French Fourth Republic

The French Fourth Republic (French: La Quatrième République) was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic that was in place from 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War to 1940 during World War II, and suffered many of the same problems. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946.

Despite the political dysfunction, the Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II. It also saw the beginning of the German-French co-operation, that later led to the development of the European Union.

Some attempts were also made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 21 administrations in its 12-year history. Moreover, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization of the numerous remaining French colonies. After a series of crises, most importantly the Algerian crisis of 1958, the Fourth Republic collapsed. Wartime leader Charles de Gaulle returned from retirement to preside over a transitional administration that was empowered to design a new French constitution. The Fourth Republic was dissolved by a public referendum on 5 October 1958 which established the modern-day Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency.

French Republic

République française
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité" (French)
"Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood"
Anthem: "La Marseillaise"
Metropolitan France is shown in dark green, with the Saarland, under French administration until its accession to West Germany on New Year's Day 1957, depicted in light green
Metropolitan France is shown in dark green, with the Saarland, under French administration until its accession to West Germany on New Year's Day 1957, depicted in light green
Common languagesFrench
Secular state
(excluding Alsace-Lorraine)
Roman Catholicism
(Alsace-Lorraine only)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• 1947–1954
Vincent Auriol
• 1954–1959
René Coty
Prime Minister 
• 1947
Paul Ramadier
• 1958–1959
Charles de Gaulle
LegislatureNational Assembly
Historical era
13 October 1946
• Promulgation of French Fourth Republic
27 October 1946
13 March – 7 May 1954
1 November 1954
17 March 1948
13–29 May 1958
28 September 1958
• Promulgation of French Fifth Republic
4 October 1958
1957889,898 km2 (343,592 sq mi)
CurrencyFrench franc (FRF)
ISO 3166 codeFR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Provisional Government of the French Republic
French Fifth Republic

Founding of the Fourth Republic (1944–54)

After the liberation of France in 1944, the Vichy government was dissolved and the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) was instituted. Also known as the French Committee of National Liberation, after a unanimous request of the Provisional Consultative Assembly to be properly represented[1]. With most of the political class discredited and containing many members who had more or less collaborated with Nazi Germany, Gaullism and communism became the most popular political forces in France.

Charles de Gaulle led the GPRF from 1944 to 1946. Meanwhile, negotiations took place over the proposed new constitution, which was to be put to a referendum. De Gaulle advocated a presidential system of government, and criticized the reinstatement of what he pejoratively called "the parties system". He resigned in January 1946 and was replaced by Felix Gouin of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO). Ultimately only the French Communist Party (PCF) and the socialist SFIO supported the draft constitution, which envisaged a form of government based on unicameralism; but this was rejected in the referendum of 5 May 1946.

For the 1946 elections, the Rally of Left Republicans (Rassemblement des gauches républicaines – RGR), which encompassed the Radical-Socialist Party, the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance and other conservative parties, unsuccessfully attempted to oppose the Christian democrat and socialist MRP-SFIO-PCF alliance. The new constituent assembly included 166 MRP deputies, 153 PCF deputies and 128 SFIO deputies, giving the tripartite alliance an absolute majority. Georges Bidault of the (MRP) replaced Felix Gouin as the head of government.

A new draft of the Constitution was written, which this time proposed the establishment of a bicameral form of government. Leon Blum of the (SFIO) headed the GPRF from 1946 to 1947. After a new legislative election in June 1946, the Christian democrat Georges Bidault assumed leadership of the Cabinet. Despite de Gaulle's so-called discourse of Bayeux of 16 June 1946 in which he denounced the new institutions, the new draft was approved by 53% of voters voting in favor (with an abstention rate of 31%) in the referendum held on 13 October 1946. This culminated in the establishment in the following year of the Fourth Republic, an arrangement in which executive power essentially resided in the hands of the President of the Council (the prime minister). The President of the Republic was given a largely symbolic role, although he remained chief of the French Army and as a last resort could be called upon to resolve conflicts.

