Freethinkers' Party

The Freethinkers' Party (Greek: Κόμμα των Ελευθεροφρόνων) was a Greek nationalist and monarchist party founded and led by Ioannis Metaxas who was the Prime Minister and dictator of Greece from 1936 to 1941.[3] It was formally founded in November 1922 after the adoption of the party's manifesto that was unveiled on 13 October 1922.[4] Metaxas had the party and all other parties dissolved following the establishment of the 4th of August Regime, in which he ruled as an official independent.[5]

The first programmatic declaration of the party was published in the daily Nea Imera on 13 October 1922.

Freethinker's Party

Κόμμα των Ελευθεροφρόνων
LeaderIoannis Metaxas
FoundedNovember 1922
Dissolved4 August 1936
Split fromPeople's Party
HeadquartersAthens, Greece
NewspaperNea Imera
IdeologyGreek nationalism
Agrarianism
Monarchism
Metaxism[1]
Political positionFar-right
ReligionGreek Orthodox
International affiliationNone
Colours     Black
Party flag
Freethinkers Party flag

[2]

Electoral results

Results 1926–1936
(year links to election page)
Year Type of Election Votes % Mandates
1926
General
151,660
15.78
52 / 286
1928
General
53,958
5.3
1 / 250
1929
Senate
22,518
2.73
2 / 92
1932
General
18,591
1.59
3 / 254
1933
General
25,758
2.3
6 / 248
1936
General
50,137
3.9
7 / 300

References

  1. ^ www.ioannismetaxas.gr/Komma%20Eleftherofronon.pdf
  2. ^ http://metaxas-project.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/6K12.025-%CE%9F-%CE%99%CF%89%CE%B1%CC%81%CE%BD%CE%BD%CE%B7%CF%82-%CE%9C%CE%B5%CF%84%CE%B1%CE%BE%CE%B1%CC%81%CF%82-%CE%B1%CF%80%CE%B5%CF%85%CE%B8%CF%85%CC%81%CE%BD%CE%B5%CE%B9-%CE%BB%CE%BF%CC%81%CE%B3%CE%BF-%CF%83%CF%84%CE%B1-%CE%BC%CE%B5%CC%81%CE%BB%CE%B7-%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%85-%CE%BA%CE%BF%CC%81%CE%BC%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%82-%CF%84%CF%89%CE%BD-%CE%95%CE%BB%CE%B5%CF%85%CE%B8%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%86%CF%81%CE%BF%CC%81%CE%BD%CF%89%CE%BD.jpg
  3. ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 276.
  4. ^ Marina Petrakis. The Metaxas Myth: Dictatorship and Propaganda in Greece. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I. B. Taurus, 2006. Pp. 18.
  5. ^ Jürgen Fischer. Balkan strongmen: dictators and authoritarian rulers of South Eastern Europe. London, England, UK: Purdue University Press, 2007. Pp. 181.
1926 Greek legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 7 November 1926. The Liberal Union emerged as the largest faction in Parliament with 108 of the 286 seats. The composition of the new parliament meant that the parties and factions had to work together to form a viable parliamentary government. On Kafandaris' initiative negotiations began among the main parties, leading to the swearing-in on the 4 December of a government under the premiership of Alexandros Zaimis who was not a member of parliament. The coalition consisted of the Liberal Union, the Democratic Union, the People's Party and the Freethinkers' Party. This government came to be known as the "Ecumenical government".

1928 Greek legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 19 August 1928. The result was a victory for the Liberal Party, which won 178 of the 250 seats.

1929 Greek Senate election

Senate elections were held in Greece on 21 April 1929. The Senate was a new institution introduced with the Greek Constitution of 1927 and these were the first elections for it. The result was a victory for the Liberal Party, which won 64 of the 92 seats. It was regarded as a public approval of the policies of Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos.

1933 Greek legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 5 March 1933. The pro-monarchist People's Party emerged as the largest party, winning 118 of the 248 seats in Parliament, ending the predominance of Eleftherios Venizelos' Liberal Party. The results triggered an attempted coup by Venizelist officers. A military emergency government under Alexandros Othonaios was instituted which suppressed the revolt, and was succeeded by a People's Party cabinet under Panagis Tsaldaris on 10 March.

1936 Greek legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 26 January 1936. The Liberal Party emerged as the largest party in Parliament, winning 126 of the 300 seats.

Andreas Tzimas

Andreas Tzimas (Greek: Ανδρέας Τζήμας; Kastoria, 1 September 1909 – Prague, 1 December 1972), known also under his World War II-era nom de guerre of Vasilis Samariniotis (Βασίλης Σαμαρινιώτης), was a leading Greek Communist politician, best known as one of the leading triumvirate of the Greek People's Liberation Army during the Axis occupation of Greece. After the war, he fell into disfavour and died in obscurity in exile in Prague.

Epistratoi

The Epistratoi (Greek: Επίστρατοι, "Reservists") were a royalist paramilitary organization in Greece during World War I, in the context of the National Schism. They played a major role in the Noemvriana of 1916.

