Freshwater snail

Freshwater snails are gastropod mollusks which live in freshwater. There are many different families. They are found throughout the world in various habitats, ranging from ephemeral pools to the largest lakes, and from small seeps and springs to major rivers. The great majority of freshwater gastropods have a shell, with very few exceptions. Some groups of snails that live in freshwater respire using gills, whereas other groups need to reach the surface to breathe air. In addition, some are amphibious and have both gills and a lung (e.g. Ampullariidae). Most feed on algae, but many are detritivors and some are filter feeders.

According to a 2008 review of the taxonomy, there are about 4,000 species of freshwater gastropods (3,795-3,972).[1]

At least 33–38 independent lineages of gastropods have successfully colonized freshwater environments.[2] It is not possible to quantify the exact number of these lineages yet, because they have yet to be clarified within the Cerithioidea.[2] From six to eight of these independent lineages occur in North America.[3]

Bithynia tentaculata
Bithynia tentaculata, a small freshwater gastropod in the family Bithyniidae
Pomacea insularum 2
Pomacea insularum, an apple snail
Planorbella trivolvis
Planorbella trivolvis, an air-breathing ramshorn snail

Taxonomy

2005 taxonomy

The following cladogram is an overview of the main clades of gastropods based on the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005),[4] with families that contain freshwater species marked in boldface:[1] (Some of the highlighted families consist entirely of freshwater species, but some of them also contain, or even mainly consist of, marine species.)

† Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position

† Basal taxa that are certainly Gastropoda

Patellogastropoda

Vetigastropoda

Cocculiniformia

Neritimorpha

† Paleozoic Neritimorpha of uncertain systematic position

Cyrtoneritimorpha

Cycloneritimorpha: Neritiliidae and Neritidae

 Caenogastropoda 

Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic position

Architaenioglossa: Ampullariidae and Viviparidae

Sorbeoconcha: Melanopsidae, Pachychilidae, Paludomidae, Pleuroceridae, Semisulcospiridae and Thiaridae

 Hypsogastropoda 

Littorinimorpha: Littorinidae, Amnicolidae, Assimineidae, Bithyniidae, Cochliopidae, Helicostoidae, Hydrobiidae, Lithoglyphidae, Moitessieriidae, Pomatiopsidae and Stenothyridae

Ptenoglossa

Neogastropoda: Nassariidae and Marginellidae

Heterobranchia

Lower Heterobranchia: Glacidorbidae and Valvatidae

 Opisthobranchia 

Cephalaspidea

Thecosomata

Gymnosomata

Aplysiomorpha

Acochlidiacea: Acochlidiidae, Tantulidae and Strubelliidae

Sacoglossa

Cylindrobullida

Umbraculida

Nudipleura

Pulmonata

Basommatophora: Chilinidae, Latiidae, Acroloxidae, Lymnaeidae. Planorbidae and Physidae - all these six families together form the clade Hygrophila

Eupulmonata

2010 taxonomy

The following cladogram is an overview of the main clades of gastropods based on the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005),[4] modified after Jörger et al. (2010)[5] and simplified with families that contain freshwater species marked in boldface:[1] (Marine gastropods (Siphonarioidea, Sacoglossa, Amphiboloidea, Pyramidelloidea) are not depicted within Panpulmonata for simplification. Some of these highlighted families consist entirely of freshwater species, but some of them also contain, or even mainly consist of, marine species.)

† Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position

† Basal taxa that are certainly Gastropoda

Patellogastropoda

Vetigastropoda

Cocculiniformia

Neritimorpha

† Paleozoic Neritimorpha of uncertain systematic position

Cyrtoneritimorpha

Cycloneritimorpha: Neritiliidae and Neritidae

 Caenogastropoda 

Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic position

Architaenioglossa: Ampullariidae and Viviparidae

Sorbeoconcha: Melanopsidae, Pachychilidae, Paludomidae, Pleuroceridae, Semisulcospiridae and Thiaridae

 Hypsogastropoda 

Littorinimorpha: Littorinidae, Amnicolidae, Assimineidae, Bithyniidae, Cochliopidae, Helicostoidae, Hydrobiidae, Lithoglyphidae, Moitessieriidae, Pomatiopsidae and Stenothyridae

Ptenoglossa

Neogastropoda: Nassariidae and Marginellidae

Heterobranchia

Lower Heterobranchia: Valvatidae

 Euthyneura 

Nudipleura

Euopisthobranchia

Panpulmonata

Glacidorboidea with the only family Glacidorbidae

Hygrophila: Chilinidae, Latiidae, Acroloxidae, Lymnaeidae. Planorbidae and Physidae

Acochlidiacea: Acochlidiidae, Tantulidae and Strubelliidae

Eupulmonata

Neritimorpha

The Neritimorpha are a group of primitive "prosobranch" gilled snails which have a shelly operculum.

  • Neritiliidae, 5 extant freshwater species[1]
  • Neritidae, largely confined to the tropics, also the rivers of Europe, family includes the marine "nerites".[6] There are about 110 extant freshwater species.[1]
Theodoxus fluviatilis

Family Neritidae, shells of Theodoxus fluviatilis.

Caenogastropoda

The Caenogastropoda are a large group of gilled operculate snails, which are largely marine. In freshwater habitats there are ten major families of caenogastropods, as well as several other families of lesser importance:

Architaenioglossa
  • Ampullariidae, an exclusively freshwater family that is largely tropical and includes the large "apple snails" kept in aquaria.[6] 105-170 species.[1]
  • Viviparidae, medium to large snails, live-bearing, commonly referred to as "mystery snails". Worldwide except South America, and everywhere confined to fresh waters.[6] 125-150 species.[1]
Sorbeoconcha
  • Melanopsidae, family native to rivers draining to the Mediterranean, also Middle East, and some South Pacific islands.[6] About 25-50 species.[1]
  • Pachychilidae - 165-225 species.[1] native to South and Central America. Formerly included with the Pleuroceridae by many authors.
  • Paludomidae - about 100 species in south Asia, diverse in African Lakes, and Sri Lanka.[1] Formerly classified with the Pleuroceridae by some authors.
  • Pleuroceridae, abundant and diverse in eastern North America, largely high-spired snails of small to large size.[6] About 150 species.[2]
  • Semisulcospiridae, - primarily eastern Asia, Japan, also the Juga snails of northwestern North America. Formerly included with the Pleuroceridae. About 50 species.[2]
  • Thiaridae, high-spired parthenogenic snails of the tropics, includes those referred to as "trumpet snails" in aquaria.[6] About 110 species.[2]
Littorinimorpha
Sadleriana fluminensis2 A MRKVICKA

Family Hydrobiidae, Sadleriana fluminensis

Neogastropoda
  • Nassariidae - 8-10 freshwater species in the genus Anentome and Clea,[1] native to Southeast Asia. Other Nassariidae are marine.
  • Marginellidae - 2 freshwater species in the genus Rivomarginella,[1] native to Southeast Asia. Other Marginellidae are marine.

Heterobranchia

Acochlidium fijiiensis
Acochlidium fijiiensis is one of very few freshwater gastropods without a shell.
Lower Heterobranchia
Acochlidiacea
Pulmonata, Basommatophora

Basommatophorans are pulmonate or air-breathing aquatic snails, characterized by having their eyes located at the base of their tentacles, rather than at the tips, as in the true land snails Stylommatophora. The majority of basommatophorans have shells that are thin, translucent, and relatively colorless, and all five freshwater basommatophoran families lack an operculum.

  • Chilinidae, small to medium-sized snails confined to temperate and cold South America.[6] About 15 species.[1]
  • Latiidae, small limpet-like snails confined to New Zealand.[6] One[1] or three species.
  • Acroloxidae - about 40 species.[1]
  • Lymnaeidae, found worldwide, but are most numerous in temperate and northern regions.[6] These are the dextral (right-handed) pond snails. About 100 species.
  • Planorbidae, "rams horn" snails, with a worldwide distribution.[6] About 250 species.[1]
  • Physidae, left-handed (sinistral) "pouch snails", native to Europe, Asia, North America.[6] About 80 species.[1]

As human food

Several different freshwater snail species are eaten in Asian cuisine.