The wartime damage was extensive and expectations of large reparations from defeated Germany largely failed. The United States helped revive the French economy with the Marshall Plan (1948–51), whereby it gave France $2.3 billion with no repayment. France was the second largest recipient after Britain. The total of all American grants and credits to France from 1946 to 1953, amounted to $4.9 billion.[2] The terms of the Marshall Plan required a modernization of French industrial and managerial systems, free trade, and friendly economic relations with West Germany.[3]

After the expulsion of the Communists from the governing coalition, France joined the Cold War against Stalin, as expressed by becoming a founding member of NATO in April 1949.[4] France now took a leadership position in unifying western Europe, working closely with Konrad Adenauer of West Germany. Robert Schuman, who was twice Prime Minister and at other times Minister of Finance and Foreign Minister, was instrumental in building post-war European and trans-Atlantic institutions. A devout Catholic and anti-Communist, he led France into the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO.[5]

Indochina and Tunisia

Public opinion polls showed that in February 1954, only 7% of the French people wanted to continue the fight to keep Indochina out of the hands of the Communists, led by Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh movement.[6]

Pierre Mendes France was a Radical Party leader who was Prime Minister for eight months in 1954–55, working with the support of the Socialist and Communist parties. His top priority was ending the war in Indochina, which had already cost 92,000 dead, 114,000 wounded and 28,000 captured in the wake of the humiliating defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in early May 1954.[7]

At the Geneva Conference (1954), he made a deal that gave the Viet Minh control of Vietnam north of the 17th parallel, and allowed him to pull out all French forces. That left South Vietnam standing alone. However, the United States moved in and provided large-scale financial, military and economic support for South Vietnam.[8]

Mendes France next came to an agreement with Habib Bourguiba, the nationalist leader in Tunisia, for the independence of that colony by 1956, and began discussions with the nationalist leaders in Morocco for a French withdrawal.[9]

Failure of the new parliamentary system

The intention of the new Constitution's authors was to rationalize the parliamentary system. Ministers were accountable to the legislative body, the French National Assembly, but some measures were introduced in order to protect the Cabinet and to reinforce the authority of the Prime Minister of France, who led the Cabinet. The goal of the new constitution was to reconcile parliamentary democracy with ministerial stability.

For instance, under the new Constitution, the President of the Council was the leader of the executive branch (Prime Minister of France). The President of the French Republic, elected by the Parliament (the National Assembly and the Council of the Republic), played a symbolic role. His main power was to propose a Prime Minister, who was subject to election by the National Assembly before forming a Cabinet. Only the Prime Minister could invoke a parliamentary vote on legitimacy of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister was also the only member of the executive able to demand a vote of confidence from the National Assembly (in the Third Republic any minister could call for a vote of confidence). The Cabinet could be dismissed if an absolute majority of the National Assembly's members voted against the Cabinet. Finally, the National Assembly could be dissolved after two ministerial crises in the legislature.

However, these constitutional measures did not work. In January 1947, after his election by the National Assembly and the nomination of his ministers, Prime Minister Paul Ramadier called for a vote of confidence in order to verify that the Assembly approved the composition of his Cabinet. This initiated a custom of double election, a vote for the Prime Minister followed by a vote of confidence in the chosen Cabinet, that weakened the Prime Minister's authority over the Cabinet. Cabinets were dismissed with only a plurality (not the absolute majority) of the National Assembly voting against the Cabinet. Consequently, these ministerial crises did not result in the dissolution of Parliament. Thus, as in the Third Republic, this regime was characterized by ministerial instability.

The Fourth Republic was also a victim of the political context. The split of the three-party alliance in spring 1947, the departure of Communist ministers, Gaullist opposition, and the new proportional representation did not create conditions for ministerial stability. Governmental coalitions were composed of an undisciplined patchwork of center-left and center-right parties. Finally, the Fourth Republic was confronted with the collapse of the French colonial empire.

European Unity

The creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was first proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman and French economic theorist Jean Monnet on 9 May 1950 as a way to prevent further war between France and Germany. Though the United Kingdom was invited, its Labour government, then preparing for a re-election fight, did not join the initiative.[10] It was formally established in 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, signed by France, Italy, West Germany and the three Benelux states: Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Between these states the ECSC would create a common market for coal and steel. The ECSC was governed by a 'High Authority', checked by bodies representing governments, Members of Parliament and an independent judiciary.

The ECSC was superseded, on 25 March 1957, by the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (which would, in 1993, become the European Union through the Maastricht Treaty).

