequently receives promises from the elements, the environment, diseases, animals, and stones, amongst other things. The request successful, the Æsir make sport of Baldr's newfound invincibility; shot or struck, Baldr remained unharmed. However, Loki discovers this and is not pleased by this turn of events, so, in the form of a woman, he goes to Frigg in Fensalir.[24]

There, Frigg asks this female visitor what the Æsir are up to assembled at the thing. The woman says that all of the Æsir are shooting at Baldr and yet he remains unharmed. Frigg explains that "Weapons and wood will not hurt Baldr. I have received oaths from them all."[24] The woman asks Frigg if all things have sworn not to hurt Baldr, to which Frigg notes one exception; "there grows a shoot of a tree to the west of Val-hall. It is called mistletoe. It seemed young to me to demand the oath from."[24] Loki immediately disappears.[24]

Baldr's Death by Frølich
Frigg grips her dead son, Baldr, in an illustration by Lorenz Frølich, 1895

Now armed with mistletoe, Loki arrives at the thing where the Æsir are assembled and tricks the blind Höðr, Baldr's brother, into shooting Baldr with a mistletoe projectile. To the horror of the assembled gods, the mistletoe goes directly through Baldr, killing him. Standing in horror and shock, the gods are initially only able to weep due to their grief. Frigg speaks up and asks "who there was among the Æsir who wished to earn all her love and favour and was willing to ride the road to Hel and try if he could find Baldr, and offer Hel a ransom if she would let Baldr go back to Asgard".[25]

Hermóðr, Baldr's brother, accepts Freyja's request and rides to Hel. Meanwhile, Baldr is given a grand funeral attended by many beings—foremost mentioned of which are his mother and father, Frigg and Odin. During the funeral, Nanna dies of grief and is placed in the funeral pyre with Baldr, her dead husband.[26] Hermóðr locates Baldr and Nanna in Hel. Hermodr secures an agreement for the return of Baldr and with Hermóðr Nanna sends gifts to Frigg (a linen robe) and Fulla (a finger-ring). Hermóðr rides back to the Æsir and tells them what has happened. However, the agreement fails due to the sabotage of a jötunn in a cave named Þökk (Old Norse 'thanks'), described perhaps Loki in disguise.[27]

Frigg is mentioned several times in the Prose Edda section Skáldskaparmál. The first mention occurs at the beginning of the section, where the Æsir and Ásynjur are said to have once held a banquet in a hall in a land of gods, Asgard. Frigg is one of the twelve ásynjur in attendance.[28]

Heimskringla and sagas

In Ynglinga saga, the first book of Heimskringla, a Euhemerized account of the origin of the gods is provided. Frigg is mentioned once. According to the saga, while Odin was away, Odin's brothers Vili and Vé oversaw Odin's holdings. Once, while Odin was gone for an extended period, the Æsir concluded that he was not coming back. His brothers started to divvy up Odin's inheritance, "but his wife Frigg they shared between them. However, a short while afterwards, [Odin] returned and took possession of his wife again.[29]

In Völsunga saga, the great king Rerir and his wife (unnamed) are unable to conceive a child; "that lack displeased them both, and they fervently implored the gods that they might have a child. It is said that Frigg heard their prayers and told Odin what they asked".[30]

Archaeological record

A 12th century depiction of a cloaked but otherwise nude woman riding a large cat appears on a wall in the Schleswig Cathedral in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Beside her is similarly a cloaked yet otherwise nude woman riding a distaff. Due to iconographic similarities to the literary record, these figures have been theorized as depictions of Freyja and Frigg respectively.[31]

Scholarly reception and interpretation

Due to numerous similarities, some scholars have proposed that the Old Norse goddesses Frigg and Freyja descend from a common entity from the Proto-Germanic period.[5] Regarding a Freyja-Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments that "the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess originally is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, and the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, and to see how well each can be supported."[6]

Unlike Frigg but like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of Scandinavia, as opposed to the name of the goddess Frigg, who is attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, and whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Similar proof for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Freyja descends does not exist, but scholars have commented that this may simply be due to the scarcity of evidence outside of the North Germanic record.[5]

Modern influence

Frigg is referenced in art and literature into the modern period. In the 18th century, Gustav III of Sweden, king of Sweden, composed Friggja, a play, so named after the goddess, and H. F. Block and Hans Friedrich Blunck's Frau Frigg und Doktor Faust in 1937. Other examples include fine art works by K. Ehrenberg (Frigg, Freyja, drawing, 1883), John Charles Dollman (Frigga Spinning the Clouds, painting, c. 1900), Emil Doepler (Wodan und Frea am Himmelsfenster, painting, 1901), and H. Thoma (Fricka, drawing, date not provided).[32]

Frigga appears in Marvel Comics and in the Marvel Cinematic Universe as the queen of Asgard, wife of Odin, mother of Thor, and the adoptive mother of Loki.

