Fresh water

Rivers, lakes, and marshlands, such as (from top) South America's Amazon River, Russia's Lake Baikal, and the Everglades in Florida of the United States, are types of freshwater systems.

Amazonas, Iquitos - Leticia, Kolumbien (11472506936)
Baikal lakuaren M-ko muturra
Transition from Sawgrass to Coastal Habitat, NPSPhoto (9250299462)

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water. Fresh water includes water in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and even underground water called groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. Though the term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water, it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs.

Fresh water is not the same as potable water (or drinking water). Much of the earth's fresh water (on the surface and groundwater) is unsuitable for drinking without some treatment. Fresh water can easily become polluted by human activities or due to naturally occurring processes, such as erosion.

Water is critical to the survival of all living organisms. Some organisms can thrive on salt water, but the great majority of higher plants and most mammals need fresh water to live.


Numerical definition

Fresh water can be defined as water with less than 500 parts per million (ppm) of dissolved salts.[1]

Other sources give higher upper salinity limits for fresh water, e.g. 1000 ppm[2] or 3000 ppm.[3]


The Earth seen from Apollo 17
Earth seen from Apollo 17. The Antarctic ice sheet at the bottom of the photograph contains 61% of the fresh water, or 1.7% of the total water, on Earth.
Earth water distribution
Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1000 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1 trillion tonnes (200000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 5 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest man-made object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.[4]
Fresh water fountain
Water fountain found in a small Swiss village. They are used as a drinking water source for people and cattle. Almost every Alpine village has such a water source.

Fresh water habitats are classified as either lentic systems, which are the still-waters including ponds, lakes, swamps and mires ; lotic which are running-water systems; or groundwaters which flow in rocks and aquifers. There is, in addition, a zone which bridges between groundwater and lotic systems, which is the hyporheic zone, which underlies many larger rivers and can contain substantially more water than is seen in the open channel. It may also be in direct contact with the underlying underground water.

The majority of fresh water on Earth is in ice caps.


The source of almost all fresh water is precipitation from the atmosphere, in the form of mist, rain and snow. Fresh water falling as mist, rain or snow contains materials dissolved from the atmosphere and material from the sea and land over which the rain bearing clouds have traveled. In industrialized areas rain is typically acidic because of dissolved oxides of sulfur and nitrogen formed from burning of fossil fuels in cars, factories, trains and aircraft and from the atmospheric emissions of industry. In some cases this acid rain results in pollution of lakes and rivers.

In coastal areas fresh water may contain significant concentrations of salts derived from the sea if windy conditions have lifted drops of seawater into the rain-bearing clouds. This can give rise to elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, magnesium and sulfate as well as many other compounds in smaller concentrations.

In desert areas, or areas with impoverished or dusty soils, rain-bearing winds can pick up sand and dust and this can be deposited elsewhere in precipitation and causing the freshwater flow to be measurably contaminated both by insoluble solids but also by the soluble components of those soils. Significant quantities of iron may be transported in this way including the well-documented transfer of iron-rich rainfall falling in Brazil derived from sand-storms in the Sahara in north Africa.

Water distribution

Out of all the water on Earth, saline water in oceans, seas and saline groundwater make up about 97% of it. Only 2.5–2.75% is fresh water, including 1.75–2% frozen in glaciers, ice and snow, 0.5–0.75% as fresh groundwater and soil moisture, and less than 0.01% of it as surface water in lakes, swamps and rivers.[5][6] Freshwater lakes contain about 87% of this fresh surface water, including 29% in the African Great Lakes, 22% in Lake Baikal in Russia, 21% in the North American Great Lakes, and 14% in other lakes. Swamps have most of the balance with only a small amount in rivers, most notably the Amazon River. The atmosphere contains 0.04% water.[7] In areas with no fresh water on the ground surface, fresh water derived from precipitation may, because of its lower density, overlie saline ground water in lenses or layers. Most of the world's fresh water is frozen in ice sheets. Many areas suffer from lack of distribution of fresh water, such as deserts.