Algeria and collapse

The trigger for the collapse of the Fourth Republic was the Algiers crisis of 1958. France was still a colonial power, although conflict and revolt had begun the process of decolonization. French West Africa, French Indochina, and French Algeria still sent representatives to the French parliament under systems of limited suffrage in the French Union. Algeria in particular, despite being the colony with the largest French population, saw rising pressure for separation from the Métropole. The situation was complicated by those in Algeria, such as the Pieds-Noirs, who wanted to stay part of France, so the Algerian War became not just a separatist movement but had elements of a civil war.

Further complications came when a section of the French Army rebelled and openly backed the Algérie française movement to defeat separation. Revolts and riots broke out in 1958 against the French government in Algiers, but there were no adequate and competent political initiatives by the French government in support of military efforts to end the rebellion owing to party politics. The feeling was widespread that another debacle like that of Indochina in 1954 was in the offing and that the government would order another precipitous pullout and sacrifice French honor to political expediency. This prompted General Jacques Massu to create a French settlers' committee[11] to demand the formation of a new national government under General Charles de Gaulle, who was a national hero and had advocated a strong military policy, nationalism and the retention of French control over Algeria. General Massu, who had gained prominence and authority when he ruthlessly suppressed Algerian militants, famously declared that unless General de Gaulle was returned to power, the French Army would openly revolt; General Massu and other senior generals covertly planned the takeover of Paris with 1,500 paratroopers preparing to take over airports with the support of French Air Force units.[11] Armored units from Rambouillet prepared to roll into Paris.[12]

On 24 May, French paratroopers from the Algerian corps landed on Corsica, taking the French island in a bloodless action called Opération Corse.[11][12] Operation Resurrection would be implemented if de Gaulle was not approved as leader by the French Parliament, if de Gaulle asked for military assistance to take power, or to thwart any organized attempt by the French Communist Party to seize power or stall de Gaulle's return.

Charles de Gaulle, who had announced his retirement from politics a decade before, placed himself in the midst of the crisis, calling on the nation to suspend the government and create a new constitutional system. On 29 May 1958, French politicians agreed upon calling on de Gaulle to take over the government as prime minister. The French Army's willingness to support an overthrow of the constitutional government was a significant development in French politics. With Army support, de Gaulle's government terminated the Fourth Republic (the last parliament of the Fourth Republic voted for its dissolution) and drew up a new constitution proclaiming the French Fifth Republic in 1958.

Prime Ministers

Prime Ministers during the French Fourth Republic
Prime Minister Starting Party
Paul Ramadier 22 January 1947 SFIO
Robert Schuman 24 November 1947 MRP
Andre Marie 26 July 1948 Radical
Robert Schuman 5 September 1948 MRP
Henri Queuille 11 September 1948 Radical
Georges Bidault 28 October 1949 MRP
Henri Queuille 2 July 1950 Radical
Rene Pleven 12 July 1950 UDSR
Henri Queuille 10 March 1951 Radical
Rene Pleven 11 August 1951 UDSR
Edgar Faure 20 January 1952 Radical
Antoine Pinay 8 March 1952 CNIP
Rene Mayer 8 January 1953 Radical
Joseph Laniel 27 June 1953 CNIP
Pierre Mendes France 18 June 1954 Radical
Edgar Faure 23 February 1955 Radical
Guy Mollet 31 January 1956 SFIO
Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury 12 June 1957 Radical
Felix Gaillard 6 November 1957 Radical
Pierre Pflimlin 13 May 1958 MRP
Charles de Gaulle 1 June 1958 UNR


  1. ^ Taylor, O.R. (1951). The Fourth Republic Of France. London: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN B0006DAIX0 Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help).
  2. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1954 (1955) table 1075 p 899 online edition file 1954-08.pdf
  3. ^ Chiarella Esposito, America's feeble weapon: funding the Marshall Plan in France and Italy, 1948-1950 (Greenwood, 1994).
  4. ^ John W. Young, France, the Cold War and the Western Alliance, 1944-49: French foreign policy and post-war Europe (1990).
  5. ^ Alan Fimister, Robert Schuman: Neo-Scholastic Humanism and the Reunification of Europe (2008)
  6. ^ Maurice Larkin, France since the Popular Front: Government and People 1936–1996 (1997) pp 240-1.
  7. ^ Martin Windrow, The French Indochina War 1946–54 (Osprey Publishing, 2013)
  8. ^ Thomas J. Christensen (2011). Worse Than a Monolith: Alliance Politics and Problems of Coercive Diplomacy in Asia. Princeton University Press. pp. 123–25. ISBN 978-1400838813.
  9. ^ Alexander Werth, The Strange History of Pierre Mendès France and the Great Conflict over French North Africa (London, 1957)
  10. ^ Dell, Edmund (1995). The Schuman Plan and the British Abdication of Leadership in Europe. Oxford: Clarendon Press..
  11. ^ a b c Jacques Massu obituary
  12. ^ a b Crozier, Brian; Mansell, Gerard (July 1960). "France and Algeria". International Affairs. 36 (3): 310–321. doi:10.2307/2610008. JSTOR 2610008.

