Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (/ˈʃleɪɡəl/;[8] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈʃleːgl̩];[8][9][10] 10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist. With his older brother, August Wilhelm Schlegel, he was one of the main figures of the Jena romantics. He was a zealous promoter of the Romantic movement and inspired Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Adam Mickiewicz and Kazimierz Brodziński. The first to notice what became known as Grimm's law, Schlegel was a pioneer in Indo-European studies, comparative linguistics, and morphological typology. As a young man he was an atheist, a radical, and an individualist. In 1808, the same Schlegel converted to Catholicism. Two years later he was a diplomat and journalist in the service of the reactionary Clemens von Metternich, surrounded by monks and pious men of society.[11]

Friedrich Schlegel
Franz Gareis Portrait Friedrich Schlegel
Friedrich Schlegel in 1801
Born10 March 1772
Died12 January 1829 (aged 56)
Alma materUniversity of Göttingen
University of Leipzig
Era19th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolJena Romanticism
German idealism[1]
Epistemic coherentism[2]
Coherence theory of truth[3]
Romantic linguistics[5]
Main interests
Epistemology, philology, philosophy of history
Notable ideas
Grounding epistemology on reciprocal proof (Wechselerweis), not original principle (Grundsatz)[6][2]
Coining the term "historicism," (Historismus)[4] Out of India theory

Life and work

Domenico Quaglio Marktkirche Hannover
Hanover's Market Church
Oil painting after Domenico Quaglio (1832)

Karl Friedrich von Schlegel was born on 10 March 1772 at Hanover, where his father, Johann Adolf Schlegel, was the pastor at the Lutheran Market Church. For two years he studied law at Göttingen and Leipzig, and he met with Friedrich Schiller. In 1793 he devoted himself entirely to literary work. In 1796 he moved to Jena, where his brother August Wilhelm lived, and here he collaborated with Novalis, Ludwig Tieck, Fichte, and Caroline Schelling, who married August Wilhelm. Novalis and Schlegel had a famous conversation about German idealism. In 1797 he quarreled with Schiller, who did not like his polemic work.[12] Schlegel published Die Griechen und Römer (The Greeks and Romans), which was followed by Geschichte der Poesie der Griechen und Römer (History of the Poesy of the Greeks and Romans) (1798). Then he turned to Dante, Goethe, and Shakespeare. In Jena he and his brother founded the journal Athenaeum, contributing fragments, aphorisms, and essays in which the principles of the Romantic school are most definitely stated. They are now generally recognized as the deepest and most significant expressions of the subjective idealism of the early Romanticists.[13] After a controversy, Friedrich decided to move to Berlin. There he lived with Friedrich Schleiermacher and met Henriette Herz, Rahel Varnhagen, and his future wife, Dorothea Veit, a daughter of Moses Mendelssohn and the mother of Johannes and Philipp Veit.[11] In 1799 he published Lucinde, an eccentric and unfinished novel, which is remarkable as an attempt to transfer to practical ethics the Romantic demand for complete individual freedom.[14] Lucinde, in which he extolled the union of sensual and spiritual love as an allegory of the divine cosmic Eros, caused a great scandal by its manifest autobiographical character, mirroring his liaison with Dorothea Veit, and it contributed to the failure of his academic career in Jena [13] where he completed his studies in 1801 and lectured as a Privatdozent on transcendental philosophy. In September 1800 he met four times with Goethe, who would later stage his tragedy Alarcos (1802) in Weimar, albeit with a notable lack of success.

In June 1802 he arrived in Paris, where he lived in the house formerly owned by Baron d'Holbach and joined a circle including Heinrich Christoph Kolbe. He lectured on philosophy in private courses for Sulpiz Boisserée, and under the tutelage of Antoine-Léonard de Chézy and linguist Alexander Hamilton he continued to study Sanskrit and the Persian language. He edited the journal Europa (1803), where he published essays about Gothic architecture and the Old Masters. In April 1804 he married Dorothea Veit in the Swedish embassy in Paris, after she had undergone the requisite conversion from Judaism to Protestantism. In 1806 he and his wife went to visit Aubergenville, where his brother lived with Madame de Staël.

In 1808 he published an epoch-making book, Über die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier (On the Language and Wisdom of India). Here he advanced his ideas about religion and importantly argued that a people originating from India were the founders of the first European civilizations. Schlegel compared Sanskrit with Latin, Greek, Persian and German, noting many similarities in vocabulary and grammar. The assertion of the common features of these languages is now generally accepted, albeit with significant revisions. There is less agreement about the geographic region where these precursors settled, although the Out-of-India model has generally become discredited.