Aquatic organisms

Water is a critical issue for the survival of all living organisms. Some can use salt water but many organisms including the great majority of higher plants and most mammals must have access to fresh water to live. Some terrestrial mammals, especially desert rodents, appear to survive without drinking, but they do generate water through the metabolism of cereal seeds, and they also have mechanisms to conserve water to the maximum degree.

Fresh water creates a hypotonic environment for aquatic organisms. This is problematic for some organisms with pervious skins or with gill membranes, whose cell membranes may burst if excess water is not excreted. Some protists accomplish this using contractile vacuoles, while freshwater fish excrete excess water via the kidney.[8] Although most aquatic organisms have a limited ability to regulate their osmotic balance and therefore can only live within a narrow range of salinity, diadromous fish have the ability to migrate between fresh water and saline water bodies. During these migrations they undergo changes to adapt to the surroundings of the changed salinities; these processes are hormonally controlled. The eel (Anguilla anguilla) uses the hormone prolactin,[9] while in salmon (Salmo salar) the hormone cortisol plays a key role during this process.[10]

Many sea birds have special glands at the base of the bill through which excess salt is excreted. Similarly the marine iguanas on the Galápagos Islands excrete excess salt through a nasal gland and they sneeze out a very salty excretion.

Freshwater molluscs include freshwater snails and freshwater bivalves. Freshwater crustaceans include freshwater crabs and crayfish.

Unfortunately freshwater biodiversity faces many threats.[11] The World Wide Fund for Nature's Living Planet Index noted an 83% decline in the populations of freshwater vertebrates between 1970 and 2014. These declines continue to outpace contemporaneous declines in marine or terrestrial systems. The causes of these declines are varied but are related to what Reid et al. call the "dirty dozen" (see The dirty dozen are:

  1. A rapidly changing climate
  2. Online wildlife trade and invasive species
  3. Infectious disease
  4. Toxic algae blooms
  5. Hydropower damming and fragmenting of half the world’s rivers
  6. Emerging contaminants, such as hormones
  7. Engineered nanomaterials
  8. Microplastic pollution
  9. Light and noise interference
  10. Saltier coastal freshwaters due to sea level rise
  11. Calcium concentrations falling below the needs of some freshwater organisms
  12. The additive — and possibly synergistic — effects of these threats


Limited resource

Fresh water is a renewable and variable, but finite natural resource. Fresh water can only be replenished through the process of the water cycle,in which water from seas, lakes, forests, land, rivers, and reservoirs evaporates, forms clouds, and returns as precipitation. Locally however, if more fresh water is consumed through human activities than is naturally restored, this may result in reduced fresh water availability from surface and underground sources and can cause serious damage to surrounding and associated environments.

Fresh and unpolluted water accounts for 0.003% of total water available globally.[12]

The increase in the world population and the increase in per capita water use puts increasing strains on the finite resources availability of clean fresh water. The World Bank adds that the response by freshwater ecosystems to a changing climate can be described in terms of three interrelated components: water quality, water quantity or volume, and water timing. A change in one often leads to shifts in the others as well.[13] Water pollution and subsequent eutrophication also reduces the availability of fresh water.[14]

Many areas of the world are already experiencing stress on water availability (or water scarcity). Due to the accelerated pace of population growth and an increase in the amount of water a single person uses, it is expected that this situation will continue to get worse. A shortage of water in the future would be detrimental to the human population as it would affect everything from sanitation, to overall health and the production of grain.[15]

Minimum streamflow

An important concern for hydrological ecosystems is securing minimum streamflow, especially preserving and restoring instream water allocations.[16] Fresh water is an important natural resource necessary for the survival of all ecosystems. The use of water by humans for activities such as irrigation and industrial applications can have adverse impacts on down-stream ecosystems.

