French period

In Northern European historiography, the term French period (French: Période française, German: Franzosenzeit, Dutch: Franse tijd) refers to the period between 1794 and 1815 during which most of Northern Europe was controlled by Republican or Napoleonic France.[1] The exact duration of the period varies by the location concerned.[2]

In German historiography, the term emerged in the 19th century and developed nationalist connotations. It entered Low German usage with Fritz Reuter's popular work Ut de Franzosentid (1860). It was used alongside the concept of Erbfeind ("hereditary enmity") to express anti-French feeling as part of the formation of a German national identity and as such was used in a non-neutral way under the German Empire and Third Reich. In Germany, the term has thus been shunned since the Bonn Republic, with "French Revolutionary Wars" and "Napoleonic Wars" more commonly used today.

Europe 1812 map en
The French Empire and client states in 1812.
  French Empire in 1804
  French acquisitions after 1804
  French sphere of influence


Van Bree-Le Friedland
Napoleon attends to the launch of the Friedland in Antwerp (now in Belgium).

Following the Battle of Austerlitz and the War of the Third Coalition, Napoleon dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, annexed parts of Austria and certain German states to France, and formed the German states into the Confederation of the Rhine. Napoleon was their "protector," but as the Confederation was above all a military alliance, their foreign policy was utterly dominated by France, and the states had to supply France with large numbers of military troops. Disquiet about mass-conscription (the levée en masse) also trigged an uprising, known as the Peasants' War, in 1798 within modern-day Belgium and Luxembourg. In Germany, Napoleon formed two new states, the Grand Duchy of Berg and the Kingdom of Westphalia, which he gave to his brothers Joachim Murat and Jerome Bonaparte respectively. The Austrian Netherlands and Prince-Bishopric of Liège were annexed and became départements of France.

During the French occupation, the Napoleonic Code was introduced, during which the German people came into contact with the ideals of the French Revolution, including nationalism. In Prussia, which was not part of the French-dominated Confederation of the Rhine, but still occupied by France, this created a dynamic towards constitutional, political, social, and military reform which would prove critical during the Liberation War. In the Confederation itself, there were already riots against the French rule, and after the devastation of the French army during the French invasion of Russia, the commander of the Prussian Corps, Yorck, signed a ceasefire with Russia. This was to be the decisive trigger of the Liberation War.


The French period contributed significantly to the emergence of the idea of unity and national consciousness in Germany. The many regions with their various dialects found in the struggle against the French occupation "German" as a common definition of anti-French sentiment or freedom. At the Wartburg Festival in 1817 the first real movements among the students were formed - fraternities and student organizations emerged. The colors black, red and gold were symbolic of this. After the Vormärz period, the desire for freedom from the government was suppressed, until the March Revolution in 1848 and the formation of the first German parliament, though not all German-speaking territories were involved. In the Prussian War of Liberation conscription modeled after the levée en masse of General Gerhard von Scharnhorst was introduced and the Prussian army reforms introduced. The Prussian reforms (1807-1812) during the French period include not only the formal abolition of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 but also the largest political and social upheavals between the Early Modern Period and the Modern Period in Germany. With the abandonment of Francis II from the Holy Roman Empire to the Austrian Empire, there was also created a political split between Prussia and Austria, which laid the ground for Austrian exclusion from the German Question.


  1. ^ Eduard Rothert: Rheinland-Westfalen im Wechsel der Zeiten. Düsseldorf 1900; Online-Präsentation der Universitätsbibliothek der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, abgerufen am 21. März 2011
  2. ^ Das Rheinland unter den Franzosen 1794–1815. Landschaftsverband Rheinland (LVR), abgerufen 18. März 2011
André Kertész

André Kertész (French: [kɛʁtɛs]; 2 July 1894 – 28 September 1985), born Kertész Andor, was a Hungarian-born photographer known for his groundbreaking contributions to photographic composition and the photo essay. In the early years of his career, his then-unorthodox camera angles and style prevented his work from gaining wider recognition. Kertész never felt that he had gained the worldwide recognition he deserved. Today he is considered one of the seminal figures of photojournalism.Expected by his family to work as a stockbroker, Kertész pursued photography independently as an autodidact, and his early work was published primarily in magazines, a major market in those years. This continued until much later in his life, when Kertész stopped accepting commissions. He served briefly in World War I and moved to Paris in 1925, then the artistic capital of the world, against the wishes of his family. In Paris he worked for France's first illustrated magazine called VU. Involved with many young immigrant artists and the Dada movement, he achieved critical and commercial success.