Further reading

  • Alexander, Martin, and John FV Keiger. "France and the Algerian War: strategy, operations and diplomacy." Journal of Strategic Studies 25.2 (2002): 1-32.
  • Aron, Raymond. France Steadfast and Changing: The Fourth to the Fifth Republic (Harvard University Press, 1960)
  • Bell,David, et al. A Biographical Dictionary of French Political Leaders since 1870 (1990), 400 short articles by experts
  • Brogi, Alessandro. A question of self-esteem: the United States and the Cold War choices in France and Italy, 1944–1958 (Greenwood, 2002)
  • Connelly, Matthew James. A diplomatic revolution: Algeria's fight for independence and the origins of the post-cold war era (Oxford University Press, 2002)
  • Evans, Martin. Algeria: France's Undeclared War (2012), a scholarly history
  • Giles, Frank. The locust years: The story of the Fourth French Republic, 1946–1958 (Secker & Warburg, 1991)
  • Hitchcock, William I. France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for Leadership in Europe, 1944–1954 ( Univ of North Carolina Press, 1998) Online
  • Horne, Alistair. A savage war of peace: Algeria 1954-1962 (1977), classic narrative
  • Krasnoff, Lindsay. The Making of Les Bleus: Sport in France, 1958–2010 (2013)
  • Larkin, Maurice. France since the Popular Front: Government and People 1936–1986 (1997), scholarly survey
  • Lynch, Frances. France and the International Economy: from Vichy to the Treaty of Rome (Routledge, 2006)
  • McMillan, James F. Twentieth-Century France: Politics and Society in France 1898–1991 (Oxford University Press, 1992)
  • Marshall, D. Bruce. The French Colonial Myth and Constitution-Making in the Fourth Republic (1973)
  • Nord, Philip. France's New Deal: From the Thirties to the Postwar Era (Princeton University Press. 2010)
  • Pickles, Dorothy. France, the Fourth Republic (Greenwood Press, 1976)
  • Rioux, Jean-Pierre, and Godfrey Rogers. The Fourth Republic, 1944–1958 (Cambridge University Press, 1987), scholarly survey
  • Soutou, Georges‐Henri. "France and the Cold War, 1944–63." Diplomacy and Statecraft 12.4 (2001): 35-52.
  • Sowerwine, Charles. France since 1870: culture, politics and society (Palgrave, 2001)
  • Sutton, Michael. France and the construction of Europe, 1944–2007: the geopolitical imperative (Berghahn Books, 2011)
  • Trachtenberg, Marc. "France and NATO, 1949–1991." Journal of Transatlantic Studies 9.3 (2011): 184-194.
  • Williams, Philip Maynard. Crisis and Compromise: Politics in the Fourth Republic (1964)
  • Williams, Philip Maynard. Politics in Post-War France: Parties and the Constitution in the Fourth Republic (1954) Online

Coordinates: 48°52′0″N 2°19′59″E / 48.86667°N 2.33306°E

Aimé Césaire

Aimé Fernand David Césaire (; French: [sezɛʁ]; 26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and French poet, author and politician from Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francophone literature". His works included Une Tempête, a response to Shakespeare's play The Tempest, and Discours sur le colonialisme (Discourse on Colonialism), an essay describing the strife between the colonizers and the colonized. His works have been translated into many languages.

Antoine Pinay

Antoine Pinay (French pronunciation: ​[ɑ̃twan piˈnɛ]; 30 December 1891 – 13 December 1994) was a French conservative politician. He served as Prime Minister of France in 1952.

Christian Pineau

Christian Pineau (French pronunciation: ​[kʁistjɑ̃ pino]; 14 October 1904, in Chaumont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, France – 5 April 1995, in Paris) was a noted French Resistance fighter, who later served an important term as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the late 1950s.