Fresh water withdrawal is the quantity of water removed from available sources for use in any purpose, excluding evaporation losses. Water drawn off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream.

Water pollution

Pollution from human activity, including oil spills and also presents a problem for freshwater resources. The largest petroleum spill that has ever occurred in fresh water was caused by a Royal Dutch Shell tank ship in Magdalena, Argentina, on 15 January 1999, polluting the environment, drinkable water, plants and animals.[17] Chemical contamination of fresh water can also seriously damage eco-systems.

Human uses


Water used for agriculture is called agricultural water or farm water.[18] Changing landscape for the use of agriculture has a great effect on the flow of fresh water. Changes in landscape by the removal of trees and soils changes the flow of fresh water in the local environment and also affects the cycle of fresh water. As a result, more fresh water is stored in the soil which benefits agriculture. However, since agriculture is the human activity that consumes the most fresh water,[19] this can put a severe strain on local freshwater resources resulting in the destruction of local ecosystems.

In Australia, over-abstraction of fresh water for intensive irrigation activities has caused 33% of the land area to be at risk of salination.[19] With regards to agriculture, the World Bank targets food production and water management as an increasingly global issue that will foster debate.[20]


One third in the world do not have access to safe water.[21] Inappropriate use of water may contribute to this problem. The following tables provide some indicators of water use.

Table 1 Recommended basic water requirements for human needs (per person) [22]

Activity Minimum, litres / day Range / day
Drinking Water 5 2–5
Sanitation Services 20 20–75
Bathing 15 5–70
Cooking and Kitchen 10 10–50

Table 2. Water Requirements of different classes of livestock [23]

Animal Average / day Range / day
Dairy cow 76 L (20 US gal) 57 to 95 L (15 to 25 US gal)
Cow-calf pair 57 L (15 US gal) 8 to 76 L (2 to 20 US gal)
Yearling cattle 38 L (10 US gal) 23 to 53 L (6 to 14 US gal)
Horse 38 L (10 US gal) 30 to 53 L (8 to 14 US gal)
Sheep 8 L (2 US gal) 8 to 11 L (2 to 3 US gal)

Table 3 Approximate values of seasonal crop water needs [24]

Crop Crop water needs mm / total growing period
Sugar Cane 1500–2500
Banana 1200–2200
Citrus 900–1200
Potato 500–700
Tomato 400–800
Barley/Oats/Wheat 450–650
Cabbage 350–500
Onions 350–550
Pea 350–500

