Freestone (masonry)

A freestone is a stone used in masonry for molding, tracery and other replication work required to be worked with the chisel. Freestone, so named because it can be freely cut in any direction, must be fine-grained, uniform and soft enough to be cut easily without shattering or splitting. Some sources, including numerous nineteenth century dictionaries, say that the stone has no grain, but this is incorrect. Oolitic stones are generally used, although in some countries soft sandstones are used; in some churches an indurated chalk called clunch is employed for internal lining and for carving. Some believe that freemason originally meant one who is capable of carving freestone.[1]


  1. ^ "Freemasonry, in Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911". Retrieved 2014-08-22.

See also

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Free-stone" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 88.


Degollado (Spanish: [deɣoˈʝaðo]) is a small town and municipality in the eastern highlands of the Mexican state of Jalisco. The municipality encompasses Huascato, Los Ranchitos, La Vibora, Buenos Aires, Las Limas, Altamira, La Chancla and El Corral de Piedra.

In Spanish, the word degollado means "to slit one's throat", "behead", or "decapitate". It is also a last name, and in this case the town was named after Mexican general Santos Degollado. A statue of him is in el Jardin de Niños which was made from coins from the townspeople during the early 1960s.

On December 24, 1917, the town was under siege by the bandit leader J. Inés García Chávez and his men. It was also one of the places in highlands of Jalisco where the Cristero War took place during the 1920s.

Degollado is known for its cantera (freestone masonry). One of the best selling products are stone images of the virgin of Guadalupe and sculptures, such as fountains, animals, and columns. It is known for alternative treatments (in the Rinconada, Degollado) such as acupuncture, massage and herbal medicine.

The holy patroness of Degollado is Our Lady of Guadalupe and is celebrated on December 12.

It has about 21,000 citizens.


Freestone or free stone may refer to:

Freestone (masonry)

Freestone (drupe)

Freestone peach

Freestone stream

USS Freestone (APA-167), a Haskell-class attack transport

Paisley Canal line

The Paisley Canal Railway line is a branch line running from Glasgow, Scotland, through three stations in Paisley, to North Johnstone. After leaving Paisley West station, near Ferguslie, the line continued to Elderslie junction where it met and crossed under the main Glasgow and South Western Railway line running from Paisley Gilmour Street station to Johnstone, and beyond. After Elderslie, the line terminated at North Johnstone, however another junction allowed services from the Paisley Canal line (also part of the Glasgow and South Western Railway Company) to continue onto the Bridge of Weir Railway and Greenock and Ayrshire Railway to the latter's terminus at Greenock Princes Pier.

The line has its origins in the ambitions of Hugh Montgomerie, 12th Earl of Eglinton, who had headed and championed both the Glasgow, Paisley and Johnstone Canal and the Ardrossan Railway. While these had been aimed to developing a route between Ardrossan and Glasgow, these routes were only part-built due to a lack of available finance for the work. During the mid-1800s, the Glasgow and South Western Railway (G&SWR) acquired both the canal and the railway. While the canal was operated as such for a time, during 1881, G&SWR set about the conversion of the canal to a railway line to relieve the Glasgow and Paisley joint line. During March 1885, the first trains commenced used of the new line.

During the 1960s, services on the line were dramatically curtailed as a result of the Beeching cuts; during these years, various stations were closed to both passenger and freight services and often demolished. On 10 January 1983, the line between Elderslie and Kilmacolm closed completely to scheduled passenger services; but the section between Hawkhead and Shields Junction remained open to serve an oil depot. During the late 1980s, a Strathclyde Passenger Transport initiative resulted in the resumption of passenger services between Glasgow Central and a new Paisley Canal station, along with five intermediate stations, on 27 July 1990. In the years since its re-launch, additional stations have been built and opened on the route. During 2012, the entirety of the line was electrified, being furnished with a 25 kV AC overhead line for electric traction.

River Cart Aqueduct

The River Cart Aqueduct, sometimes known as the Blackhall Bridge, is a railway bridge and former navigable aqueduct in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland. It opened in 1811 as an aqueduct to carry the Glasgow, Paisley and Johnstone Canal over the White Cart Water. Following the closure of the canal in 1881, it was converted to a railway bridge in 1885, and now carries the Paisley Canal Line. It is registered as a Category A listed building by Historic Environment Scotland.

University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown

University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, also known as UPJ or Pitt-Johnstown, is a four-year, degree-granting state-related university institution that is a residential, regional campus of the University of Pittsburgh. The university is located in Richland Township, a suburban area of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, and was founded in 1927 as one of the first regional campuses of a major university in the United States. UPJ is ranked as the 28th best baccalaureate college in the North and the eighth best public baccalaureate college in the North by U.S. News & World Report in its "America's Best Colleges 2010" annual college guide. UPJ is also listed among the "Best Colleges in the Northeastern Region" by The Princeton Review.

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