Pineau was born in 1904 in Chaumont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, France. His stepfather was the writer Jean Giraudoux, who was married to Pineau's mother. Later, Christian Pineau would say that it was Giraudoux who gave him his love of writing.

A World War II French Resistance leader and a close ally of Charles de Gaulle, Pineau was arrested by the Gestapo in 1943 and survived Buchenwald concentration camp.

Pineau represented the Sarthe department as a Socialist in the French National Assembly from 1946 to 1958. After the war, he served as a minister in French governments, 1945–1958. He was minister of supply in Charles de Gaulle's government (1945) and minister of public works (1947–1950) in various governments.

He was finance minister for a short time in 1948. Pineau was designated as prime minister of France by President René Coty after the February 1955 resignation of Pierre Mendès-France, but the National Assembly refused to ratify his cabinet by 312 votes against 268; his prime ministership lasted for two days between 17 and 19 February 1955.

As foreign minister (February 1956 – May 1958), Pineau was responsible for handling the Suez crisis and for signing the Treaty of Rome on behalf of France. With Guy Mollet, he visited Moscow. In October 1956, he signed the Protocol of Sèvres with Great Britain and Israel on behalf of France.

Pineau was a lifelong advocate of European integration.

Pineau is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris.

Edgar Faure

Edgar Faure (French: [ɛdɡaʁ foʁ]; 18 August 1908 – 30 March 1988) was a French politician, essayist, historian, and memoirist.

Félix Gaillard

Félix Gaillard d'Aimé (French: [feliks ɡajaʁ]; 1919–1970) was a French Radical politician who served as Prime Minister under the Fourth Republic from 1957 to 1958. He was the youngest head of a French government since Napoleon.

Félix Gouin

Félix Gouin (French: [feliks ɡwɛ̃]; 4 October 1884 – 25 October 1977) was a French Socialist politician who was a member of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO).

Georges Bidault

Georges-Augustin Bidault (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔʁʒ bido]; 5 October 1899 – 27 January 1983) was a French politician. During World War II, he was active in the French Resistance. After the war, he served as foreign minister and prime minister on several occasions before he joined the Organisation armée secrète.

Henri Queuille

Henri Queuille (French: [ɑ̃ʁi køj]; 31 March 1884 – 15 June 1970) was a French Radical politician prominent in the Third and Fourth Republics. After World War II, he served three times as Prime Minister.

Jacques Chaban-Delmas

Jacques Chaban-Delmas (French pronunciation: ​[ʒak ʃabɑ̃ dɛlmas]; 7 March 1915 – 10 November 2000) was a French Gaullist politician. He served as Prime Minister under Georges Pompidou from 1969 to 1972. He was the Mayor of Bordeaux from 1947 to 1995 and a deputy for the Gironde département.

Joseph Laniel

Joseph Laniel (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔzɛf lanjɛl]; 12 October 1889, Vimoutiers, Orne – 8 April 1975, Paris) was a French conservative politician of the Fourth Republic, who served as Prime Minister for a year from 1953 to 1954. During the middle of his tenure as Prime Minister Laniel was an unsuccessful candidate for the French Presidency, a post won by René Coty. Laniel was born in Vimoutiers, Orne, and died in Paris, France.

Co-founder of the Republican Party of Liberty (PRL), then of the National Center of Independents and Peasants (CNIP), Laniel's cabinet was overturned after the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu in Indochina in 1954. He was succeeded by Pierre Mendès France.

Léopold Sédar Senghor

Léopold Sédar Senghor (; French: [sɑ̃ɡɔʁ]; 9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who, for two decades, served as the first president of Senegal (1960–80). Ideologically an African socialist, he was the major theoretician of Négritude. Senghor was also the founder of the Senegalese Democratic Bloc party.

Senghor was the first African elected as a member of the Académie française. He is regarded by many as one of the most important African intellectuals of the 20th century.

Maurice Schumann

Maurice Schumann (10 April 1911, Paris – 9 February 1998, Paris) was a French politician, journalist, writer, and hero of the Second World War who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Georges Pompidou from 22 June 1969 to 15 March 1973. Schumann was a member of the Christian democratic Popular Republican Movement.