See also


  1. ^ "Groundwater Glossary". 27 March 2006. Archived from the original on 28 April 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  2. ^ "Freshwater". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. June 2000. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
  3. ^ "Freshwater". Fishkeeping glossary. Practical Fishkeeping. Archived from the original on 11 May 2006. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
  4. ^ USGS – Earth's water distribution Archived 29 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (11 December 2012). Retrieved on 29 December 2012.
  5. ^ Where is Earth's water? Archived 14 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, United States Geological Survey.
  6. ^ Archived 26 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 29 December 2012.
  7. ^ Gleick, Peter; et al. (1996). Stephen H. Schneider, ed. Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather. Oxford University Press.
  8. ^ "Vertebrate Kidneys". 3 November 2002. Archived from the original on 29 April 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  9. ^ Kalujnaia, S.; et al. (2007). "Salinity adaptation and gene profiling analysis in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) using microarray technology". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 152 (2007): 274–80. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2006.12.025. PMID 17324422.
  10. ^ Bisal, G.A.; Specker, J.L. (24 January 2006). "Cortisol stimulates hypo-osmoregulatory ability in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L". Journal of Fish Biology. 39 (3): 421–432. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1991.tb04373.x.
  11. ^ Reid, AJ; et al. (2019). "Emerging threats and persistent conservation challenges for freshwater biodiversity". Biological Reviews. doi:10.1111/brv.12480. PMID 30467930.
  12. ^ Nitti, Gianfranco (May 2011). "Water is not an infinite resource and the world is thirsty". The Italian Insider. Rome. p. 8.
  13. ^ The World Bank, 2009 "Water and Climate Change: Understanding the Risks and Making Climate-Smart Investment Decisions". pp. 19–22. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  14. ^ "Nutrients in fresh water"
  15. ^ "Fresh Water in the Future" Archived 30 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (17 December 2010). Retrieved on 29 December 2012.
  16. ^ Peter Gleick; Heather Cooley; David Katz (2006). The world's water, 2006–2007: the biennial report on freshwater resources. Island Press. pp. 29–31. ISBN 978-1-59726-106-7. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
  17. ^ Archived 14 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (15 January 1999). Retrieved on 29 December 2012.
  18. ^ "USDA Economic Research Service - Irrigation & Water Use". Archived from the original on 2015-11-15. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
  19. ^ a b Gordon L., D. M. (2003). "Land cover change and water vapour flows: learning from Australia". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 358 (1440): 1973–1984. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1381. JSTOR 3558315. PMC 1693281. PMID 14728792.
  20. ^ Reengaging in Agricultural Water Management: Challenges and Options, The World Bank, pp. 4–5, archived from the original on 5 January 2012, retrieved 30 October 2011
  21. ^ Water Aid. "Water". Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  22. ^ Gleick, Peter. "Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  23. ^ Filley, S. "How much does a cow need ?" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  24. ^ Natural Resource Management and Environmental Dept. "Crops Need Water". Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012.

External links


The Abzu or Apsu (Cuneiform: 𒍪 𒀊, ZU.AB; Sumerian: abzu; Akkadian: apsû, ), also called engur (Cuneiform:𒇉, LAGAB×HAL; Sumerian: engur; Akkadian: engurru - lit., ab='water' zu='deep'), was the name for fresh water from underground aquifers which was given a religious fertilising quality in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. Lakes, springs, rivers, wells, and other sources of fresh water were thought to draw their water from the abzu. In this respect, in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology it referred to the primeval sea below the void space of the underworld (Kur) and the earth (Ma) above.

African Great Lakes

The African Great Lakes (Swahili: Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift. They include Lake Victoria, the third-largest fresh water lake in the world by area, Lake Tanganyika, the world's second-largest freshwater lake by volume and depth, and Lake Malawi, the world's eight-largest fresh water lake by area. Collectively, they contain 31,000 km3 (7400 cu mi) of water, which is more than either Lake Baikal or the North American Great Lakes. This total constitutes about 25% of the planet's unfrozen surface fresh water. The large rift lakes of Africa are the ancient home of great biodiversity, and 10% of the world's fish species live there.

Countries in the African Great Lakes region (sometimes also called Greater Lakes region) include Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.The Great Lakes area, where colonial era borders cut through ethnic groups, has in the last 20 years been a crucible of conflict that has launched multiple uprisings and invasions. The United Nations, the United States, and several European countries have special envoys or representatives to the Great Lakes region.

Bull shark

The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), also known as the Zambezi shark (informally "zambi") in Africa, and Lake Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is a requiem shark commonly found worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers. The bull shark is known for its aggressive nature, and presence in warm, shallow brackish and freshwater systems including estuaries and rivers.

Bull sharks can thrive in both salt and fresh water and can travel far up rivers. They have been known to travel up the Mississippi River as far as Alton, Illinois, about 700 miles (1100 km) from the ocean. However, few freshwater human-shark interactions have been recorded. Larger-sized bull sharks are probably responsible for the majority of near-shore shark attacks, including many bites attributed to other species.Unlike the river sharks of the genus Glyphis, bull sharks are not true freshwater sharks, despite their ability to survive in freshwater habitats.