Archaeological investigations in Guatemala have revealed that the diet of the Maya of the Classic Period (AD 250-900) included freshwater snails.[9]

Khmerfood3

A dish of cooked freshwater snails, ampullariids and viviparids from Poipet, Cambodia

Gugli chorchori 2017-01-22 122613

A Bengali dish of stir-fried freshwater snails with onion and garlic paste and other spices, from Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Aquarium snails

In the developed world, people encounter freshwater snails most commonly in aquaria along with tropical fish. Species available vary in different parts of the world. In the United States, commonly available species include ramshorn snails such as Planorbella duryi, apple snails such as Pomacea bridgesii, the high-spired thiarid Malaysian trumpet snail, Melanoides tuberculata, and several Neritina species.

Parasitology

Opisthorchis LifeCycle
Life cycle of two liver fluke species which have freshwater snails as intermediate hosts

Freshwater snails are widely known to be hosts in the lifecycles of a variety of human and animal parasites, particularly trematodes or "flukes". Some of these relations for prosobranch snails include Oncomelania in the family Pomatiopsidae as hosts of Schistosoma, and Bithynia, Parafossarulus and Amnicola as hosts of Opisthorchis.[10] Thiara and Semisulcospira may host Paragonimus.[10] Juga plicifera may host Nanophyetus salmincola.[11] Basommatophoran snails are even more widely infected, with many Biomphalaria (Planorbidae) serving as hosts for Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciolopsis and other parasitic groups.[10] The tiny Bulinus snails are hosts for Schistosoma haematobium.[10] Lymnaeid snails (Lymnaeidae) serve as hosts for Fasciola and the cerceriae causing swimmer's itch.[10] The term “neglected tropical diseases” applies to all snail-borne infections, including schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, fasciolopsiasis, paragonimiasis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis, and angiostrongyliasis.[12]

See also

References

This article incorporates CC-BY-2.5 text from the reference[12]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Strong E. E., Gargominy O., Ponder W. F. & Bouchet P. (2008). "Global Diversity of Gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in Freshwater". Hydrobiologia 595: 149-166. hdl.handle.net doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9012-6.
  2. ^ a b c d e Strong E. E., Colgan D. J., Healy J. M., Lydeard C., Ponder W. F. & Glaubrecht M. (2011). "Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 43-89. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00670.x.
  3. ^ Dillon R. T. (2006). Chapter 21. Freshwater Gastropoda. pages 251-259. In: Sturm C. F., Pearce T. A. & Valdés A. (eds.) (2006). The Mollusks: A Guide to Their Study, Collection, and Preservation. American Malacological Society, 445 pp. ISBN 978-1-58112-930-4.
  4. ^ a b Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1–2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
  5. ^ Jörger K. M., Stöger I., Kano Y., Fukuda H., Knebelsberger T. & Schrödl M. (2010). "On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 323. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-323.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Banarescu P. (1990). Zoogeography of Fresh Waters, Vol. 1, General Distribution and Dispersal of Freshwater Animals. AULA - Verlag, Weisbaden.
  7. ^ Reid D. G., Aravind N. A., & Madhyastha N. A. (2013). "A unique radiation of marine littorinid snails in the freshwater streams of the Western Ghats of India: the genus Cremnoconchus W.T. Blanford, 1869 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 167(1): 93-135. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00875.x.
  8. ^ Schrödl M. & Neusser T. P. (2010). "Towards a phylogeny and evolution of Acochlidia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 124-154. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00544.x.
  9. ^ Foias A. E. (2000). "Entre la política y economía: Resultados preliminares de las primeras temporadas del Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José" (PDF). XIII Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 1999 (edited by J.P. Laporte, H. Escobedo, B. Arroyo and A.C. De Suasnávar) (in Spanish): 771–799. Archived from the original (PDF online publication) on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-01., page 777.
  10. ^ a b c d e Chandler A. C. & Read C P. (1961). Introduction to Parasitology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 822 pp.
  11. ^ Adams A. M. (2006). Foodborne trematodes. In: Ortega I. R. (ed.) (2006). Foodborne parasites. ISBN 0-387-30068-6. page 178.
  12. ^ a b Adema C. M., Bayne C. J., Bridger J. M., Knight M., Loker E. S., Yoshino T. P. & Zhang S.-M. (2012). "Will All Scientists Working on Snails and the Diseases They Transmit Please Stand Up?". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6(12): e1835. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001835.