Rheinpanorama 1856 detail Dom
The unfinished Cologne cathedral (1856) with medieval crane on the south tower

In 1808, he and his wife joined the Roman Catholic Church in the Cologne Cathedral. From this time on, he became more and more opposed to the principles of political and religious freedom. He went to Vienna and in 1809 was appointed imperial court secretary at the military headquarters, editing the army newspaper and issuing fiery proclamations against Napoleon. He accompanied archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen to war and was stationed in Pest during the War of the Fifth Coalition. Here he studied the Hungarian language. Meanwhile he had published his collected Geschichte (Histories) (1809) and two series of lectures, Über die neuere Geschichte (On Recent History) (1811) and Geschichte der alten und neuen Literatur (On Old and New Literature) (1815). In 1814 he was knighted in the Supreme Order of Christ.

Dresden Alter Kath Friedhof CWFriedvSchlegel
Schlegel's grave at the Old Catholic Cemetery, Dresden

In collaboration with Josef von Pilat, editor of the Österreichischer Beobachter, and with the help of Adam Müller and Friedrich Schlegel, Metternich and Gentz projected a vision of Austria as the spiritual leader of a new Germany, drawing her strength and inspiration from a romanticised view of a medieval Catholic past.[15]

Following the Congress of Vienna (1815), he was councilor of legation in the Austrian embassy at the Frankfurt Diet, but in 1818 he returned to Vienna. In 1819 he and Clemens Brentano made a trip to Rome, in the company of Metternich and Gentz. There he met with his wife and her sons. In 1820 he started a conservative Catholic magazine, Concordia (1820–1823), but was criticized by Metternich and by his brother August Wilhelm, then professor of Indology in Bonn and busy publishing the Bhagavad Gita. Schlegel began the issue of his Sämtliche Werke (Collected Works). He also delivered lectures, which were republished in his Philosophie des Lebens (Philosophy of Life) (1828) and in his Philosophie der Geschichte (Philosophy of History) (1829). He died on 12 January 1829 at Dresden, while preparing a series of lectures.

1790 Graff Portrait Dorothea Schlegel anagoria
Dorothea von Schlegel (1790) by Anton Graff

Dorothea Schlegel

Friedrich Schlegel's wife, Dorothea von Schlegel, authored an unfinished romance, Florentin (1802), a Sammlung romantischer Dichtungen des Mittelalters (Collection of Romantic Poems of the Middle Ages) (2 vols., 1804), a version of Lother und Maller (1805), and a translation of Madame de Staël's Corinne (1807–1808) — all of which were issued under her husband's name. By her first marriage she had two sons, Johannes and Philipp Veit, who became eminent Catholic painters.


Friedrich von Schlegel (1829) by Josef Axmann

Friedrich Schlegel and his brother August Wilhelm occupy canonical positions in the history of German literature as the critical leaders of the Romantic school, which derived from them most of its governing ideas concerning the characteristics of the Middle Ages and the methods of literary expression. Of the two Schlegel brothers, Friedrich was unquestionably the more brilliant and original. He was the real founder of the Romantic school; to him more than to any other member of the school we owe the revolutionizing and germinating ideas which influenced so profoundly the development of German literature at the beginning of the 19th century. Schlegel stated that his goal was a unified representation of philosophy, prose, poesy, genius, and critique. Key elements were his conceptions of a "progressive universal poesy", romantic irony, and a new mythology.

Selected works

  • Vom ästhetischen Werte der griechischen Komödie (1794)
  • Über die Diotima (1795)
  • Versuch über den Begriff des Republikanismus (1796)
  • Georg Forster (1797)
  • Über das Studium der griechischen Poesie (1797)
  • Über Lessing (1797)
  • Kritische Fragmente („Lyceums“-Fragmente) (1797)
  • Fragmente („Athenaeums“-Fragmente) (1797–1798)
  • Lucinde (1799)
  • Über die Philosophie. An Dorothea (1799)
  • Gespräch über die Poesie (1800)
  • Über die Unverständlichkeit (1800)
  • Ideen (1800)
  • Charakteristiken und Kritiken (1801)
  • Transcendentalphilosophie (1801)
  • Alarkos (1802)
  • Reise nach Frankreich (1803
  • Geschichte der europäischen Literatur (1803/1804
  • Grundzüge der gotischen Baukunst (1804/1805)
  • Über die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier (1808)
  • Deutsches Museum (as ed.), 4 Vols. Vienna (1812–1813)
  • Geschichte der alten und neueren Literatur (lectures) (1815)


  • Ludwig Tieck und die Brüder Schlegel. Briefe ed. by Edgar Lohner (München 1972)