Collect Pond

The Collect Pond, or Fresh Water Pond, was a body of fresh water in what is now Chinatown, Lower Manhattan in New York City. For the first two centuries of European settlement in Manhattan, it was the main water supply for the growing city. The former pond became the site of a jail and is now a city park, Collect Pond Park, which includes a pond evocative of its former status.

Deadweight tonnage

Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load. DWT is the sum of the weights of cargo, fuel, fresh water, ballast water, provisions, passengers, and crew.DWT is often used to specify a ship's maximum permissible deadweight (i.e. when she is fully loaded so that her Plimsoll line is at water level), although it may also denote the actual DWT of a ship not loaded to capacity.


Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide.

Desalination processes are usually either driven by either thermal (e.g. distillation) or electrical (e.g., photovoltaic or wind power) as the primary energy types.

Currently, approximately 1% of the world's population is dependent on desalinated water to meet daily needs, but the UN expects that 14% of the world's population will encounter water scarcity by 2025.

Desalination is particularly relevant in dry countries such as Australia, which traditionally have relied on collecting rainfall behind dams for water.

According to the International Desalination Association, in June 2015, 18,426 desalination plants operated worldwide, producing 86.8 million cubic meters per day, providing water for 300 million people. This number increased from 78.4 million cubic meters in 2013, a 10.71% increase in 2 years. The single largest desalination project is Ras Al-Khair in Saudi Arabia, which produced 1,025,000 cubic meters per day in 2014. Kuwait produces a higher proportion of its water than any other country, totaling 100% of its water use.


An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species. The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation (largely undefined at this point).

Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa. Ecoregions reflect the best compromise for as many taxa as possible. Secondly, ecoregion boundaries rarely form abrupt edges; rather, ecotones and mosaic habitats bound them. Thirdly, most ecoregions contain habitats that differ from their assigned biome. Biogeographic provinces may originate due to various barriers. Some physical (plate tectonics, topographic highs), some climatic (latitudinal variation, seasonal range) and some ocean chemical related (salinity, oxygen levels).

Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. As indicated by the I=PAT equation, environmental impact (I) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large and increasing human population (P), continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence (A), and the application of resource-depleting and polluting technology (T).Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as "the reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs". Environmental degradation comes in many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management.


An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine influences—such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world.Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are typically classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns. They can have many different names, such as bays, harbors, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not strictly meet the above definition of an estuary and may be fully saline.

The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most heavily populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation, overgrazing, and other poor farming practices; overfishing; drainage and filling of wetlands; eutrophication due to excessive nutrients from sewage and animal wastes; pollutants including heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides and hydrocarbons from sewage inputs; and diking or damming for flood control or water diversion.

Fauna Europaea

Fauna Europaea is a database of the scientific names and distribution of all living multicellular European land and fresh-water animals. It serves as a standard taxonomic source for animal taxonomy within the Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure (PESI).Its construction was initially funded by the European Council (2000–2004). The project was co-ordinated by the University of Amsterdam which launched the first version in 2004, after which the database was transferred to the Natural History Museum Berlin in 2015.

Fish migration

Many types of fish migrate on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annually or longer, and over distances ranging from a few metres to thousands of kilometres.

Fish usually migrate to feed or to reproduce, but in other cases the reasons are unclear.

Migrations involve the fish moving from one part of a water body to another on a regular basis. Some particular types of migration are anadromous, in which adult fish live in the sea and migrate into fresh water to spawn, and catadromous, in which adult fish live in fresh water and migrate into salt water to spawn.

Marine forage fish often make large migrations between their spawning, feeding and nursery grounds. Movements are associated with ocean currents and with the availability of food in different areas at different times of year. The migratory movements may partly be linked to the fact that the fish cannot identify their own offspring and moving in this way prevents cannibalism. Some species have been described by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as highly migratory species. These are large pelagic fish that move in and out of the exclusive economic zones of different nations, and these are covered differently in the treaty from other fish.

