Frequency-division multiplexing

In telecommunications, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal. This allows a single transmission medium such as a cable or optical fiber to be shared by multiple independent signals. Another use is to carry separate serial bits or segments of a higher rate signal in parallel.

The most natural example of frequency-division multiplexing is radio and television broadcasting, in which multiple radio signals at different frequencies pass through the air at the same time. Another example is cable television, in which many television channels are carried simultaneously on a single cable. FDM is also used by telephone systems to transmit multiple telephone calls through high capacity trunklines, communications satellites to transmit multiple channels of data on uplink and downlink radio beams, and broadband DSL modems to transmit large amounts of computer data through twisted pair telephone lines, among many other uses.

An analogous technique called wavelength division multiplexing is used in fiber-optic communication, in which multiple channels of data are transmitted over a single optical fiber using different wavelengths (frequencies) of light.

How it works

Screenshot-fdm-75-random-am
The passband of an FDM channel carrying digital data, modulated by QPSK quadrature phase-shift keying.

The multiple separate information (modulation) signals that are sent over an FDM system, such as the video signals of the television channels that are sent over a cable TV system, are called baseband signals. At the source end, for each frequency channel, an electronic oscillator generates a carrier signal, a steady oscillating waveform at a single frequency that serves to "carry" information. The carrier is much higher in frequency than the baseband signal. The carrier signal and the baseband signal are combined in a modulator circuit. The modulator alters some aspect of the carrier signal, such as its amplitude, frequency, or phase, with the baseband signal, "piggybacking" the data onto the carrier.

The result of modulating (mixing) the carrier with the baseband signal is to generate sub-frequencies near the carrier frequency, at the sum (fC + fB) and difference (fCfB) of the frequencies. The information from the modulated signal is carried in sidebands on each side of the carrier frequency. Therefore, all the information carried by the channel is in a narrow band of frequencies clustered around the carrier frequency, this is called the passband of the channel.

Similarly, additional baseband signals are used to modulate carriers at other frequencies, creating other channels of information. The carriers are spaced far enough apart in frequency that the band of frequencies occupied by each channel, the passbands of the separate channels, do not overlap. All the channels are sent through the transmission medium, such as a coaxial cable, optical fiber, or through the air using a radio transmitter. As long as the channel frequencies are spaced far enough apart that none of the passbands overlap, the separate channels will not interfere with each other. Thus the available bandwidth is divided into "slots" or channels, each of which can carry a separate modulated signal.

For example, the coaxial cable used by cable television systems has a bandwidth of about 1000 MHz, but the passband of each television channel is only 6 MHz wide, so there is room for many channels on the cable (in modern digital cable systems each channel in turn is subdivided into subchannels and can carry up to 10 digital television channels).

At the destination end of the cable or fiber, or the radio receiver, for each channel a local oscillator produces a signal at the carrier frequency of that channel, that is mixed with the incoming modulated signal. The frequencies subtract, producing the baseband signal for that channel again. This is called demodulation. The resulting baseband signal is filtered out of the other frequencies and output to the user.

Telephone

For long distance telephone connections, 20th century telephone companies used L-carrier and similar coaxial cable systems carrying thousands of voice circuits multiplexed in multiple stages by channel banks.

For shorter distances, cheaper balanced pair cables were used for various systems including Bell System K- and N-Carrier. Those cables didn't allow such large bandwidths, so only 12 voice channels (double sideband) and later 24 (single sideband) were multiplexed into four wires, one pair for each direction with repeaters every several miles, approximately 10 km. See 12-channel carrier system. By the end of the 20th Century, FDM voice circuits had become rare. Modern telephone systems employ digital transmission, in which time-division multiplexing (TDM) is used instead of FDM.

Since the late 20th century digital subscriber lines (DSL) have used a Discrete multitone (DMT) system to divide their spectrum into frequency channels.

The concept corresponding to frequency-division multiplexing in the optical domain is known as wavelength-division multiplexing.