The Finnish folk band Frigg takes its name from the deity.[33][34]

Frigg appears in God of War, as the name of Freya and hiding her identity as "the witch of the woods". She helps Kratos and his son Atreus while searching her son.

Notes

  1. ^ "Frigg". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ Orel (2003), p. 114.
  3. ^ See for example Bulfinch (1913), p. 344.
  4. ^ Sheard 2011, p. 238.
  5. ^ a b c d Grundy (1998), pp. 56–66.
  6. ^ a b Grundy (1998), p. 57.
  7. ^ Simek (2007), pp. 93–94.
  8. ^ Pulsiano & Wolf (1993), p. 503.
  9. ^ Foulke (2003), pp. 315–16.
  10. ^ Foulke (2003), pp. 316–17.
  11. ^ a b Griffiths (2006), p. 174.
  12. ^ Larrington (1999), p. 305.
  13. ^ Larrington (1999), p. 8.
  14. ^ Larrington (1999), p. 11.
  15. ^ See, for example, Larrington (1999), p. 266.
  16. ^ a b c Larrington (1999), p. 51.
  17. ^ Thorpe (1907), p. 18.
  18. ^ a b Thorpe (1907), p. 19.
  19. ^ Larrington (1999), p. 84.
  20. ^ a b Faulkes (1995), p. 3.
  21. ^ a b Faulkes (1995), p. 13.
  22. ^ Faulkes (1995), p. 29.
  23. ^ Faulkes (1995), pp. 29–30.
  24. ^ a b c d Faulkes (1995), p. 48.
  25. ^ Faulkes (1995), p. 49.
  26. ^ Faulkes (1995), pp. 49–50.
  27. ^ Faulkes (1995), pp. 50–51.
  28. ^ Faulkes (1995), p. 59.
  29. ^ Hollander (2007), p. 7.
  30. ^ Byock (1990), p. 36.
  31. ^ Jones & Pennick (1995), pp. 144–45.
  32. ^ Simek (2007), p. 94.
  33. ^ "Finland's 'Frigg' – UK Debut Tour – Folk Radio UK". 27 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  34. ^ "Hot Fiddles from Cool Scandinavia". Archived from the original on 12 April 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2017.

References

External links

  • MyNDIR (My Norse Digital Image Repository) Illustrations of Frigg from manuscripts and early print books. Clicking on the thumbnail will give you the full image and information concerning it.
  • Media related to Frigg at Wikimedia Commons
1914 Norwegian Football Cup

The 1914 Norwegian Football Cup was the 13th season of the Norwegian annual knockout football tournament. The tournament was open for 1914 local association leagues (kretsserier) champions. Frigg won their first title, having beaten Lyn (Gjøvik) in the final.

1919 Norwegian Football Cup

The 1919 Norwegian Football Cup was the 18th season of the Norwegian annual knockout football tournament. The tournament was open for all members of NFF. Odd won their seventh title, having beaten Frigg in the final. Kvik (Fredrikshald) were the defending champions, but were eliminated by Fram (Larvik) in the quarterfinal.

1920 Norwegian Football Cup

The 1920 Norwegian Football Cup was the 19th season of the Norwegian annual knockout football tournament. The tournament was open for all members of NFF. Ørn won their first title, having beaten Frigg in the final. This was second consecutive year that Frigg lost the final.

1921 Norwegian Football Cup

The 1921 Norwegian Football Cup was the 20th season of the Norwegian annual knockout football tournament. The tournament was open for all members of NFF. This was the third consecutive year that Frigg played in the final, but after having lost the previous two they won 2-0 against Odd in this year's final and won their third title. Ørn were the defending champions, but were eliminated by Brann in the quarterfinal.

1922 Norwegian Football Cup

The 1922 Norwegian Football Cup was the 21st season of the Norwegian annual knockout football tournament. The tournament was open for all members of NFF. Frigg were the defending champions, but were eliminated by Moss in the fourth round. Last years losing finalist, Odd won their eighth title, having beaten Kvik (Fredrikshald) in the final.

1965 Norwegian Football Cup

Skeid became Norwegian Cup winners when they beat Frigg 2–1 on the 7 November. There were 3 finals in 1965. The first two ended as ties. The goal scorers for Skeid were Terje Gulbrandsen and Pål Sætrang. For Frigg, the goal scorer was Erik Schønfeldt. 8 990 spectators attended Ullevaal Stadion in Oslo. The referee was Sverre Eugen Olsen. This was Skeid's seventh Norwegian Cup.

First Final- 24 October. 2–2.

Trygve Bornø scored for Skeid after 60 minutes and Kai Sjøberg scored after 114 minutes. For Frigg, Tore Fjeldstad scored in the 14th minute and Arne Bergersen scored in the 111th minute. 18 821 spectators attended at Ullevaal. The referee was Finn Bolstad.