Salmon and striped bass are well-known anadromous fish, and freshwater eels are catadromous fish that make large migrations. The bull shark is a euryhaline species that moves at will from fresh to salt water, and many marine fish make a diel vertical migration, rising to the surface to feed at night and sinking to lower layers of the ocean by day. Some fish such as tuna move to the north and south at different times of year following temperature gradients. The patterns of migration are of great interest to the fishing industry. Movements of fish in fresh water also occur; often the fish swim upriver to spawn, and these traditional movements are increasingly being disrupted by the building of dams.

Freshwater ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes and ponds, rivers, streams, springs, bogs, and wetlands. They can be contrasted with marine ecosystems, which have a larger salt content. Freshwater habitats can be classified by different factors, including temperature, light penetration, nutrients, and vegetation.

Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into lentic ecosystems (still water) and lotic ecosystems (flowing water).Limnology (and its branch freshwater biology) is a study about freshwater ecosystems. It is a part of hydrobiology.

Original attempts to understand and monitor freshwater ecosystems were spurred on by threats to human health (ex. Cholera outbreaks due to sewage contamination). Early monitoring focused on chemical indicators, then bacteria, and finally algae, fungi and protozoa. A new type of monitoring involves quantifying differing groups of organisms (macroinvertebrates, macrophytes and fish) and measuring the stream conditions associated with them.

Freshwater fish

Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, with a salinity of less than 0.05%. These environments differ from marine conditions in many ways, the most obvious being the difference in levels of salinity. To survive fresh water, the fish need a range of physiological adaptations.

41.24% of all known species of fish are found in fresh water. This is primarily due to the rapid speciation that the scattered habitats make possible. When dealing with ponds and lakes, one might use the same basic models of speciation as when studying island biogeography.

Freshwater marsh

A freshwater marsh is a marsh that contains fresh water. Freshwater marshes are usually found near the mouths of rivers and are present in areas with low drainage. It is the counterpart to the salt marsh, an upper coastal intertidal zone of bio-habitat which is regularly flushed with sea water.

Freshwater marshes are non-tidal biomes containing little or no peat (unlike bogs and fens, both a kind of mire and mires consisting heavily of moist, biologically active peat). They are most common in the Gulf Coast region, specifically in Florida. They can be one of two principal types: either fresh water mineralized marshes, which derive their water from groundwater, streams and surface runoff; or poorly mineralized fresh water marshes whose moisture comes mostly from regular direct precipitation. Freshwater marshes support an independent pH-neutral ecosystem which encourages biodiversity. Common species include ducks, geese, swans, songbirds, swallows, coots, and black ducks. Although shallow marshes do not tend to support many fish, deeper ones are home to many species, including such large fish as the northern pike and carp. Some of the most common plants in these areas are cattails, water lilies, arrowheads, and rushes.The Florida Everglades represent the largest contiguous freshwater marsh in the entire world. This immense marsh covers 4,200 square miles (11,000 km2) and is located in the southern tip of Florida. Continued human development, including drainage for development and polluted agriculture runoff, as well as alterations in the water cycle threaten the existence of the Everglades. The remaining parts of the Everglades are grasses, sedges and other emergent hydrophytes.

Hydraulic head

Hydraulic head or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a vertical datum.It is usually measured as a liquid surface elevation, expressed in units of length, at the entrance (or bottom) of a piezometer. In an aquifer, it can be calculated from the depth to water in a piezometric well (a specialized water well), and given information of the piezometer's elevation and screen depth. Hydraulic head can similarly be measured in a column of water using a standpipe piezometer by measuring the height of the water surface in the tube relative to a common datum. The hydraulic head can be used to determine a hydraulic gradient between two or more points.