Group and supergroup

A once commonplace FDM system, used for example in L-carrier, uses crystal filters which operate at the 8 MHz range to form a Channel Group of 12 channels, 48 kHz bandwidth in the range 8140 to 8188 kHz by selecting carriers in the range 8140 to 8184 kHz selecting upper sideband this group can then be translated to the standard range 60 to 108 kHz by a carrier of 8248 kHz. Such systems are used in DTL (Direct To Line) and DFSG (Directly formed super group).

132 voice channels (2SG + 1G) can be formed using DTL plane the modulation and frequency plan are given in FIG1 and FIG2 use of DTL technique allows the formation of a maximum of 132 voice channels that can be placed direct to line. DTL eliminates group and super group equipment.

DFSG can take similar steps where a direct formation of a number of super groups can be obtained in the 8 kHz the DFSG also eliminates group equipment and can offer:

  • Reduction in cost 7% to 13%
  • Less equipment to install and maintain
  • Increased reliability due to less equipment

Both DTL and DFSG can fit the requirement of low density system (using DTL) and higher density system (using DFSG). The DFSG terminal is similar to DTL terminal except instead of two super groups many super groups are combined. A Mastergroup of 600 channels (10 super-groups) is an example based on DFSG.

Other examples

FDM can also be used to combine signals before final modulation onto a carrier wave. In this case the carrier signals are referred to as subcarriers: an example is stereo FM transmission, where a 38 kHz subcarrier is used to separate the left-right difference signal from the central left-right sum channel, prior to the frequency modulation of the composite signal. An analog NTSC television channel is divided into subcarrier frequencies for video, color, and audio. DSL uses different frequencies for voice and for upstream and downstream data transmission on the same conductors, which is also an example of frequency duplex.

Where frequency-division multiplexing is used as to allow multiple users to share a physical communications channel, it is called frequency-division multiple access (FDMA).[1]

FDMA is the traditional way of separating radio signals from different transmitters.

In the 1860s and 70s, several inventors attempted FDM under the names of acoustic telegraphy and harmonic telegraphy. Practical FDM was only achieved in the electronic age. Meanwhile, their efforts led to an elementary understanding of electroacoustic technology, resulting in the invention of the telephone.

See also

References

  1. ^ White, Curt (2007). Data Communications and Computer Networks. Boston, MA: Thomson Course Technology. pp. 140–143. ISBN 1-4188-3610-9.
General
  • Harold P.E. Stern, Samy A. Mahmoud (2006). "Communication Systems: Analysis and Design", Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-040268-0.
Carrier system

A carrier system is a telecommunications system that transmits information, such as the voice signals of a telephone call and the video signals of television, by modulation of one or multiple carrier signals above the principal voice frequency or data rate.Carrier systems typically transmit multiple channels of communication simultaneously over the shared medium using various forms of multiplexing. Prominent multiplexing methods of the carrier signal are time-division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency-division multiplexing (FDM). A cable television system is an example of frequency-division multiplexing. Many television programs are carried simultaneously on the same coaxial cable by sending each at a different frequency. Multiple layers of multiplexing may ultimately be performed upon a given input signal. For example, in the public switched telephone network, many telephone calls are sent over shared trunk lines by time-division multiplexing. For long distance calls several of these channels may be sent over a communications satellite link by frequency-division multiplexing. At a given receiving node, specific channels may be demultiplexed individually.

Carrier wave

In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information. This carrier wave usually has a much higher frequency than the input signal does. The purpose of the carrier is usually either to transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave (as in radio communication), or to allow several carriers at different frequencies to share a common physical transmission medium by frequency division multiplexing (as, for example, a cable television system). The term is also used for an unmodulated emission in the absence of any modulating signal.

Center frequency

In electrical engineering and telecommunications, the center frequency of a filter or channel is a measure of a central frequency between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies. It is usually defined as either the arithmetic mean or the geometric mean of the lower cutoff frequency and the upper cutoff frequency of a band-pass system or a band-stop system.

Typically, the geometric mean is used in systems based on certain transformations of lowpass filter designs, where the frequency response is constructed to be symmetric on a logarithmic frequency scale. The geometric center frequency corresponds to a mapping of the DC response of the prototype lowpass filter, which is a resonant frequency sometimes equal to the peak frequency of such systems, for example as in a Butterworth filter.

