Freshwater snails are gastropod mollusks which live in freshwater. There are many different families. They are found throughout the world in various habitats, ranging from ephemeral pools to the largest lakes, and from small seeps and springs to major rivers. The great majority of freshwater gastropods have a shell, with very few exceptions. Some groups of snails that live in freshwater respire using gills, whereas other groups need to reach the surface to breathe air. In addition, some are amphibious and have both gills and a lung (e.g. Ampullariidae). Most feed on algae, but many are detritivors and some are filter feeders.
At least 33–38 independent lineages of gastropods have successfully colonized freshwater environments. It is not possible to quantify the exact number of these lineages yet, because they have yet to be clarified within the Cerithioidea. From six to eight of these independent lineages occur in North America.
The following cladogram is an overview of the main clades of gastropods based on the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005), with families that contain freshwater species marked in boldface: (Some of the highlighted families consist entirely of freshwater species, but some of them also contain, or even mainly consist of, marine species.)
The following cladogram is an overview of the main clades of gastropods based on the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005), modified after Jörger et al. (2010) and simplified with families that contain freshwater species marked in boldface: (Marine gastropods (Siphonarioidea, Sacoglossa, Amphiboloidea, Pyramidelloidea) are not depicted within Panpulmonata for simplification. Some of these highlighted families consist entirely of freshwater species, but some of them also contain, or even mainly consist of, marine species.)
The Caenogastropoda are a large group of gilled operculate snails, which are largely marine. In freshwater habitats there are ten major families of caenogastropods, as well as several other families of lesser importance:
Basommatophorans are pulmonate or air-breathing aquatic snails, characterized by having their eyes located at the base of their tentacles, rather than at the tips, as in the true land snails Stylommatophora. The majority of basommatophorans have shells that are thin, translucent, and relatively colorless, and all five freshwater basommatophoran families lack an operculum.
Several different freshwater snail species are eaten in Asian cuisine.
In the developed world, people encounter freshwater snails most commonly in aquaria along with tropical fish. Species available vary in different parts of the world. In the United States, commonly available species include ramshorn snails such as Planorbella duryi, apple snails such as Pomacea bridgesii, the high-spired thiarid Malaysian trumpet snail, Melanoides tuberculata, and several Neritina species.
Freshwater snails are widely known to be hosts in the lifecycles of a variety of human and animal parasites, particularly trematodes or "flukes". Some of these relations for prosobranch snails include Oncomelania in the family Pomatiopsidae as hosts of Schistosoma, and Bithynia, Parafossarulus and Amnicola as hosts of Opisthorchis. Thiara and Semisulcospira may host Paragonimus. Juga plicifera may host Nanophyetus salmincola. Basommatophoran snails are even more widely infected, with many Biomphalaria (Planorbidae) serving as hosts for Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciolopsis and other parasitic groups. The tiny Bulinus snails are hosts for Schistosoma haematobium. Lymnaeid snails (Lymnaeidae) serve as hosts for Fasciola and the cerceriae causing swimmer's itch. The term “neglected tropical diseases” applies to all snail-borne infections, including schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, fasciolopsiasis, paragonimiasis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis, and angiostrongyliasis.
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Bulinus forskalii is a species of tropical freshwater snail with a sinistral shell, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ramshorn snails and their allies.Burgh Common and Muckfleet Marshes
Burgh Common and Muckfleet Marshes is a 121.5-hectare (300-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south of Fleggburgh in Norfolk. It is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, and The Broads Special Area of Conservation.The Muck Fleet, a tributary of the River Bure, runs through this wetland site, which is traditionally managed by grazing and mowing. Habitats include tall fen, fen meadows and drainage dykes. There are rare plants and invertebrates, such as the swallowtail butterfly and the freshwater snail Anisus vorticulus.The site is private land but a public footpath goes through it.Ctenidium (mollusc)
A ctenidium is a respiratory organ or gill which is found in many mollusks. This structure exists in bivalves, cephalopods, Polyplacophorans (chitons), and in aquatic gastropods such as freshwater snail and marine snails. Some aquatic gastropods possess one ctenidium known as monopectinate and others have a pair of ctenidia known as bipectinate.
A ctenidium is shaped like a comb or a feather, with a central part from which many filaments or plate-like structures protrude, lined up in a row. It hangs into the mantle cavity and increases the area available for gas exchange. The word is Latinized but is derived from the Greek ktenidion which means "little comb", being a diminutive of the word kteis meaning comb.Fluvidona anodonta
Fluvidona anodonta (North Pine River freshwater snail) is a species of minute freshwater snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Hydrobiidae.
This species is endemic to Australia. It is only known from the upper South Pine River at Mount Glorious, Queensland.The North Pine River freshwater snail has a height of 2mm (= lower margin of aperture to tip of spire) and its tiny shell is of a light yellowish-white colour.Franz Hermann Troschel
Franz Hermann Troschel (10 October 1810 – 6 November 1882) was a German zoologist born in Spandau.