Further reading

Bulinus forskalii

Bulinus forskalii is a species of tropical freshwater snail with a sinistral shell, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ramshorn snails and their allies.

Burgh Common and Muckfleet Marshes

Burgh Common and Muckfleet Marshes is a 121.5-hectare (300-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south of Fleggburgh in Norfolk. It is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, and The Broads Special Area of Conservation.The Muck Fleet, a tributary of the River Bure, runs through this wetland site, which is traditionally managed by grazing and mowing. Habitats include tall fen, fen meadows and drainage dykes. There are rare plants and invertebrates, such as the swallowtail butterfly and the freshwater snail Anisus vorticulus.The site is private land but a public footpath goes through it.

Ctenidium (mollusc)

A ctenidium is a respiratory organ or gill which is found in many mollusks. This structure exists in bivalves, cephalopods, Polyplacophorans (chitons), and in aquatic gastropods such as freshwater snail and marine snails. Some aquatic gastropods possess one ctenidium known as monopectinate and others have a pair of ctenidia known as bipectinate.

A ctenidium is shaped like a comb or a feather, with a central part from which many filaments or plate-like structures protrude, lined up in a row. It hangs into the mantle cavity and increases the area available for gas exchange. The word is Latinized but is derived from the Greek ktenidion which means "little comb", being a diminutive of the word kteis meaning comb.

Fluvidona anodonta

Fluvidona anodonta (North Pine River freshwater snail) is a species of minute freshwater snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Hydrobiidae.

This species is endemic to Australia. It is only known from the upper South Pine River at Mount Glorious, Queensland.The North Pine River freshwater snail has a height of 2mm (= lower margin of aperture to tip of spire) and its tiny shell is of a light yellowish-white colour.

Franz Hermann Troschel

Franz Hermann Troschel (10 October 1810 – 6 November 1882) was a German zoologist born in Spandau.

He studied mathematics and natural history at the University of Berlin, and beginning in 1840 was an assistant to Martin Lichtenstein (1780–1857) at the Natural History Museum of Berlin. In 1849 he became a professor of zoology and natural history at the University of Bonn. In 1851 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences Leopoldina.Troschel is remembered for the identification and classification of species in the fields of malacology, ichthyology and herpetology. A few of the species that contain his name are Troschel's sea star (Evasterias troschelii), Troschel's parrotfish (Chlorurus troschelii), Troschel's murex (Murex troschelii) and the freshwater snail Bithynia troschelii.

Gyraulus crista

Gyraulus crista, commonly called the Nautilus ramshorn, is a minute species of freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails.

Gyraulus laevis

Gyraulus laevis is a small species of freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails.

Hall Farm Fen, Hemsby

Hall Farm Fen, Hemsby is a 9.2-hectare (23-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest west of Hemsby in Norfolk. It is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, and The Broads Special Area of Conservation.This area of unimproved fen grassland and dykes is grazed by horses and cattle. It has diverse flora, including many orchids. The dykes have well developed aquatic plants and a rich variety of invertebrates, including the nationally rare freshwater snail Segmentina nitida.There is public access from a footpath through the site.