Friedrich Schlegel's Sämtliche Werke appeared in 10 vols. (1822–1825); a second edition (1846) in 55 vols. His Prosaische Jugendschriften (1794–1802) have been edited by J. Minor (1882, 2nd ed. 1906); there are also reprints of Lucinde, and F. Schleiermacher's Vertraute Briefe über Lucinde, 1800 (1907). See R. Haym, Die romantische Schule (1870); I. Rouge, F. Schlegel et la genie du romantisme allemand (1904); by the same, Erläuterungen zu F. Schlegels „Lucinde“ (1905); M. Joachimi, Die Weltanschauung der Romantik (1905); W. Glawe, Die Religion F. Schlegels (1906); E. Kircher, Philosophie der Romantik (1906); M. Frank "Unendliche Annäherung". Die Anfänge der philosophischen Frühromantik (1997); Andrew Bowie, From Romanticism to Critical Theory: The Philosophy of German Literary Theory (1997).


  1. ^ Frederick C. Beiser, German Idealism: The Struggle Against Subjectivism, 1781-1801, Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 349.
  2. ^ a b Asko Nivala, The Romantic Idea of the Golden Age in Friedrich Schlegel's Philosophy of History, Routledge, 2017, p. 23.
  3. ^ Elizabeth Millan, Friedrich Schlegel and the Emergence of Romantic Philosophy, SUNY Press, 2012, p. 49.
  4. ^ a b Brian Leiter, Michael Rosen (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Continental Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 175: "[The word 'historicism'] appears as early as the late eighteenth century in the writings of the German romantics, who used it in a neutral sense. In 1797 Friedrich Schlegel used 'historicism' to refer to a philosophy that stresses the importance of history..."; Katherine Harloe, Neville Morley (eds.), Thucydides and the Modern World: Reception, Reinterpretation and Influence from the Renaissance to the Present, Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 81: "Already in Friedrich Schlegel's Fragments about Poetry and Literature (a collection of notes attributed to 1797), the word Historismus occurs five times."
  5. ^ Angela Esterhammer (ed.), Romantic Poetry, Volume 7, John Benjamins Publishing, 2002, p. 491.
  6. ^ Michael N. Forster, Kristin Gjesdal (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century, Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 81.
  7. ^ Michael N. Forster, After Herder: Philosophy of Language in the German Tradition, Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 9.
  8. ^ a b Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  9. ^ "Friedrich - Französisch-Übersetzung - Langenscheidt Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch" (in German and French). Langenscheidt. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  10. ^ "Duden | Schlegel | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition". Duden (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  11. ^ a b Speight (, Allen 2007). "Friedrich Schlegel". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy..
  12. ^ Ernst Behler, German Romantic Literary Theory, 1993, p. 36.
  13. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBöhme, Traugott (1920). "Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von" . In Rines, George Edwin (ed.). Encyclopedia Americana.
  14. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  15. ^ Adam Zamoyski (2007), Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, pp. 242–243.

Further reading

  • Berman, Antoine. L'épreuve de l'étranger. Culture et traduction dans l'Allemagne romantique: Herder, Goethe, Schlegel, Novalis, Humboldt, Schleiermacher, Hölderlin., Paris, Gallimard, Essais, 1984. ISBN 978-2-07-070076-9
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe and Jean-Luc Nancy, The Literary Absolute: The Theory of Literature in German Romanticism, Albany: State University Press of New York, 1988. [A philosophical exegesis of early romantic theory focused on F. Schlegel, Novalis, and the Athenaeum.]

External links

Adolphe Pictet

Adolphe Pictet (11 September 1799 – 20 December 1875) was a Swiss linguist, philologist and ethnologist.

Pictet, the cousin of the biologist Francois Jules Pictet, is well known for his research in the field of comparative linguistics. He played a crucial formative role in the development of Ferdinand de Saussure; "it was Pictet who introduced the thirteen-year-old Saussure to the theoretical foundations of Indo-European linguistics." But he was also "a dedicated champion of German Romanticism and idealist philosophy":Like French, English, and Russian Romantics since the beginning of the century, he made a journey to Germany, where he became acquainted with A. W. Schlegel (with whom he maintained an important correspondence over the course of many years), Goethe, Hegel, Schleiermacher, and Schelling. ... In the spirit of earlier wars between “romantics” and “classics” (a little outmoded by the 1850s), Pictet envisioned Romanticism, with its embrace of pluralism and freedom of invention, as standing in sharp opposition to Classicism, the embodiment of systemic compactness and uniformity.Pictet "represented the first, Romantic generation of historical linguists, for whom the history of language went hand in hand with the history of the material and spiritual being of the people who spoke it"; his magnum opus was Origines indo-européennes: Essaie de paléontologie linguistique (1859–63), a "monumental attempt, in the tradition of Friedrich Schlegel and Jakob Grimm, to reconstruct the whole world of the proto-Indo-Europeans."