They are considered the first mass political organization in the country, directed against the liberal bourgeoisie and foreign intervention, and are considered part of the wider European precursor movements to Fascism.

Georgios Athanasiadis-Novas

Georgios Athanasiadis–Novas (Greek: Γεώργιος Αθανασιάδης-Νόβας) (February 9, 1893 – August 10, 1987) was a Greek poet, lawyer and politician who served as Prime Minister for one month in 1965.

Born in Naupactus, he obtained his law degree from the University of Athens. He was first elected to the Greek Parliament in 1926 representing his native prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania, and was repeatedly elected to office until 1964.

A lawyer by trade, he served as Minister for the Interior in 1945, Minister for Education in 1950 and Minister for Industry in 1951.

In 1961, however, he was one of many conservatives who joined the Center Union (EK), in opposition to the corruption of right-wing governments at the time. In 1964, after EK came into power, he became Speaker of the Greek Parliament.

On July 15, 1965 he was appointed Prime Minister of Greece by king Constantine, after the latter dismissed George Papandreou, Sr., a move that is known as Apostasia of 1965. He was followed by many EK conservatives and with support from conservative National Radical Union MPs tried to form a government, but failed to get past a vote of confidence in parliament. He was replaced on August 20 of the same year.

In July 1974 he was one of the politicians who brokered the end of the Regime of the Colonels and the appointment of Constantine Karamanlis as Prime Minister.

Athanasiadis-Novas also wrote some poetry and prose under the pen name Georgios Athanas (Γεώργιος Αθάνας). Literary critics found very little in the way of value in his works, but he found some popularity among his detractors, who used them to ridicule his less-than-distinguished political career. The stanza:

Itan ta stithia sou

aspra san galata

kai mou 'leges:

gargala taYour breasts were

White as milk

And you urged me

"Tickle them!"gained him the comical nickname "Gargalatas", Tickler. Only after 40 years has it been proven that the fact that he wrote this stanza was an urban legend. It all started from an article of Costas Stamatiou at the newspaper Ta Nea, with the intention to ridicule him. Lefteris Papadopoulos cleared up the situation with an article at the same newspaper in 2004.

He died in Athens in 1987, aged 94.

Greek Rally

Greek Rally (Greek: Ἑλληνικὸς Συναγερμός (ΕΣ), Ellīnikòs Synagermós (ES)) was a right-wing political party in Greece.

Greek nationalism

Greek nationalism (or Hellenic nationalism) refers to the nationalism of Greeks and Greek culture. As an ideology, Greek nationalism originated and evolved in pre-modern times. It became a major political movement beginning in the 18th century, which culminated in the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) against the Ottoman Empire. It became a potent movement in Greece shortly prior to, and during World War I under the leadership of nationalist figure Eleftherios Venizelos who pursued the Megali Idea and managed to liberate Greece in the Balkan Wars and after World War I, briefly annexed the region of İzmir before it was retaken by Turkey. Today Greek nationalism remains important in the Greco-Turkish dispute over Cyprus.

Ioannis Metaxas

Ioannis Metaxas (; Greek: Ιωάννης Μεταξάς; 12 April 1871 – 29 January 1941) was a Greek military officer and politician, serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. He governed constitutionally for the first four months of his tenure, and thereafter as the strongman of the authoritarian 4th of August Regime. On 28 October 1940, he denied an ultimatum imposed by the Italians to surrender Greece to the Axis powers, thus bringing Greece into World War II.

Konstantinos Tsaldaris

Konstantinos Tsaldaris (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Τσαλδάρης, 1884–15 November 1970) was a Greek politician and twice Prime Minister of Greece.

Tsaldaris was born in Alexandria, Egypt. He studied law at the University of Athens as well as Berlin, London and Florence. He became a prefectural politician from 1915 to 1917.

In 1926, he was elected as a deputy for the first time in the Argolidocorinthia prefecture (now split into Argolis and Corinthia) with the Freethinkers' Party of Ioannis Metaxas. In 1928, he became a member of the People's Party, the leader of which was his uncle Panagis Tsaldaris. He entered Panagis Tsaldaris' second government as Vice Minister of Transportation from 1933 to 1935, and continued as Under-Secretary to the Prime Minister. After the death of Panagis Tsaldaris in 1936, he became a member of the administrative commission of the People's Party, which was however soon dissolved under the dictatorship of Metaxas.

After Liberation in 1944, he was recognized as the leader of the reborn People's Party, and won in the controversial 1946 elections as leader of the right-wing "United Patriotic Party" coalition and became prime minister of Greece from April 1946 through January 1947. His government carried out the plebiscite on the return of the monarchy in August 1946.

During 1947-1949 he acted as the head of the Greek representation in the UN General Assembly. He was Deputy Prime Minister during the governments of Dimitrios Maximos (1947), Themistoklis Sophoulis (1947–1949) and Alexandros Diomidis (1949–1950). He once again became prime minister from August 1947 until September of the same year.