Due to German persecution of the Jews and the threat of World War II, Kertész decided to emigrate to the United States in 1936, where he had to rebuild his reputation through commissioned work. In the 1940s and 1950s, he stopped working for magazines and began to achieve greater international success. His career is generally divided into four periods, based on where he was working and his work was most prominently known. They are called the Hungarian period, the French period, the American period and, toward the end of his life, the International period.

Cannabis in Egypt

Cannabis in Egypt is illegal, but its use is a part of the common culture in the country for many people. Large-scale smuggling of cannabis is punishable by death, while penalties for possessing even small amounts can also be severe. Despite this, enforcement of the law is lax in many parts of Egypt, where cannabis is often consumed openly in cafes.

Fort William, Ontario

Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario, located on the Kaministiquia River, at its entrance to Lake Superior. It amalgamated with Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the city of Thunder Bay in January 1970. Since then it has been the largest city in Northwestern Ontario. The city's Latin motto was A posse ad esse (From a Possibility to an Actuality) featured on its coat of arms designed in 1900 by town officials, "On one side of the shield stands an Indian dressed in the paint and feathers of the early days; on the other side is a French voyageur; the center contains an elevator, a steamship and a locomotive, while the beaver surmounts the whole."

Freemasonry in Malta

Freemasonry in Malta has a lengthy history dating from the eighteenth century. The main masonic influences (and external supervision) have been from the United Grand Lodge of England, the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and the Grand Lodge of Ireland. Today Regular Freemasonry is under the jurisdiction of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of Malta, formed in 2004.

Another self-styled, irregular masonic body going by the name ‘Grand Lodge of Malta’ exists (whose members broke away from the Sovereign Grand Lodge of Malta in 2009).

The Sovereign Grand Lodge of Malta is recognized internationally by a majority of the Regular masonic jurisdictions worldwide, whilst the Grand Lodge of Malta is recognized by only two jurisdictions worldwide, one of which is the Grand Orient de France, an irregular Grand Lodge that unlike Regular Freemasonry throughout the world, admits women as masons within its ranks.


The Hunsrück (German pronunciation: [ˈhʊnsʁʏk]) is a low mountain range in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is bounded by the river valleys of the Moselle (north), the Nahe (south), and the Rhine (east). The Hunsrück is continued by the Taunus mountains on the eastern side of the Rhine. In the north behind the Moselle it is continued by the Eifel. To the south of the Nahe is the Palatinate region.

Many of the hills are no higher than 400 metres (1,300 ft) above sea level. There are several chains of much higher peaks within the Hunsrück, all bearing names of their own: the (Black Forest) Hochwald, the Idar Forest, the Soonwald, and the Bingen Forest. The highest mountain is the Erbeskopf (816 m; 2,677 ft).

Notable towns located within the Hunsrück include Simmern, Kirchberg, and Idar-Oberstein, Kastellaun, and Morbach. Frankfurt-Hahn Airport is also located within the region.

The climate in the Hunsrück is characterised by rainy weather, and mist rising in the morning. Slate is still mined in the mountains. Since 2010, the region has become one of Germany's major onshore wind power regions, with major wind farms located near Ellern and Kirchberg. Nature-based tourism has increased in recent years and in 2015, a new national park was inaugurated. Culturally, the region is best known for its Hunsrückisch dialect and through depictions in the Heimat film series. The region experienced significant emigration in the mid-19th century, particularly to Brazil.

La Reine Margot (1994 film)

La Reine Margot is a 1994 French period film directed by Patrice Chéreau, and written by himself along with Danièle Thompson, based on the 1845 historical novel La Reine Margot by Alexandre Dumas. The movie, stars Isabelle Adjani, Daniel Auteuil, Virna Lisi and Vincent Pérez. An abridged version of the film was released as Queen Margot in North America, and in the United Kingdom under its original French title.

The film was a box-office success, grossing $2,017,346 in the United States when given limited theatrical release as well as in other countries such as Germany where it gained 260,000 admissions and Argentina where it received 530,800. The film also had a total of 2,002,915 admissions in France.It won the Jury Prize and Best Actress Award at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival, as well as five César Awards. It was later shown as part of the Cannes Classics section of the 2013 Cannes Film Festival.