The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite. Although the Earth's hydrosphere has been around for longer than 4 billion years, it continues to change in size. This is caused by seafloor spreading and continental drift, which rearranges the land and ocean.It has been estimated that there are 1,386 million cubic kilometres (333,000,000 cubic miles) of water on Earth. This includes water in liquid and frozen forms in groundwater, oceans, lakes and streams. Saltwater accounts for 97.5% of this amount, whereas fresh water accounts for only 2.5%. Of this fresh water, 68.9% is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and mountain glaciers; 30.8% is in the form of fresh groundwater; and only 0.3% of the fresh water on Earth is in easily accessible lakes, reservoirs and river systems.The total mass of the Earth's hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018 tonnes, which is about 0.023% of Earth's total mass. At any given time, about 20 × 1012 tonnes of this is in the form of water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere (for practical purposes, 1 cubic meter of water weighs one tonne). Approximately 71% of Earth's surface, an area of some 361 million square kilometers (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean. The average salinity of Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5%).

Red algae

The red algae, or Rhodophyta ( roh-DOF-it-ə, ROH-də-FY-tə; from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhodon), meaning 'rose', and φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. There are no terrestrial species, which is assumed to be traced back to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stoma) thylakoids, and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color. Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and reproduce sexually. The red algal life history is typically an alternation of generations that may have three generations rather than two.Chloroplasts evolved following an endosymbiotic event between an ancestral, photosynthetic cyanobacterium and an early eukarytoic phagotroph. This event (termed primary endosymbiosis) resulted in the origin of the red and green algae, and the glaucophytes, which make up the oldest evolutionary lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes. A secondary endosymbiosis event involving an ancestral red alga and a heterotrophic eukaryote resulted in the evolution and diversification of several other photosynthetic lineages such as Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, Stramenopiles (or Heterokontophyta), Alveolata, Centrohelids, Katablepharids, and Telonemi.The coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver (nori/gim) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar, carrageenans and other food additives.Unicellular members of the Cyanidiophyceae are thermoacidophiles and are found in sulphuric hot springs and other acidic environments. The remaining taxa are found in marine and freshwater environments. Most rhodophytes are marine with a worldwide distribution, and are often found at greater depths compared to other seaweeds because of dominance in certain pigments (i.e., phycoerythrin) within their chloroplasts. Some marine species are found on sandy shores, while most others can be found attached to rocky substrata. Freshwater species account for 5% of red algal diversity, but they also have a worldwide distribution in various habitats; they generally prefer clean, high-flow streams with clear waters and rocky bottoms, but with some exceptions. A few freshwater species are found in black waters with sandy bottoms and even fewer are found in more lentic waters. Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals. In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts.

Water resources

Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. All living things require water to grow and reproduce.

97% of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.Fresh water is a renewable resource, yet the world's supply of groundwater is steadily decreasing, with depletion occurring most prominently in Asia, South America and North America, although it is still unclear how much natural renewal balances this usage, and whether ecosystems are threatened. The framework for allocating water resources to water users (where such a framework exists) is known as water rights.


The waterline is the line where the hull of a ship meets the surface of the water. Specifically, it is also the name of a special marking, also known as an international load line, Plimsoll line and water line (positioned amidships), that indicates the draft of the ship and the legal limit to which a ship may be loaded for specific water types and temperatures in order to safely maintain buoyancy, particularly with regard to the hazard of waves that may arise. Varying water temperatures will affect a ship's draft; because warm water is less dense than cold water, providing less buoyancy. In the same way, fresh water is less dense than salinated or seawater with the same lessening effect upon buoyancy.

For vessels with displacement hulls, the hull speed is determined by, among other things, the waterline length. In a sailing boat, the waterline length can change significantly as the boat heels, and can dynamically affect the speed of the boat.

The waterline can also refer to any line on a ship's hull that is parallel to the water's surface when the ship is afloat in a normal position. Hence, all waterlines are one class of "ships lines" used to denote the shape of a hull in naval architecture plans.

In aircraft design, the term "waterline" refers to the vertical location of items on the aircraft. This is (normally) the "Z" axis of an XYZ coordinate system, the other two axes being the fuselage station (X) and buttock line (Y).


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