The arithmetic definition is used in more general situations, such as in describing passband telecommunication systems, where filters are not necessarily symmetric but are treated on a linear frequency scale for applications such as frequency-division multiplexing.

Equivalent pulse code modulation noise

In telecommunication, equivalent pulse code modulation (PCM) noise is the amount of noise power on a frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) or wire communication channel necessary to approximate the same judgment of speech quality created by quantizing noise in a PCM channel.

Note 1: The speech quality judgment is based on comparative tests.Note 2: Generally, 33.5 dBrnC ±2.5 dB is considered the approximate equivalent PCM noise of a 7-bit PCM system.

Frequency agility

Frequency agility is the ability of a radar system to quickly shift its operating frequency to account for atmospheric effects, jamming, mutual interference with friendly sources, or to make it more difficult to locate the radar broadcaster through radio direction finding. The term can also be applied to other fields, including lasers or traditional radio transceivers using frequency-division multiplexing, but it remains most closely associated with the radar field and these other roles generally use the more generic term "frequency hopping".

G.9972

G.9972 (also known as G.cx) is a Recommendation developed by ITU-T that specifies a coexistence mechanism for networking transceivers capable of operating over electrical power line wiring. It allows G.hn devices to coexist with other devices implementing G.9972 and operating on the same power line wiring.G.9972 received consent during the meeting of ITU-T Study Group 15, on October 9, 2009, and final approval on June 11, 2010.G.9972 specifies two mechanisms for coexistence between G.hn home networks and broadband over power lines (BPL) Internet access networks:

Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), in which the available spectrum is divided in two parts: frequencies below 10 or 14 MHz (specific value can be selected by the access network) are reserved for the access network, while frequencies above them are reserved for the in-home network.

Time-division multiplexing (TDM), in which the available channel time is split equally between both networks. 50% of time slots are allocated for the access network, and 50% are allocated to the in-home network.

Guard band

In radio, a guard band is an unused part of the radio spectrum between radio bands, for the purpose of preventing interference.

It is a narrow frequency range used to separate two wider frequency ranges to ensure that both can transmit simultaneously without interfering with each other. It is used in frequency-division multiplexing. It may be used in both wired or wireless communications, so that adjacent frequency bands on the same media can avoid interference.

The spectrum can also be licensed for low-power devices such as a private mobile phone network.

IEEE 802.11a-1999

IEEE 802.11a-1999 or 802.11a was an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 wireless local network specifications that defined requirements for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system. It was originally designed to support wireless communication in the unlicensed national information infrastructure (U-NII) bands (in the 5–6 GHz frequency range) as regulated in the United States by the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Section 15.407.

Originally described as clause 17 of the 1999 specification, it is now defined in clause 18 of the 2012 specification and provides protocols that allow transmission and reception of data at rates of 1.5 to 54Mbit/s. It has seen widespread worldwide implementation, particularly within the corporate workspace. While the original amendment is no longer valid, the term "802.11a" is still used by wireless access point (cards and routers) manufacturers to describe interoperability of their systems at 5.8 GHz, 54 Mbit/s (54 x 106 bits per second).

802.11 is a set of IEEE standards that govern wireless networking transmission methods. They are commonly used today in their 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac versions to provide wireless connectivity in the home, office and some commercial establishments. Wi-Fi 2 is an unofficial retronym for 802.11a.

Intensity modulation

In optical communications, intensity modulation (IM) is a form of modulation in which the optical power output of a source is varied in accordance with some characteristic of the modulating signal. The envelope of the modulated optical signal is an analog of the modulating signal in the sense that the instantaneous power of the envelope is an analog of the characteristic of interest in the modulating signal.

Recovery of the modulating signal is usually by direct detection, not heterodyning. However, optical heterodyne detection is possible and has been actively studied since 1979. Bell Laboratories had a working, but impractical, system in 1969. Heterodyne and homodyne systems are of interest because they are expected to produce an increase in sensitivity of up to 20 dB allowing longer hops between islands for instance. Such systems also have the important advantage of very narrow channel spacing in optical frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. OFDM is a step beyond wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). Normal WDM using direct detection does not achieve anything like the close channel spacing of radio frequency FDM.