Left Bank of the Rhine

The Left Bank of the Rhine (German: Linkes Rheinufer, French: Rive gauche du Rhin) was the region north of Lauterbourg, in present-day western Germany, that was conquered during the War of the First Coalition and annexed by France. Because the attempt to create a Cisrhenian Republic foundered, the territories west of the Rhine were reorganized into several départements among the French first republic. After the allied victory over Napoleon in 1814 these territories were provisionally administered by the Central Administrative Departement (Zentralverwaltungsdepartement). The Sarre province and the district of Landau in der Pfalz previously French before the Napoleonic wars were under the definitive act of the congress of Vienna ceded to the members of the coalition. The recent annexations done under the first republic were restituted. From these territories the Bavarian Circle of the Rhine (Rheinkreis) and the Hessian province of Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) were formed in 1816. The regions to the north went to Prussia and were initially part of the two provinces of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and the Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine, from which the Rhine Province emerged in 1822. The southern left Rhine territories, which had for centuries been under imperial rule in the Holy Roman Empire had been seized by France, mostly in the 17th century, were annexed to the new German empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. The region was consolidated as the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine for a period of 48 years (1871-1919), before being restituted to France in the wake of the First World War.

Louisiana Creole people

Louisiana Creole people (French: Créoles de Louisiane, Spanish: Criollos de Luisiana), are persons descended from the inhabitants of colonial Louisiana during the period of both French and Spanish rule. The term creole was originally used by French settlers to distinguish persons born in Louisiana from those born in the mother country or elsewhere. As in many other colonial societies around the world, creole was a term used to mean those who were "native-born", especially native-born Europeans such as the French and Spanish. It also came to be applied to African-descended slaves and Native Americans who were born in Louisiana. Louisiana Creoles share cultural ties such as the traditional use of the French and Louisiana Creole languages and predominant practice of Catholicism.Starting with the native-born children of the French, then later the Spanish in Louisiana, 'Creole' came to be used to describe these Louisiana-born people of full European descent. Creole has its roots in Latin America meaning native-born. Creole was used casually as an identity in the 1700's in Louisiana. Starting in the very early 1800's in Louisiana, Creole began to take on a more political meaning and solid identity, especially for those of Latinate culture versus the newly arriving Americans from the Upper South and the North. In the early 19th century, amid the Haitian Revolution, thousands of refugees (both whites and free people of color from Saint-Domingue (affranchis or gens de couleur libres) arrived in New Orleans, often bringing their African slaves with them and essentially doubling the city's population. As more refugees were allowed in Louisiana, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba also arrived. These groups had strong influences on the city and its culture. Half of the white émigrė population of Haiti settled in Louisiana, especially in the greater New Orleans area. Later immigrants to New Orleans, such as Irish, Germans, and Italians, also married into the Creole groups. However, there was a sizable German creole group of full German descent, centering on the parishes of St. Charles and St. John the Baptist. Over time this group absorbed many French Creoles, who are Louisiana-born whites of colonial heritage. French Creoles made up the majority of white Creoles in Louisiana. Louisiana Creoles are mostly Catholic in religion. Throughout the 19th century, most Creoles spoke French and were strongly connected to French colonial culture. The sizeable Spanish Creole communities of Saint Bernard Parish and Galveztown spoke Spanish. The Malagueños of New Iberia spoke Spanish as well. The Isleños and Malagueños were Louisiana-born whites of creole heritage. (Since the mid-twentieth century, the number of Spanish-speaking Creoles has declined in favor of English speakers, and few people under 80 years old speak Spanish.) They have maintained cultural traditions from the Canary Islands, where their ancestors came from, to the present. However, just like the Spanish Creoles, native languages of all creole groups such as the French Creoles, German Creoles and Creoles of color, have declined over the years in favor of English. The different varieties of Louisiana's Creoles shaped the state's culture, particularly in the southern areas around New Orleans and the plantation districts. Louisiana is known as the Creole State.While the sophisticated Creole society of New Orleans which centered mainly on white Creoles such as the French creoles has historically received much attention, the Cane River area in northwest Louisiana, populated chiefly by Creoles of color, also developed its own strong Creole culture. Other enclaves of Creoles culture have been located in south Louisiana: Frilot Cove, Bois Mallet, Grand Marais, Palmetto, Lawtell, Soileau and others. These communities have had a long history of cultural independence. New Orleans also has had a historical population of Creoles of color as well. Another area where many creoles can be found is within the River Parishes, St. Charles, St. John, and St. James, as many white Creoles such as German Creoles and French Creoles have settled there. Most white Creoles are found in the greater New Orleans region, a seven parish-wide creole cultural area including Orleans Parish, St. Bernard Parish, Jefferson Parish, Plaquemines Parish, St. Charles Parish, St. Tammany Parish and St. John the Baptist Parish. Also, Avoyelles Parish and Evangeline Parish in Acadiana is home to a large white creole population of French descent, known as French Creoles.