Second final- 31 October. 1–1.

The goal scorer for Skeid was Pål Sætrang and scored in the 75th minute. The goal scorer for Frigg was Per Pettersen who scored in the 25th minute. 8 826 spectators attended Ullevaal. The referee was Rolf Hansen.

Skeid's winning squad: Kjell Kaspersen, Ragnar Næss, Kjell Wangen, Jan "Jonas" Gulbrandsen, Frank Olafsen, Finn Thorsen, Erik Mejlo, Per Egil Bjørnsen, Terje Gulbrandsen,

Trygve Bornø, Kai Sjøberg, Pål Sætrang, Terje Kristoffersen.

Frigg's squad: Ebbe Gysler, Anders Svela, Tore Børrehaug, Jon Birch-Aune, Åge

Solvang, Erik Hagen, Ole Erik Hansen, Tore Fjeldstad, Per Pettersen,

Arne Bergersen and Erik Schønfeldt.

Fensalir

In Norse mythology, Fensalir (Old Norse "Fen Halls") is a location where the goddess Frigg dwells. Fensalir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the location, including that the location may have some connection to religious practices involving springs, bogs, or swamps in Norse paganism, and that it may be connected to the goddess Sága's watery location Sökkvabekkr.

Freyja

In Norse mythology, Freyja (; Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, sex, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death. Freyja is the owner of the necklace Brísingamen, rides a chariot pulled by two cats, is accompanied by the boar Hildisvíni, and possesses a cloak of falcon feathers. By her husband Óðr, she is the mother of two daughters, Hnoss and Gersemi. Along with her brother Freyr, her father Njörðr, and her mother (Njörðr's sister, unnamed in sources), she is a member of the Vanir. Stemming from Old Norse Freyja, modern forms of the name include Freya, Freyia, and Freja.

Freyja rules over her heavenly field Fólkvangr and there receives half of those that die in battle, whereas the other half go to the god Odin's hall, Valhalla. Within Fólkvangr lies her hall, Sessrúmnir. Freyja assists other deities by allowing them to use her feathered cloak, is invoked in matters of fertility and love, and is frequently sought after by powerful jötnar who wish to make her their wife. Freyja's husband, the god Óðr, is frequently absent. She cries tears of red gold for him, and searches for him under assumed names. Freyja has numerous names, including Gefn, Hörn, Mardöll, Sýr, Valfreyja, and Vanadís.

Freyja is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; in the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, composed by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century; in several Sagas of Icelanders; in the short story "Sörla þáttr"; in the poetry of skalds; and into the modern age in Scandinavian folklore.

Scholars have debated whether Freyja and the goddess Frigg ultimately stem from a single goddess common among the Germanic peoples; connected her to the valkyries, female battlefield choosers of the slain; and analyzed her relation to other goddesses and figures in Germanic mythology, including the thrice-burnt and thrice-reborn Gullveig/Heiðr, the goddesses Gefjon, Skaði, Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa, Menglöð, and the 1st century CE "Isis" of the Suebi. Freyja's name appears in numerous place names in Scandinavia, with a high concentration in southern Sweden. Various plants in Scandinavia once bore her name, but it was replaced with the name of the Virgin Mary during the process of Christianization. Rural Scandinavians continued to acknowledge Freyja as a supernatural figure into the 19th century, and Freyja has inspired various works of art.

Frigg Oslo FK

Frigg Oslo Fotballklubb is a Norwegian sports club from Majorstua in Oslo.

It has sections for association football and bandy.

Frigg and Freyja common origin hypothesis

Due to numerous similarities, some scholars have proposed that the Old Norse goddesses Frigg and Freyja descend from a common entity from the Proto-Germanic period. Regarding a Freyja-Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments that "the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess originally is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, and the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, and to see how well each can be supported."Unlike Frigg but like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of Scandinavia, as opposed to the name of the goddess Frigg, who is attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, and whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Similar proof for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Freyja descends does not exist, but scholars have commented that this may simply be due to the scarcity of evidence outside of the North Germanic record.

Frigg gas field

Frigg gas field is a natural gas field on Norwegian block 25/1 in the North Sea, on the boundary between the United Kingdom and Norway. The field is named after the goddess Frigg. King Olav V of Norway officially opened production on 8 May 1978. Production was closed on 26 October 2004. The field is situated 230 kilometres (140 mi) northwest of Stavanger. Operator for the field was the French oil company Elf Aquitaine, which merged and changed name to Total S.A.

Operations were regulated according to an agreement between the UK and Norwegian governments called the Frigg Treaty.