Jean Armstrong

Jean Armstrong is a professor at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia was named Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 2015 for contributions to the theory and application of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing in wireless and optical communications. She was inducted to the Victorian Honour Roll of Women in 2008.Armstrong was born in Scotland before she later immigrated to Australia. She received a B.Sc in Electrical Engineering from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland in 1974, an M.Sc. in Digital Techniques from the Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1980, and a Ph.D in Digital Communications from Monash University in Melbourne, Australia in 1993. She has published many papers on wireless and optical communications, focusing specifically on Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. Her work has led to a number of commercialized patents.Between 1974 and 1977, she worked as a Design Engineer at Hewlett-Packard Ltd., Scotland. Since 1977, she has been working in academia, holding positions at the University of Melbourne, Monash University, and La Trobe University.

MIMO-OFDM

Multiple-input, multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is the dominant air interface for 4G and 5G broadband wireless communications. It combines multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) technology, which multiplies capacity by transmitting different signals over multiple antennas, and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), which divides a radio channel into a large number of closely spaced subchannels to provide more reliable communications at high speeds. Research conducted during the mid-1990s showed that while MIMO can be used with other popular air interfaces such as time-division multiple access (TDMA) and code-division multiple access (CDMA), the combination of MIMO and OFDM is most practical at higher data rates.MIMO-OFDM is the foundation for most advanced wireless local area network (wireless LAN) and mobile broadband network standards because it achieves the greatest spectral efficiency and, therefore, delivers the highest capacity and data throughput. Greg Raleigh invented MIMO in 1996 when he showed that different data streams could be transmitted at the same time on the same frequency by taking advantage of the fact that signals transmitted through space bounce off objects (such as the ground) and take multiple paths to the receiver. That is, by using multiple antennas and precoding the data, different data streams could be sent over different paths. Raleigh suggested and later proved that the processing required by MIMO at higher speeds would be most manageable using OFDM modulation, because OFDM converts a high-speed data channel into a number of parallel lower-speed channels.

Master frequency generator

A master frequency generator or master electronic oscillator, in frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), is a piece of equipment used to provide system end-to-end carrier frequency synchronization and frequency accuracy of tones.

The following types of oscillators are used in the Defense Communications System FDM systems:

Type 1 - A master carrier oscillator as an integral part of the multiplexer set.

Type 2 - A submaster oscillator equipment or slave oscillator equipment as an integral part of the multiplexer set.

Type 3 - An external master oscillator equipment that has extremely accurate and stable characteristics.

Multiplexing

In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share a scarce resource. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be carried using one wire. Multiplexing originated in telegraphy in the 1870s, and is now widely applied in communications. In telephony, George Owen Squier is credited with the development of telephone carrier multiplexing in 1910.

The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel such as a cable. The multiplexing divides the capacity of the communication channel into several logical channels, one for each message signal or data stream to be transferred. A reverse process, known as demultiplexing, extracts the original channels on the receiver end.

A device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (MUX), and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (DEMUX or DMX).

Inverse multiplexing (IMUX) has the opposite aim as multiplexing, namely to break one data stream into several streams, transfer them simultaneously over several communication channels, and recreate the original data stream.

Non-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

Non-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (N-OFDM) is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies with non-orthogonal intervals between frequency of sub-carriers.

Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access

Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is a multi-user version of the popular orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation scheme. Multiple access is achieved in OFDMA by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individual users. This allows simultaneous low-data-rate transmission from several users.

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

In telecommunications, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communication, used in applications such as digital television and audio broadcasting, DSL internet access, wireless networks, power line networks, and 4G mobile communications.

In coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (COFDM), forward error correction (convolutional coding) and time/frequency interleaving are applied to the signal being transmitted. This is done to overcome errors in mobile communication channels affected by multipath propagation and Doppler effects. COFDM was introduced by Alard in 1986 for Digital Audio Broadcasting for Eureka Project 147. In practice, OFDM has become used in combination with such coding and interleaving, so that the terms COFDM and OFDM co-apply to common applications. OFDM is a frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) scheme used as a digital multi-carrier modulation method. OFDM was introduced by Chang of Bell Labs in 1966. Numerous closely spaced orthogonal sub-carrier signals with overlapping spectra are emitted to carry data. Demodulation is based on Fast Fourier Transform algorithms. OFDM was improved by Weinstein and Ebert in 1971 with the introduction of a guard interval, providing better orthogonality in transmission channels affected by multipath propagation. Each sub-carrier (signal) is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying) at a low symbol rate. This maintains total data rates similar to conventional single-carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth.

The main advantage of OFDM over single-carrier schemes is its ability to cope with severe channel conditions (for example, attenuation of high frequencies in a long copper wire, narrowband interference and frequency-selective fading due to multipath) without complex equalization filters. Channel equalization is simplified because OFDM may be viewed as using many slowly modulated narrowband signals rather than one rapidly modulated wideband signal. The low symbol rate makes the use of a guard interval between symbols affordable, making it possible to eliminate intersymbol interference (ISI) and use echoes and time-spreading (in analog television visible as ghosting and blurring, respectively) to achieve a diversity gain, i.e. a signal-to-noise ratio improvement. This mechanism also facilitates the design of single frequency networks (SFNs) where several adjacent transmitters send the same signal simultaneously at the same frequency, as the signals from multiple distant transmitters may be re-combined constructively, sparing interference of a traditional single-carrier system.

Shared medium

In telecommunication, a shared medium is a medium or channel of information transfer that serves more than one user at the same time.Most channels only function correctly when one user is transmitting, so a channel access method is always in effect.

In circuit switching, each user typically gets a fixed share of the channel capacity. A multiplexing scheme divides up the capacity of the medium. Common multiplexing schemes include time-division multiplexing and frequency-division multiplexing. Channel access methods for circuit switching include time-division multiple access, frequency-division multiple access, etc.

In packet switching, the sharing is more dynamic — each user takes up little or none of the capacity when idle, and can utilize the entire capacity if transmitting while all other users are idle. Channel access methods for packet switching include carrier sense multiple access, token passing, etc.

Statistical time-division multiplexing

Statistical multiplexing is a type of communication link sharing, very similar to dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). In statistical multiplexing, a communication channel is divided into an arbitrary number of variable bitrate digital channels or data streams. The link sharing is adapted to the instantaneous traffic demands of the data streams that are transferred over each channel. This is an alternative to creating a fixed sharing of a link, such as in general time division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency division multiplexing (FDM). When performed correctly, statistical multiplexing can provide a link utilization improvement, called the statistical multiplexing gain.

Statistical multiplexing is facilitated through packet mode or packet-oriented communication, which among others is utilized in packet switched computer networks. Each stream is divided into packets that normally are delivered asynchronously in a first-come first-served fashion. In alternative fashion, the packets may be delivered according to some scheduling discipline for fair queuing or differentiated and/or guaranteed quality of service.

Statistical multiplexing of an analog channel, for example a wireless channel, is also facilitated through the following schemes:

Random frequency-hopping orthogonal frequency division multiple access (RFH-OFDMA)

Code-division multiple access (CDMA), where different amount of spreading codes or spreading factors can be assigned to different users.Statistical multiplexing normally implies "on-demand" service rather than one that preallocates resources for each data stream. Statistical multiplexing schemes do not control user data transmissions.

Underwater acoustic communication

Underwater acoustic communication is a technique of sending and receiving messages below water. There are several ways of employing such communication but the most common is by using hydrophones. Underwater communication is difficult due to factors such as multi-path propagation, time variations of the channel, small available bandwidth and strong signal attenuation, especially over long ranges. Compared to terrestrial communication, underwater communication has low data rates because it uses acoustic waves instead of electromagnetic waves.

At the beginning of the 20th century, some ships communicated by underwater bells, the system being competitive with the primitive Maritime radionavigation service of the time. The later Fessenden oscillator allowed communication with submarines.

History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks

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