With the foundation and rise to power of the Greek Rally of Marshal Alexandros Papagos, the People's party lost a large part of its electoral base and Tsaldaris did not win in the 1952 election. He was voted into Parliament with the Liberal Democratic Union, in the 1956 elections, but in the 1958 elections, as head of the Union of Populars, he failed to be elected. Shortly afterwards he ended his political career. He died in Athens in 1970.

List of fascist movements by country

This is a list of political parties, organizations, and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology. Since definitions of fascism vary, entries in this list may be controversial. For a discussion of the various debates surrounding the nature of fascism, see fascism and ideology and definitions of fascism.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of fascist movements by country A–F

List of fascist movements by country G–M

List of fascist movements by country N–T

List of fascist movements by country U–Z

Metaxism

Metaxism (Greek: Μεταξισμός) is a totalitarian nationalist ideology associated with Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas. It called for the regeneration of the Greek nation and the establishment of a modern, culturally homogenous Greece. Metaxism disparaged liberalism, and held individual interests to be subordinate to those of the nation, seeking to mobilize the Greek people as a disciplined mass in service to the creation of a "new Greece."Metaxas declared that his 4th of August Regime (1936–1941) represented a "Third Greek Civilization" which was committed to the creation of a culturally purified Greek nation based upon the militarist societies of ancient Macedonia and Sparta, which he held to constitute the "First Greek Civilization"; and the Orthodox Christian ethic of the Byzantine Empire, which he considered to represent the "Second Greek Civilization." The Metaxas regime asserted that true Greeks were ethnically Greek and Orthodox Christian, intending to deliberately exclude Albanians, Slavs, and Turks residing in Greece from Greek citizenship.Although the Metaxas government and its official doctrines are often described as Fascist, academically it is considered to have been a conventional totalitarian-conservative dictatorship akin to Francisco Franco's Spain or António de Oliveira Salazar's Portugal. The Metaxist government derived its authority from the conservative establishment and its doctrines strongly supported traditional institutions such as the Greek Orthodox Church and the Greek Monarchy; essentially reactionary, it lacked the radical theoretical dimensions of ideologies such as Italian Fascism and German Nazism.The ideology of Metaxism was associated with Metaxas' political party, the Freethinkers' Party and the 4th of August Regime. In the post-war period it has been advocated by the 4th of August Party and the Golden Dawn party.

National Front (Greece)

The National Front (Greek: Eθνικό Mέτωπο, romanized: Ethniko Metopo) is a far-right Greek nationalist political party. It has been active from 2012.

It is led by Manos Konstas.

National Youth Organisation (Greece)

The National Youth Organisation (Greek: Εθνική Οργάνωσις Νεολαίας, Ethnikí Orgánosis Neoléas, EON) was a youth organization in Greece during the years of the Metaxas Regime (1936–1941), established by the regime with the stated goals of helping the youth in the productive spending of their free time and cultivating their national values and cooperative spirit.

Membership was not mandatory, and—unlike most contemporary political youth organizations in Europe—EON was not affiliated with a political party, but there was widespread successful campaigning by the regime to include the largest part of the youth to EON, and later took over the scouts and other such organizations, although typically membership still remained strictly voluntary. However, only Christians could enroll and Muslims and Jews could not become EON members. There were some exceptions on Jews though.Some of the activities that EON members were involved in included athletics events, parades and marches, military training, reforestations, recycling.

The official -monthly- magazine of EON was The Youth (Greek: Η Νεολαία).

The emblem of EON was a labrys surrounded by laurel wreaths and topped with a royal crown, while the flag of EON was similar to the flag of Greece—featuring a white cross on a blue fiend—with the emblem of EON charged in the center in gold and the royal crown moved to the upper hoist side quadrant. The motto of EON was "One Nation, One King, One Leader, One Youth".The EON disbanded in late April 1941 with the start of the German occupation of Greece when some of its former members created the secret occupation resistance/liberation organizations "National Youth Commity" and—the strictly female—"SPITHA" under the leadership of Metaxas' daughter Loukia Metaxa.

People's Party (Greece)

The People's Party (Greek: Λαϊκὸν Κόμμα, Laïkòn Kómma) was a conservative and pro-monarchist Greek political party founded by Dimitrios Gounaris, the main political rival of Eleftherios Venizelos and his Liberal Party. The party existed from 1920 until 1958.

Popular Social Party

The Popular Social Party (Greek: Λαϊκό Κοινωνικό Κόμμα) was a Greek political party that formed after a split from the People's Party. It was founded in January 1956 by Stefanos Stefanopoulos.

The Popular Social Party participated in the elections of 1956 but failed to enter the parliament. In the elections of 1958 it participated with other right-wing in the Union of Populars and elected 2 MPs.

Union of Royalists

The Union of Royalists (Greek: Ένωσις Βασιλοφρόνων) was a coalition of far-right Greek political parties for the elections of 1935.

Its main leader was Ioannis Metaxas. Members to the coalition were:

Freethinkers' Party

Ioannis Rallis

Georgios Stratos

several independent royalists and former members of the People's Party

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