Andrew Bowie

Andrew S. Bowie (born 1952) is Professor of Philosophy and German at Royal Holloway, University of London and Founding Director of the Humanities and Arts Research Centre (HARC).He has worked to promote a better understanding of German philosophy in the Anglophone analytical tradition - including the works of Johann Georg Hamann, Johann Gottfried von Herder, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Walter Benjamin, Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Theodor W. Adorno, Jürgen Habermas, Albrecht Wellmer and Manfred Frank.

Frank and Habermas have spoken highly of his work in this area - with Habermas calling his work "masterly" and Frank calling him an "exceptional scholar", whose work represents "the most knowledgeable presentation in English of the history of the German contribution to so-called continental philosophy". The philosopher Charles Taylor has described his work on music as "excellent and densely argued".He has translated the works of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Friedrich Schleiermacher. His recent work has focused on music and philosophy, and Adorno on the nature of philosophy. In addition to his philosophical work on music, he is a keen jazz saxophonist and has played with leading contemporary jazz musicians such as

Al Casey and Humphrey Lyttelton.He did his doctoral research on "History and the Novel" (1980) at the University of East Anglia, where he was taught by the renowned German writer and scholar W. G. Sebald (who later cited Bowie's work on Alexander Kluge in his Campo Santo). He studied German philosophy at the Free University of Berlin. He was Professor of Philosophy at Anglia Ruskin University until 1999. He was also Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow at the Philosophy department of Tübingen University. He is on the Advisory Council for the Institute of Philosophy.

His elder brother, Angus, is a classicist.

Athenaeum (German magazine)

The Athenaeum was a literary magazine established in 1798 by August Wilhelm and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel. It is considered to be the founding publication of German Romanticism.

August Wilhelm Schlegel

August Wilhelm (after 1812: von) Schlegel (; German: [ˈʃleːgl̩]; 8 September 1767 – 12 May 1845), usually cited as August Schlegel, was a German poet, translator and critic, and with his brother Friedrich Schlegel the leading influence within Jena Romanticism. His translations of Shakespeare turned the English dramatist's works into German classics. Schlegel was also the first professor of Sanskrit in Continental Europe and produced a translation of the Bhagavad Gita.

Coherence theory of truth

In epistemology, the coherence theory of truth regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs. The model is contrasted with the correspondence theory of truth.

A positive tenet is the idea that truth is a property of whole systems of propositions and can be ascribed to individual propositions only derivatively according to their coherence with the whole. While modern coherence theorists hold that there are many possible systems to which the determination of truth may be based upon coherence, others, particularly those with strong religious beliefs hold that the truth only applies to a single absolute system. In general, truth requires a proper fit of elements within the whole system. Very often, though, coherence is taken to imply something more than simple formal coherence. For example, the coherence of the underlying set of concepts is considered to be a critical factor in judging validity. In other words, the set of base concepts in a universe of discourse must form an intelligible paradigm before many theorists consider that the coherence theory of truth is applicable.

Dorothea von Schlegel

Dorothea von Schlegel (née Brendel Mendelssohn; October 24, 1764 – August 3, 1839) was a German novelist and translator.

German Romanticism

German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism. Compared to English Romanticism, the German variety developed relatively late, and, in the early years, coincided with Weimar Classicism (1772–1805). In contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety of Romanticism notably valued wit, humour, and beauty.

The early period, roughly 1797 to 1802, is referred to as Frühromantik or Jena Romanticism. The philosophers and writers central to the movement were Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (1773–1798), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854), Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845), Ludwig Tieck (1773–1853), and Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis) (1772–1801).The early German romantics strove to create a new synthesis of art, philosophy, and science, by viewing the Middle Ages as a simpler period of integrated culture; however, the German romantics became aware of the tenuousness of the cultural unity they sought. Late-stage German Romanticism emphasized the tension between the daily world and the irrational and supernatural projections of creative genius. In particular, the critic Heinrich Heine criticized the tendency of the early German romantics to look to the medieval past for a model of unity in art and society.

German idealism

German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It began as a reaction to Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. German idealism was closely linked with both Romanticism and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment.

The most notable thinkers in the movement were Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the proponents of Jena Romanticism (Friedrich Hölderlin, Novalis, and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel). Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Salomon Maimon and Friedrich Schleiermacher also made major contributions.

Henriette Herz

Henriette Herz née De Lemos (September 5, 1764 – October 22, 1847) is best known for the "salonnieres" or literary salons that she started with a group of emancipated Jews in Prussia.

She was the daughter of a physician, descended from a Portuguese Jewish family of Hamburg, Benjamin de Lemos (1711–1789) and Esther (1742–1817), née Charleville.