Max Ernst

Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism. He had no formal artistic training, but his experimental attitude toward the making of art resulted in his invention of frottage—a technique that uses pencil rubbings of objects as a source of images— and 'grattage', an analogous technique in which paint is scraped across canvas to reveal the imprints of the objects placed beneath. He is also noted for his novels consisting of collages.


Oran ([ɔ.ʁɑ̃]; Arabic: وَهران‎ Wahrān) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial, industrial, and cultural importance. It is 432 km (268 mi) from Algiers. The total population of the city was 759,645 in 2008, while the metropolitan area has a population of approximately 1,500,000 making it the second largest city in Algeria.A legend says that in 900 AD, lions still lived in the area. The last two lions were hunted on a mountain near Oran and are elsewhere referred to as "mountain lions".


Ouiatenon (Miami-Illinois: waayaahtanonki) was a dwelling place of members of the Wea tribe of Native Americans. The name Ouiatenon, also variously given as Ouiatanon, Oujatanon, Ouiatano or other similar forms, is a French rendering of a term from the Wea dialect of the Miami-Illinois language which means "place of the people of the whirlpool", an ethnonym for the Wea. Ouiatenon can be said to refer generally to any settlement of Wea or to their tribal lands as a whole, though the name is most frequently used to refer to a group of extinct settlements situated together along the Wabash River in what is now western Tippecanoe County, Indiana.

Paul Lafargue

Paul Lafargue (French: [lafaʁg]; 15 January 1842 – 25 November 1911) was a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marx's son-in-law having married his second daughter, Laura. His best known work is The Right To Be Lazy. Born in Cuba to French and Creole parents, Lafargue spent most of his life in France, with periods in England and Spain. At the age of 69, he and 66-year-old Laura died together by a suicide pact.

Lafargue was the subject of a famous quotation by Karl Marx. Soon before Marx died during 1883, he wrote a letter to Lafargue and the French Workers' Party organizer Jules Guesde, both of whom already claimed to represent "Marxist" principles. Marx accused them of "revolutionary phrase-mongering" and of denying the value of reformist struggles. This exchange is the source of Marx's remark, reported by Friedrich Engels: "ce qu'il y a de certain c'est que moi, je ne suis pas Marxiste" ("what is certain to me is that [, if they are Marxists, then] I am not [a] Marxist").

Petit Séminaire de Québec

Le Petit Séminaire de Québec is a private French-language Roman Catholic secondary school in the Vieux-Québec area of Quebec City, Quebec which was originally part of the Séminaire de Québec. In 1985, the seminary transferred the secondary school to a new secular not-for-profit organization, "le Collège François-de-Laval", which was given the right to use the "Petit Séminaire de Québec" name.

Many French-Canadian clergy of the 18th and 19th century, as well as innumerable academics, went through the Petit Séminaire before higher education became widely accessible. Until 1970, the Superior of the Seminary was also the Rector of Université Laval, which was originally an offshoot of it.

Another school, Le Petit Séminaire de Québec, campus de l'Outaouais was founded as a branch of the school in the Outaouais area of western Quebec.

A separate organization with a similar name, the Petit séminaire diocésain de Québec, is a residential school for boys considering the Roman Catholic priesthood, managed by the Séminaire de Québec.

Of 867 students who lived at the Petit Séminaire during the French period, 198 graduated. Of these, 118 became priests or brothers, and 80 chose other occupations, according to research by historian Mgr Amédée Gosselin