Helicostoa

Helicostoa is a monotypic genus of freshwater snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusc in the clade Littorinimorpha containing the single species Helicostoa sinensis. Helicostoa is also the only genus in the family Helicostoidae. According to taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) the family Helicostoidae has no subfamilies.

Helicostoa sinensis is tentatively placed within superfamily Rissooidea. Previously it was in the superfamily Vermetoidea.Helicostoa sinensis is only found in China, more specifically in the Yangtze River.This freshwater snail lives attached or bonded to blocks of limestone.

List of freshwater aquarium invertebrate species

This is a list of invertebrates, animals without a backbone, that are commonly kept in freshwater aquaria by hobby aquarists. Numerous shrimp species of various kinds, crayfish, a number of freshwater snail species, and at least one freshwater clam species are found in freshwater aquaria.

Luosi zhuan

Luosi zhuan (simplified Chinese: 螺蛳转; traditional Chinese: 螺螄轉; pinyin: luósīzhuǎn; literally: 'freshwater snail roll') is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine.

Melanoides

Melanoides is a genus of freshwater snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Thiaridae.

Mercuria confusa

Mercuria confusa, common name the '"swollen spire snail", is a northern European species of small brackish water or freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Hydrobiidae.

This species only tolerates very low salinities, and is perhaps better characterized as a freshwater snail.

Moria

Moria may refer to:

Moria (Middle-earth), a location in author J. R. R. Tolkien's high fantasy book, The Lord of the Rings

Moria (political party), a defunct political party in Israel

Moria, a village about 8 kilometres (5 mi) northeast of Mytilene on the island of Lesbos, Greece

Moria (tree), a type of public olive tree in ancient Greece

Moria (nymph), a Naiad mentioned in Dionysiaca by Nonnus

Moria (video game), a 1983 roguelike computer game

Moria (PLATO), a multiplayer graphical dungeon crawl written for the PLATO system

Moria, Limpopo, a town in South Africa

Moria, a genus of freshwater snail in the family Amnicolidae

Moria, the Byzantine term for the intervals of the 72 equal temperament music scale

Witzelsucht, a set of rare neurological linguistic symptoms, previously more broadly known as Moria

Physella acuta

Physella acuta is a species of small, left-handed or sinistral, air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Physidae. Common names include European physa, tadpole snail, bladder snail, and acute bladder snail. In addition, Physa acuta, Physa heterostropha (Say, 1817) and Physa integra (Haldeman, 1841) are synonyms of Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805).

Planorbella duryi

Planorbella duryi, common name the Seminole rams-horn, is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, a pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails.

Schistosoma intercalatum

Schistosoma intercalatum is a parasitic worm found in parts of western and central Africa. There are two strains: the Lower Guinea strain and the Zaire strain. S. intercalatum is one of the major agents of the rectal form of schistosomiasis, also called bilharzia. It is a trematode, and being part of the genus Schistosoma, it is commonly referred to as a blood-fluke since the adult resides in blood vessels.

Humans are the definitive host and two species of freshwater snail make up the intermediate host, Bulinus forskalii for the Lower Guinea strain and Bulinus africanus for the Zaire strain.

Schistosoma mekongi

Schistosoma mekongi is a species of trematodes, also known as flukes. It is one of the five major schistosomes that account for all human infections, the other four being S. haematobium, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. intercalatum. This trematode causes schistosomiasis in humans.

Freshwater snail Neotricula aperta serves as an intermediate host for Schistosoma mekongi.

Upton Broad and Marshes

Upton Broad and Marshes is a 195.4-hectare (483-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Norwich in Norfolk. It is a Nature Conservation Review site, Grade I and a larger area of 318-hectare (790-acre) is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust. It is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, and The Broads Special Area of Conservation.This is described by Natural England as "an outstanding example of unreclaimed wetland and grazing marsh". Its rich invertebrate fauna includes eighteen species of freshwater snail, and an outstanding variety of dragonflies and damselflies, including the nationally rare Norfolk hawker.The site is open to the public.

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