He studied mathematics and natural history at the University of Berlin, and beginning in 1840 was an assistant to Martin Lichtenstein (1780–1857) at the Natural History Museum of Berlin. In 1849 he became a professor of zoology and natural history at the University of Bonn. In 1851 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences Leopoldina.Troschel is remembered for the identification and classification of species in the fields of malacology, ichthyology and herpetology. A few of the species that contain his name are Troschel's sea star (Evasterias troschelii), Troschel's parrotfish (Chlorurus troschelii), Troschel's murex (Murex troschelii) and the freshwater snail Bithynia troschelii.Gyraulus crista
Gyraulus crista, commonly called the Nautilus ramshorn, is a minute species of freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails.Gyraulus laevis
Gyraulus laevis is a small species of freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails.Hall Farm Fen, Hemsby
Hall Farm Fen, Hemsby is a 9.2-hectare (23-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest west of Hemsby in Norfolk. It is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, and The Broads Special Area of Conservation.This area of unimproved fen grassland and dykes is grazed by horses and cattle. It has diverse flora, including many orchids. The dykes have well developed aquatic plants and a rich variety of invertebrates, including the nationally rare freshwater snail Segmentina nitida.There is public access from a footpath through the site.Helicostoa
Helicostoa is a monotypic genus of freshwater snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusc in the clade Littorinimorpha containing the single species Helicostoa sinensis. Helicostoa is also the only genus in the family Helicostoidae. According to taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) the family Helicostoidae has no subfamilies.
Helicostoa sinensis is tentatively placed within superfamily Rissooidea. Previously it was in the superfamily Vermetoidea.Helicostoa sinensis is only found in China, more specifically in the Yangtze River.This freshwater snail lives attached or bonded to blocks of limestone.List of freshwater aquarium invertebrate species
This is a list of invertebrates, animals without a backbone, that are commonly kept in freshwater aquaria by hobby aquarists. Numerous shrimp species of various kinds, crayfish, a number of freshwater snail species, and at least one freshwater clam species are found in freshwater aquaria.Luosi zhuan
Luosi zhuan (simplified Chinese: 螺蛳转; traditional Chinese: 螺螄轉; pinyin: luósīzhuǎn; literally: 'freshwater snail roll') is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine.Melanoides
Melanoides is a genus of freshwater snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Thiaridae.Mercuria confusa
Mercuria confusa, common name the '"swollen spire snail", is a northern European species of small brackish water or freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Hydrobiidae.
This species only tolerates very low salinities, and is perhaps better characterized as a freshwater snail.Moria
Moria may refer to:
Moria (Middle-earth), a location in author J. R. R. Tolkien's high fantasy book, The Lord of the Rings
Moria (political party), a defunct political party in Israel
Moria, a village about 8 kilometres (5 mi) northeast of Mytilene on the island of Lesbos, Greece
Moria (tree), a type of public olive tree in ancient Greece
Moria (nymph), a Naiad mentioned in Dionysiaca by Nonnus
Moria (video game), a 1983 roguelike computer game
Moria (PLATO), a multiplayer graphical dungeon crawl written for the PLATO system
Moria, Limpopo, a town in South Africa
Moria, a genus of freshwater snail in the family Amnicolidae
Moria, the Byzantine term for the intervals of the 72 equal temperament music scale
Witzelsucht, a set of rare neurological linguistic symptoms, previously more broadly known as MoriaPhysella acuta
Physella acuta is a species of small, left-handed or sinistral, air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Physidae. Common names include European physa, tadpole snail, bladder snail, and acute bladder snail. In addition, Physa acuta, Physa heterostropha (Say, 1817) and Physa integra (Haldeman, 1841) are synonyms of Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805).Planorbella duryi
Planorbella duryi, common name the Seminole rams-horn, is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, a pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails.Schistosoma intercalatum
Schistosoma intercalatum is a parasitic worm found in parts of western and central Africa. There are two strains: the Lower Guinea strain and the Zaire strain. S. intercalatum is one of the major agents of the rectal form of schistosomiasis, also called bilharzia. It is a trematode, and being part of the genus Schistosoma, it is commonly referred to as a blood-fluke since the adult resides in blood vessels.
Humans are the definitive host and two species of freshwater snail make up the intermediate host, Bulinus forskalii for the Lower Guinea strain and Bulinus africanus for the Zaire strain.Schistosoma mekongi
Schistosoma mekongi is a species of trematodes, also known as flukes. It is one of the five major schistosomes that account for all human infections, the other four being S. haematobium, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. intercalatum. This trematode causes schistosomiasis in humans.
Freshwater snail Neotricula aperta serves as an intermediate host for Schistosoma mekongi.Upton Broad and Marshes
Upton Broad and Marshes is a 195.4-hectare (483-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Norwich in Norfolk. It is a Nature Conservation Review site, Grade I and a larger area of 318-hectare (790-acre) is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust. It is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, and The Broads Special Area of Conservation.This is described by Natural England as "an outstanding example of unreclaimed wetland and grazing marsh". Its rich invertebrate fauna includes eighteen species of freshwater snail, and an outstanding variety of dragonflies and damselflies, including the nationally rare Norfolk hawker.The site is open to the public.