Postage stamps and postal history of Monaco

The postal history of Monaco can be traced to the principality’s first postmark in 1704. Stampless covers are known with both manuscript and handstamp postmarks for Monaco and Fort d'Hercule (1793-1814 French occupation); as the principality was once much larger, postmarks of the communes of Menton and Roquebrune prior to their 1848 secession might also be included. Monaco used Sardinian stamps from 1851 until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice and relinquished its protectorate over Monaco; French stamps with Monaco or Monte-Carlo postmarks were used thereafter. Two forms of cancellation are known for the French period. With the first, the postmark is on the cover away from the stamps; an obliterator with an identifying post office number 4222, or later 2387, inside a diamond of ink dots cancelled the actual stamps. The second applied the postmark directly on the stamps, as both a date stamp and cancel. All of these postal forerunners, particularly usages of Sardinian stamps with Monaco cancels, are far more valuable than the same stamps postally used in the issuing countries.The first Monegasque postage stamps were issued on 1 July 1885, and featured the image of Prince Charles III of Monaco.In 1937, the Principality responded to a growing interest from philatelists by creating a Stamp Issuing Office. The 1949 accession of Prince Rainier III led to increased importance for the principality’s philatelic issues. During his reign, the prince was personally involved in all aspects of the design and format of the principality’s philatelic issues, and he was quoted as stating that stamps were “the best ambassador of a country.” The prince was a noted philatelist and his collection was the basis of Monaco’s Museum of Stamps and Coins.Monaco joined the Universal Postal Union in 1955 and PostEurop in 1993. Monaco’s postage stamps, which are tied to French postal rate, continue to be popular among collectors and are considered to be a source of revenue for the principality.


The Pottawatomi , also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples.

In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Great Lakes region to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Great Lakes region and today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.

Prescott, Ontario

Prescott, Ontario is a small town on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville, Canada. In 2016, the town had a population of 3965. The Ogdensburg–Prescott International Bridge, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of Prescott at Johnstown, connects the town with Ogdensburg, New York. The town is about an hour from both Ottawa and Kingston.

The town was founded in the early 19th century by Edward Jessup, a Loyalist soldier during the American Revolution, who named the village after a former Governor-in-Chief, Robert Prescott. Prior to 1834, the town was a part of Augusta township; however, in that year the town became a police village, and severed its ties with Augusta. The land here was ideal for settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries as it was situated between Montreal and Kingston along the St. Lawrence River at the head of the rapids.

Provinces of the Netherlands

There are currently twelve provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch: provincies van Nederland), representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.

The most populous province is South Holland, with over 3.65 million inhabitants in 2009. With approximately 381,500 inhabitants, Zeeland has the smallest population. In terms of area, Friesland is the largest province with a total area of 5,749 km2 (2,220 sq mi). If water is excluded, Gelderland is the largest province in terms of area at 4,972 km2 (1,920 sq mi). Utrecht is the smallest at 1,385 km2 (535 sq mi). In total about 13,000 people were employed by the provincial administrations in 2009.The provinces of the Netherlands are joined in the Association of Provinces of the Netherlands (IPO). This organisation promotes the common interests of the provinces in the national government of the Netherlands in The Hague and within the European Union in Brussels.


Roermond (Dutch pronunciation: [ruːrˈmɔnt] (listen); Limburgish: Remunj) is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.

Roermond is an historically important town, on the lower Roer at the east bank of the Meuse river. It received town rights in 1231. Roermond town centre has been designated as a conservation area.

Through the centuries the town has filled the role of commercial centre, principal town in the duchy of Guelders and since 1559 it has served as the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Roermond. The skyline of the historic town is dominated by the towers of its two churches: St. Christopher Cathedral and Roermond Minster or 'Munsterkerk' in Dutch. In addition to important churches, the town centre has many listed buildings and monuments.

Royal Netherlands Army

The Royal Netherlands Army (Dutch: Koninklijke Landmacht) is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.

Though the Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, its origins date back to 1572, when the Staatse Leger was raised -- making the Dutch standing army one of the oldest in the world. It fought in the Napoleonic Wars, World War II, the Indonesian War of Independence, and the Korean War and served with NATO on the Cold War frontiers in Germany from the 1950s to the 1990s.

Since 1990, the army has been sent into the Iraqi War (from 2003) and into the War in Afghanistan, as well as deployed in several United Nations' peacekeeping missions (notably with UNIFIL in Lebanon and UNPROFOR in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1992–1995).

Two of the three brigades of the present Dutch Army are now under German command. In 2014, the 11th Airmobile Brigade was integrated into the Rapid Forces Division (Division Schnelle Kräfte); the 43rd Mechanized Brigade began integration into the 1st Panzer Division (1. Panzerdivision) in 2016, with the intention that it be fully part of the German formation by the end of 2019. This Dutch-German military co-operation is seen as a harbinger of a European defensive union.

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