Henriette Herz had grown up in the Berlin of the Jewish emancipation and had shared tutors apparently with Moses Mendelssohn's daughters. At age fifteen, she married a physician, seventeen years her senior. Markus Herz had studied medicine at the University of Königsberg, one of only three universities that accepted Jews—but only in its medical faculty. She was said to be an extremely beautiful woman.After a few years the salon split in two, a science-seminar led by her husband and a literary salon by Henriette herself. Most notable men and women in Berlin were said to have attended her salon. Among her friends and acquaintances were Dorothea von Schlegel, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Jean Paul, Friedrich Schiller, Mirabeau, Friedrich Rückert, Karl Wilhelm Ramler, Johann Jakob Engel, Georg Ludwig Spalding, the Danish Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Johannes von Müller, the sculptor Schadow, Salomon Maimon, Friedrich von Gentz, Fanny von Arnstein, Madame de Genlis, Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten, Gustav von Brinkmann, and Friedrich Schlegel.

Alexander von Humboldt often visited and even received Hebrew lessons from Henriette. The theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher was another frequent visitor. After the death of her husband she came under the powerful influence of Schleiermacher and converted to Protestantism. Her grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof II der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde (Cemetery No. II of the congregations of Jerusalem's Church and New Church) in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor.


Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture. Historicism tends to be hermeneutical because it values cautious, rigorous, and contextualized interpretation of information; or relativist, because it rejects notions of universal, fundamental and immutable interpretations. The approach varies from individualist theories of knowledge such as empiricism and rationalism, which neglect the role of traditions.

The term "historicism" (Historismus) was coined by German philosopher Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel. Over time it has developed different and somewhat divergent meanings. Elements of historicism appear in the writings of French essayist Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) and Italian philosopher G. B. Vico (1668–1744), and became more fully developed with the dialectic of Georg Hegel (1770–1831), influential in 19th-century Europe. The writings of Karl Marx, influenced by Hegel, also include historicism. The term is also associated with the empirical social sciences and with the work of Franz Boas.

Historicism may be contrasted with reductionist theories—which assumes that all developments can be explained by fundamental principles (such as in economic determinism)—or with theories that posit that historical changes occur as a result of random chance.

The Austrian-English philosopher Karl Popper condemned historicism along with the determinism and holism which he argued formed its basis. In his Poverty of Historicism, he identified historicism with the opinion that there are "inexorable laws of historical destiny", which opinion he warned against. If this seems to contrast with what proponents of historicism argue for, in terms of contextually relative interpretation, this happens, according to Popper, only because such proponents are unaware of the type of causality they ascribe to history. Talcott Parsons criticized historicism as a case of idealistic fallacy in The Structure of Social Action (1937).

Post-structuralism uses the term "New Historicism", which has some associations with both anthropology and Hegelianism.

The theological use of the word denotes the interpretation of biblical prophecy as being related to church history.

Index of continental philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in continental philosophy.

Abandonment (existentialism)



Achieving Our Country

Albert Camus

Alberto Moreiras

Albrecht Wellmer

Alexandru Dragomir

Alfred Adler

Allan Bloom


Always already

Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

André Malet (philosopher)

Ángel Rama



Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?

Anti-Semite and Jew

Antonio Caso Andrade

Aous Shakra



Atheist existentialism


Aurel Kolnai

Authenticity (philosophy)


Avital Ronell

Ayyavazhi phenomenology

Bad faith (existentialism)

Barbara Herrnstein Smith

Beatriz Sarlo

Being and Nothingness

Being and Time

Being in itself

Benedetto Croce

Beyond Good and Evil

Black existentialism


Bracketing (phenomenology)

Cahiers pour l'Analyse

Carmen Laforet

Cartesian Meditations

Charles Sanders Peirce

Christian Discourses

Christian existentialism

Christopher Norris (critic)


Claude Lefort

Claudio Canaparo

Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments


Constantin Noica

Continental philosophy

Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)

Cornelius Castoriadis

Course in General Linguistics

Critical discourse analysis

Critical historiography

Critical pedagogy

Critical theory

Criticism of postmodernism

Critique of Cynical Reason

Critique of Dialectical Reason

Critique of Pure Reason

Critiques of Slavoj Žižek

Cultural materialism (anthropology)

Cultural studies

Cyborg theory


David Farrell Krell


Delfim Santos

Dermot Moran

Discontinuity (Postmodernism)

Discourse ethics

Duality of structure

Ecce Homo (book)