Infrastructural changes were made in three phases:

Phase I - 1977

Phase II - 1978

Phase III - 1981

Frigga (comics)

Frigga is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character appears in particular in those featuring the superhero Thor, who is Frigga's stepson. Based on Frigg of Norse mythology, she was created by writers Stan Lee and Robert Bernstein and artist Joe Sinnott, and first appeared in Journey into Mystery #92 (May 1963).

Frigga is played by Rene Russo in the live-action films Thor and Thor: The Dark World set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

Fulla

In Germanic mythology, Fulla (Old Norse, possibly "bountiful") or Volla (Old High German) is a goddess. In Norse mythology, Fulla is described as wearing a golden band and as tending to the ashen box and the footwear owned by the goddess Frigg, and, in addition, Frigg confides in Fulla her secrets. Fulla is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson; and in skaldic poetry. Volla is attested in the "Horse Cure" Merseburg Incantation, recorded anonymously in the 10th century in Old High German, in which she assists in healing the wounded foal of Phol and is referred to as Frigg's sister. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the goddess.

Gná and Hófvarpnir

In Norse mythology, Gná is a goddess who runs errands in other worlds for the goddess Frigg and rides the flying, sea-treading horse Hófvarpnir (Old Norse "he who throws his hoofs about", "hoof-thrower" or "hoof kicker"). Gná and Hófvarpnir are attested in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholarly theories have been proposed about Gná as a "goddess of fullness" and as potentially cognate to Fama from Roman mythology. Hófvarpnir and the eight-legged steed Sleipnir have been cited examples of transcendent horses in Norse mythology.

Hljod

Hljod or Ljod (Old Norse Hljóð) is a giantess in Norse mythology. According to the Völsunga saga Hljod, the daughter of Hrímnir, married the hero Völsung. She bore him ten sons, one of whom was Sigmund, and a daughter, Signy. She had earlier brought the apple from the gods that enabled Völsung's mother to conceive him.

The passage in which Hljóð is sent is:Þat er nú sagt, at Frigg heyrir bæn þeira ok segir Óðni, hvers þau biðja. Hann verðr eigi örþrifráða ok tekr óskmey sína, dóttur Hrímnis jötunsIt is now said that Frigg heard their prayers and told Óðinn what they prayed. He was not without resources and took his wish-maid, the daughter of the jötunn Hrímnir.

In the translation by Eiríkr Magnússon and William Morris, the passage is very freely translated: And so it is said that Odin hears their prayer, and Freyia no less hearkens wherewith they prayed unto her: so she, never lacking for all good counsel, calls to her her casket-bearing may. For example, Margaret Clunies Ross says that "Óðinn sends a valkyrie by name of Hljóð".

Later in the same chapter, the report of her marrying Völsung repeats the story of the apple:Nú þá er hann var alroskinn at aldri, þá sendir Hrímnir honum Hljóð, dóttur sína, er fyrr er getit, þá er hún fór með eplit til Reris, föður Völsungs."Now when he was fully come to man's estate, Hrimnir the giant sends to him Ljod his daughter; she of whom the tale told, that she brought the apple to Rerir, Volsung's father." (William Morris and Eiríkr Magnússon translation)

Hlín

In Norse mythology, Hlín is a goddess associated with the goddess Frigg. Hlín appears in a poem in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, and in kennings found in skaldic poetry. Scholars have debated whether the stanza referring to her in the Prose Edda refers to Frigg. Hlín serves as a given name in Iceland, and Hlín receives veneration in the modern era in Germanic paganism's modern extension, Heathenry.

Lofn

In Norse mythology, Lofn (Old Norse, possibly "comforter,") "the comforter, the mild," or "loving" is a goddess. Lofn is attested in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson and in kennings found in skaldic poetry. In the Prose Edda, Lofn is described as gentle in manner and as an arranger of marriages, even when they have been forbidden. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the goddess.

Sága and Sökkvabekkr

In Norse mythology, Sága (Old Norse: [saːɣa], possibly meaning "seeress") is a goddess associated with the wisdom Sökkvabekkr (Old Norse: [sɔkːwabekːr]; "sunken bank", "sunken bench", or "treasure bank"). At Sökkvabekkr, Sága and the god Odin merrily drink as cool waves flow. Both Sága and Sökkvabekkr are attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the goddess and her associated location, including that the location may be connected to the goddess Frigg's fen residence Fensalir and that Sága may be another name for Frigg.

Vafþrúðnismál

In Norse mythology, Vafþrúðnismál (Vafþrúðnir's sayings) is the third poem in the Poetic Edda. It is a conversation in verse form conducted initially between the Æsir Odin and Frigg, and subsequently between Odin and the giant Vafþrúðnir. The poem goes into detail about the Norse cosmogony and was evidently used extensively as a source document by Snorri Sturluson in the construction of the Prose Edda who quotes it. The poem is preserved in Codex Regius and partially in AM 748 I 4to. There are preservation problems relating to stanzas 40-41.

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