The son of an Alsatian Jewish father and Roman Catholic mother, he studied at the Lycée Janson de Sailly and the Lycée Henri-IV. He converted to his mother's faith in 1937. He once said of France's fate when suffering the Allied bombing raids, ‘….and now we are reduced to the most atrocious fate: to be killed without killing back, to be killed by friends without being able to kill our enemies’. During the Second World War he broadcast news reports and commentaries into France on the BBC French Service some 1,000 times in programs such as Honneur et Patrie. He was called by some the "voice of France".During a meeting of the foreign ministers of the European Community in 1969, he stated France's conditions for Britain joining the community on its third application, i.e. questions of agricultural finance had to be settled first. Schumann died on 9 February 1998 in Paris, aged 86.

Paul Ramadier

Paul Ramadier (French pronunciation: ​[pɔl ʁamadje]; 17 March 1888 – 14 October 1961) was a prominent French politician of the Third and Fourth Republics. Mayor of Decazeville, starting in 1919, he served as the first Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic in 1947.

On 10 July 1940, he voted against the granting of the full powers to Marshal Philippe Pétain, who installed the Vichy regime the next day.

Ramadier took part in the Resistance where he used the nom de guerre Violette. His name was included in the Yad Vashem Jewish memorial after the war. It was during his first ministry that the Communists were forced out of the government in May 1947, ending the "tripartisme" coalition between the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), Popular Republican Movement and Communists. He voted for the Marshall Plan.

From 1956 until 1957, Ramadier was Minister of Finance under Guy Mollet.

Pierre Mendès France

Pierre Isaac Isidore Mendès France (French: [pjɛʁ mɑ̃dɛs fʁɑ̃s]; 11 January 1907 – 18 October 1982), known as PMF, was a French politician who served as President of the Council of Ministers (equivalent in the French Fourth Republic to Prime Minister) for eight months from 1954 to 1955. He represented the Radical Party, and his government had the support of the Communist party. His main priority was ending the war in Indochina, which had already cost 92,000 dead, 114,000 wounded and 28,000 captured on the French side. Public opinion polls showed that, in February 1954, only 7% of the French people wanted to continue the fight to regain Indochina out of the hands of the Communists, led by Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh movement. At the Geneva Conference of 1954 he negotiated a deal that gave the Viet Minh control of Vietnam north of the seventeenth parallel, and allowed him to pull out all French forces. The United States then provided large-scale financial, military and economic support to South Vietnam.

Pierre Pflimlin

Pierre Eugène Jean Pflimlin (French pronunciation: ​[pjɛʁ flimlɛ̃]; 5 February 1907 – 27 June 2000) was a French Christian democratic politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic for a few weeks in 1958, before being replaced by Charles de Gaulle during the crisis of that year.

René Pleven

René Pleven (French pronunciation: ​[ʁəne pləvɛ̃]; 15 April 1901 – 13 January 1993) was a notable French politician of the Fourth Republic. A member of the Free French, he helped found the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance (UDSR), a political party that was meant to be a successor to the wartime Resistance movement. He served as prime minister two times in the early 1950s, where his most notable contribution was the introduction of the Pleven Plan, which called for a European Defence Community between France, Italy, West Germany, and the Benelux countries.

Robert Buron

Robert Buron (27 February 1910 – 28 April 1973) was a French politician and Minister of Finance from 20 January 1955 to 23 February 1955 and Minister of Public Works, Transport, and Tourism during Charles de Gaulle's third term from 9 June 1958 to 8 January 1959.

Robert Lacoste

Robert Lacoste (5 July 1898 – 8 March 1989) was a French politician. He was a socialist MP of the Dordogne from 1945 to 1958, and from 1962 to 1967. He then served as senator from 1971 to 1980.

Édouard Herriot

Édouard Marie Herriot (French: [edwaʁ ɛʁjo]; 5 July 1872 – 26 March 1957) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic who served three times as Prime Minister and for many years as President of the Chamber of Deputies. He was leader of the first Cartel des Gauches.

Hérriot was born at Troyes, France on 5 July 1872. He served as Mayor of Lyon from 1905 until his death, except for a brief period from 1940 to 1945, when he was exiled to Germany for opposing the Vichy regime. As mayor, Herriot improved relations between municipal government and local unions, increased public assistance funds, and launched an urban renewal programme, amongst other measures. He died in Lyon on 26 March 1957. He is buried at the Cimetière de Loyasse.


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