Écriture féminine

Edifying Discourses in Diverse Spirits

Edith Wyschogrod

Edmund Husserl

Edward Said

Egoist anarchism


Epic and Novel



Ernst Cassirer

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick


Exile and the Kingdom

Existential crisis

Existential humanism

Existential phenomenology




Fear and Trembling

Ferdinand de Saussure

For Self-Examination

Foucault–Habermas debate

Franz Rosenzweig

Frederick C. Beiser

Fredric Jameson

French structuralist feminism


Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography

Friedrich Pollock

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Gabriel Marcel

Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak


Gender studies

Genealogy (philosophy)


Geoffrey Bennington

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Giles Fraser

Giorgio Agamben

Guy Debord

Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans Lipps


Hélène Cixous

Helene von Druskowitz

Henri Bergson

Herbert Marcuse




Historicity (philosophy)

History of Consciousness

Honorio Delgado

Human, All Too Human

Humanistic psychology



Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose

Igor Pribac

Influence and reception of Søren Kierkegaard

Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche

Instrumental rationality

International Journal of Žižek Studies


Irrational Man: A Study in Existential Philosophy

Irrealism (the arts)

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Lacan

James E. Faulconer

James M. Edie

Jan Patočka

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-Luc Nancy

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean Grenier

Jeff Malpas

Jena romantics

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

John D. Caputo

Josefina Ayerza

Juan-David Nasio

Judge for Yourselves!

Judith Butler

Juha Varto

Julia Kristeva

Julie Rivkin

Jürgen Habermas

Karl Ameriks

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

Keiji Nishitani

L'existentialisme est un humanisme

Lacan at the Scene

Laura Kipnis

Leo Strauss

Léon Dumont

Les jeux sont faits

Les Temps modernes

Lewis White Beck


List of critical theorists

List of postmodern critics

List of works in critical theory

Literary criticism

Literary theory

Lived body


Logos: A Journal of Modern Society and Culture

Louis Althusser

Louis H. Mackey

Luce Irigaray

Ludwig Landgrebe

Man's Fate

Marek Siemek

Mark Sacks

Mark Wrathall

Marshall Berman

Martin Buber

Martin Heidegger

Mary Louise Pratt

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Max Horkheimer

Maxence Caron

Metaphor in philosophy

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science

Metaphysics of Morals

Metaphysics of presence

Michael Vavrus

Michel Foucault bibliography

Michel Henry

Mikhail Ovsyannikov

Minima Moralia

Mirror stage

Modalities (sociology)


Mythologies (book)

Nader El-Bizri

Nelly Richard

Néstor García Canclini

Nicola Abbagnano

Nietzsche's views on women

Nietzsche and free will

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nietzsche contra Wagner

Nietzschean affirmation

Objet petit a

Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates

On the Genealogy of Morality

On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense


Orientalism (book)


Outline of critical theory

Paul de Man

Paul R. Patton

Paul Rée

Per Martin-Löf

Phenomenological Sociology

Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology of essences

Phenomenology of Perception

Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

Philippe Nys

Philosophical Fragments

Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks

Philosophy of dialogue

Philosophy of Existence

Philosophy of Max Stirner

Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard

Philosophy of technology

Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer





Postmodern Christianity

Postmodern philosophy

Postmodern psychology

Postmodern social construction of nature

Postmodern vertigo


Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

Practice in Christianity

Pragmatic maxim


Private sphere

Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics

Public sphere

Queer heterosexuality

Queer pedagogy

Queer theory

Ranjana Khanna

Reflective disclosure

Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Max Stirner

Repetition (Kierkegaard)

Repressive hypothesis

Res Extensa


Richard A. Macksey

Richard Schacht

Robert C. Solomon

Robert Rowland Smith

Roger Caillois


Rudolf Schottlaender

Rudolf Seydel

Russian formalism

Saint Genet

Sarah Coakley

Scheler's Stratification of Emotional Life


Schopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulate

Search for a Method

Secondary antisemitism



Siegfried Kracauer

Situationist International

Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Slavoj Žižek

Slavoj Žižek bibliography

Social alienation

Socialisme ou Barbarie

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche

Sous rature

Spomenka Hribar

Stages on Life's Way

Stephen Mulhall

Stirrings Still: The International Journal of Existential Literature

Strategic essentialism

Structural Marxism

Sturm und Drang

Sublime (philosophy)

Telos (journal)

Teresa de Lauretis

The Absence of the Book

The Adulterous Woman

The Antichrist (book)

The Art of Being Right

The Birth of the Clinic

The Birth of Tragedy

The Blood of Others

The Book on Adler

The Case of Wagner

The Concept of Anxiety

The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress

The Existential Negation Campaign

The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures

The Gay Science

The Imaginary (Sartre)

The Metamorphosis

The Myth of Sisyphus

The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God

The Origin of the Work of Art

The Pigeon (novella)

The Plague

The Point of View of My Work as an Author

The Possessed (play)

The Postmodern Condition

The Question Concerning Technology

The Renegade (Camus short story)

The Royal Way

The Seminars of Jacques Lacan

The Sickness Unto Death

The Silent Men

The Society of the Spectacle

The Stranger (Camus novel)

The Sublime Object of Ideology

The Transcendence of the Ego

The Will to Power (manuscript)

Theatre of the Absurd

Theodor W. Adorno

Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces

Thus Spoke Zarathustra

Tim Dean

Time and Free Will

Tomonubu Imamichi

Trace (deconstruction)

Tui (intellectual)

Twilight of the Idols

Two Ages: A Literary Review

Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven

Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche)

Vanja Sutlić

Waiting for Godot

Waking Life

Walter Benjamin

What Is Literature?

Wilhelm Dilthey

William McNeill (philosopher)

Colin Wilson

Wolfgang Fritz Haug

Works of Love

World disclosure

Writing Sampler

Zarathustra's roundelay

Zollikon Seminars

Johann Friedrich Unger

Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Unger (1753 in Berlin – December 26, 1804 in Berlin) was a German printer and publisher.

He was the fifth son of the printer Johann Georg Unger (October 26, 1715 in Goes bei Pirna – August 15, 1788 in Berlin) and his wife Susanna Katharine (maiden name: Strucken). He took on an apprenticeship at the print shop of the Oberhof printer Georg Jacob Decker. In 1779 Unger requested a print shop for himself and in January 1780 he was granted one. Later, he expanded it to a publishing bookseller, in which he published works by Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Schleiermacher as well as August and Friedrich Schlegel.

From 1784 onward he attempted repeatedly to gain approval to publish what would have been Berlin’s first daily newspaper. His attempts were rejected as the two existing newspapers in Berlin were found to be sufficient and another newspaper would overload the censors. In 1802 Unger nonetheless became co-owner of the Vossische Zeitung.In 1793, he invented the "Unger-Fraktur", a type of Fraktur.

Juan Nicolás Böhl de Faber

Juan Nicolás Böhl de Faber (in German sources also: Johann Nikolaus Böhl von Faber; Hamburg, 1770 - Cádiz, 1836) was a German bibliophile and lover of Spanish literature and culture. He was the father of Spanish/Swiss novelist Cecilia Böhl de Faber, aka "Fernán Caballero".

Böhl started his life in Spain at a shop owned by his bourgeois parents. In addition to the work of the store, he was also Hanseatic consul for his hometown Hamburg as well as overseeing the warehouses held by Sir James Duff and his nephew William Gordon at Puerto de Santa María. It was in Cádiz that he met Frasquita Larrea (Francisca Javiera Ruiz de Larrea y Aherán, 1775–1838) a Catholic lady of high society who had travelled through France and Germany and mastered their languages easily, read Shakespeare, was well-versed in the thoughts of Kant and Descartes, read Madame Staël, and delighted in the work of the feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. The two were married in 1790 and lived for a short time on Lake Geneva, in the Canton of Vaud, where their daughter was born, the future novelist known as Fernán Caballero. Later, the couple would have two more children. Returning to Spain, they spent time living in Cádiz where they enriched the local cultural scene by introducing the first tertulias. In 1805, the pair journeyed to Germany for a second time where their union began to show the first signs of stress. Frasquita returned to Spain alone, where she would experience the Peninsular War with her two daughters while living in Chiclana de la Frontera. The family reunited after the end of the war in Cádiz.

Böhl de Faber's hispanophilia prompted him to collect many works of Spanish literature and build an important library. While travelling in Germany he obtained many of the Aesthetic works of the brothers August Wilhelm Schlegel and Friedrich Schlegel concerning art, literature, and above all Pedro Calderón de la Barca. In 1814, he published an article entitled "Reflexiones de Schlegel sobre el teatro traducidas del alemán" (Schlegel's Reflections upon Theatre as Translated from German) in the newspaper El Mercurio Gaditano. This article identifies Romanticism with absolutism and argues for a return to traditional and Catholic thought. It totally condemns the Enlightenment and exalts Spanish nationalism. The theater of Calderón de la Barca is treated as a symbol of the Spanish spirit, and any dislike of it is deemed unpatriotic. The contemporary Neo-classical Enlightenment writer José Joaquín de Mora countered that the worst thing to befall Spanish culture was the work of Calderón, in which bad taste was the norm. This exchange ignited a row between the two that would appear in newspapers in Madrid. Between 1818 and 1819, Böhl de Faber published in the Diario Mercantil Gaditano a series of articles defending Spanish theater of the Siglo de Oro, a genre much maligned by the Spanish Neo-Classicists who rejected its style along with the reactionary and traditionalist ideology it represented. Mora and Antonio Alcalá Galiano, liberal authors who would later become fervent Romantics, argued bitterly against him. Mora's words especially focused on the way that Faber's own wife was a vocal admirer of Calderón, and that she ran an ultra-Catholic tertulia in Cádiz. Additionally, whereas Faber was a supporter of Fernando VII, Mora and Alcalá Galiano were liberals; the ideological divide provoked still more disputes and the controversy became rife with personal attacks.

Nevertheless, Böhl remained an active publicist whose labor did much to bring traditionalist Romanticism to Spain. He published articles about English poetry derived from Romanticism. With the end of the Trienio Liberal of the 1820s, Mora and Alcalá Galiano left Spain with other liberal emigrants, though in order to better counter Böhl de Faber they had to study Schlegel's theories concerning the Romancero and the theater of the Siglo de Oro, and in this way Romanticism was introduced into Spain. Faber actually became one of its progenitors in the country. Faber associated Christianity with Romanticism and maintained that the movement had already occurred in medieval Spain and that Neo-Classicism constituted an interruption to the true indigenous Spanish cultural tradition. He would also eventually publish essays about Lope de Vega as well as Calderón de la Barca and a collection of romances and popular poetry.

Karl Schlegel

Karl Schlegel may refer to:

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), German poet, critic and scholar

Karl Schlegel (aviator) (1893–1918), German World War I flying ace

Ludwig Achim von Arnim

Carl Joachim Friedrich Ludwig von Arnim (26 January 1781 – 21 January 1831), better known as Achim von Arnim, was a German poet, novelist, and together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism.


Novalis (; German: [noˈvaːlɪs]) was the pseudonym and pen name of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (2 May 1772 – 25 March 1801), a poet, author, mystic, and philosopher of Early German Romanticism. Hardenberg's professional work and university background, namely his study of mineralogy and management of salt mines in Saxony, was often ignored by his contemporary readers. The first studies showing important relations between his literary and professional works started in the 1960s.

On Naïve and Sentimental Poetry

On Naïve and Sentimental Poetry (Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtung) is a 1795–6 paper by Friedrich Schiller on poetic theory and the different types of poetic relationship to the world. The work divides poetry into two forms. Naïve poetry is poetry of direct description while sentimental poetry is self-reflective. While naïve presents a straight narrative or description, sentimental poetry is built around the author's reflections and relationship to the material.Schiller classifies all poets as either naïve or sentimental. Almost all Classical Greek poets wrote in the naïve mode, with the exception of Euripides. The modern poetry of Schiller's era tended to the sentimental, but figures such as Shakespeare and Goethe were mainly naïve poets to Schiller. This classification of poetry differed from that of Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, who saw poetry as firmly divided by era.

Rhine romanticism

The Rhine romanticism was the interpretation of the landscape conditions and history of the Rhine Valley in the cultural-historical period of the romanticism, by the end of the 18th century until the late 19th century and was continued in all forms of art expression.


Schlegel is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Catharina von Schlegel (1697 - after 1768), German hymn writer

Johann Elias Schlegel (1719–1749), German critic and dramatic poet, brother of Johann Adolf

Johann Adolf Schlegel (1721–1793), German poet and clergyman, father of August Wilhelm and Friedrich

Dorothea von Schlegel (1764–1839), German novelist and translator, wife of Friedrich Schlegel

August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845), German poet, older brother of Friedrich

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), German poet and philosopher, younger brother of August Wilhelm

Hermann Schlegel (1804–1884), German ornithologist and herpetologist

Johan Frederik Schlegel (1817–1896), Danish civil servant & Governor-General of the Danish West Indies

Gustaaf Schlegel (1840–1903), Dutch sinologist and field naturalist

Victor Schlegel (1843–1905), German mathematician

Karl Schlegel (aviator) (1893–1918), German World War I flying ace

Frits Schlegel (1896-1965), Danish architect

Margarete Schlegel (1899–1987), German actress

Helmut Schlegel (born 1943), German Franciscan, priest, author, meditation instructor, songwriter

John P. Schlegel (born 1943), President of Creighton University and Jesuit

Richard Schlegel, American scientist and professor, chair of the department of pathology at Georgetown University

Hans Schlegel (born 1951), German astronaut

Norbert Schlegel (born 1961), German former footballer and coach

Elfi Schlegel (born 1964), former Canadian gymnast and sportscaster for NBC Sports

Brad Schlegel (born 1968), Canadian ice hockey player

Lynda Schlegel-Culver, Republican politician from the U.S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Anthony Schlegel (born 1981), former American football linebacker

Carmela Schlegel (born 1983), retired Swiss swimmer

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