The freedom to roam, or "everyman's right", is the general public's right to access certain public or privately owned land, lakes, and rivers for recreation and exercise. The right is sometimes called the right of public access to the wilderness or the "right to roam".
In Scotland, the Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and the Central European countries of Austria, Czech Republic and Switzerland, the freedom to roam takes the form of general public rights which are sometimes codified in law. The access is ancient in parts of Northern Europe and has been regarded as sufficiently basic that it was not formalised in law until modern times. However, the right usually does not include any substantial economic exploitation, such as hunting or logging, or disruptive activities, such as making fires and driving offroad vehicles.
Ancient traces provide evidence of the freedom to roam in many European countries, suggesting such a freedom was once a common norm. Today, the right to roam has survived in perhaps its purest form in Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Here the right has been won through practice over hundreds of years and it is not known when it changed from mere 'common practice' to become a commonly recognised right. A possible explanation as to why the right has survived mainly in these five countries is that feudalism and serfdom were not established there. Another factor is the survival of large areas of unenclosed forest. Elsewhere in Europe land was gradually enclosed for private use and enjoyment, with commoners' rights (for instance, rights to gather fuel or graze animals) largely eliminated.
Today these rights underpin opportunities for outdoor recreation in several of the Nordic countries, providing the opportunity to hike across or camp on another's land (e.g. in Sweden for one or two nights), boating on someone else's waters, and picking wildflowers, mushrooms and berries. However, with these rights come responsibilities; that is, an obligation neither to harm, disturb, litter, nor to damage wildlife or crops.
Access rights are most often for travel on foot. Rights to fish, hunt or take any other product are usually constrained by other customs or laws. Building a fire is often prohibited (though in Sweden and Norway fires are allowed with proper safety precautions). Making noise is discouraged. In some countries, putting up a tent in the forest for one night is allowed, but not the use of a caravan. Access does not extend to built up or developed land (such as houses, gardens) and does not necessarily include commercial exploitation of the land. For example, workers picking berries may be legal only with the landowner's permission.
There are some significant differences in the rules of different countries. In Denmark, there is a more restricted freedom to roam on privately held land. All dunes and beaches and all publicly owned forests are open to roaming. Uncultivated, unfenced areas are open to daytime roaming irrespective of ownership status. Privately owned forest have access by roads and tracks only.
In Finland, the freedom to roam and related rights are called "jokamiehenoikeus" in Finnish and "allemansrätten" in Swedish (lit. "the everyman's right"), similar to other Nordic countries. Everyone may walk, ski, ride a horse or cycle freely in the countryside where this does not harm the natural environment or the landowner, except in gardens or in the immediate vicinity of people's homes (yards). Fields and plantations, which may easily be harmed, may usually not be crossed except in the winter. It is also possible to establish outdoor recreation routes on private land, based on an agreement on the rights of use or by official proceedings in accordance with the Outdoor Recreation Act, for example.
One may stay or set up camp temporarily in the countryside, a reasonable distance from homes, pick mineral samples, wild berries, mushrooms and flowers (as long as they are not protected species). One may fish with a rod and line (only still waters), row, sail or use a motorboat on waterways (with certain restrictions), and swim or bathe in both inland waters and the sea. One can walk, ski and ice fish on frozen lakes, rivers and the sea. Income from selling picked berries or mushrooms is tax-free. Picking cloudberry may be temporarily restricted to local residents in parts of Lapland. In the autonomous province of Åland the right to camp's inclusion in the right to roam was disputed, but since 2013 this is no longer the case.
One may not disturb others or damage property, disturb breeding birds (or their nests or young), or disturb reindeer or game animals. One may not cut down or damage living trees, or collect wood, moss or lichen on other people's property, nor may one light open fires without the landowner's permission (except in an emergency). It is acceptable, however, to use an alcohol burner, wood stove or similar device that has no hot parts touching the ground. One may not disturb the privacy of people's homes by camping too near to them or making too much noise, nor litter, drive motor vehicles off-road without the landowner's permission, or fish (excluding angling) or hunt without the relevant permits. If horse riding causes more than a minor inconvenience or disturbance, an agreement for the long term use of the route must be made with the landowner. A horse may also be taken to swim in a water body without the consent of the owner of the water area (excluding public beaches).
The right is a positive right in the respect that only the government is allowed to restrict it as in the case of strict nature reserves. However, the exact definition remains mostly uncodified and based on the principle of nulla poena sine lege (what is not illegal cannot be punished).
Everyone in Norway enjoys the right of access to, and passage through, uncultivated land in the countryside. The right is an old consuetudinary law called the allemannsrett (lit. the everyman's right), that was codified in 1957 with the implementation of the Outdoor Recreation Act. It is based on respect for the countryside, and all visitors are expected to show consideration for farmers and landowners, other users and the environment. In Norway the terms utmark and innmark divide areas where the right to roam is valid (utmark, literally something like "land outside [the boundaries]") and where it is invalid or restricted (innmark, "land inside [the boundaries]"). The law specifies innmark thoroughly, and all areas not covered by this definition are defined as utmark, generally speaking uninhabited and uncultivated areas. Cultivated land may only be crossed when frozen and covered in snow.
There are some basic rules that must be followed when camping in Norway:
In later years the right has come under pressure particularly around the Oslo Fjord and in popular areas of Southern Norway. These areas are popular sites for holiday homes and many owners of coastal land want to restrict public access to their property. As a general rule, building and partitioning of property is prohibited in a 100-meter zone closest to the sea, but local authorities in many areas have made liberal use of their ability to grant exemptions from this rule. However, even if a land owner has been permitted to build closer to the shore, he may not restrict people from walking along the shore. Fences and other barriers to prevent public access are not permitted (but yet sometimes erected, resulting in heavy fines).
Canoeing, kayaking, rowing and sailing in rivers, lakes, and ocean are allowed. Motorised boats are only permitted in salt water. All waters are open for swimming – with the exception of lakes that are drinking water reservoirs (see for instance Maridalsvannet).
Wild berry foraging is part of the right. Picking cloudberries may, however, be restricted on privately owned land in northern parts of Norway.
Hunting rights belong to the landowner, and thus hunting is not included in the right of free access. In freshwater areas such as rivers and lakes, the fishing rights belong to the landowner. Freshwater fishing may only be conducted with the permission of the landowner and by those in possession of a fishing licence. Different rules apply for children under the age of 16. Children under the age of 16 have the right to fish without a licence, a right codified in 1992. This right was tried and upheld in a ruling from the Norwegian Supreme Court in 2004.
In salt water areas there is free access to sports fishing using boats or from the shoreline. All fishing is subject to legislation to, among other things, protect biological diversity, and this legislation stipulates rules regarding the use of gear, seasons, bag or size limits and more.
In Sweden allemansrätten (lit. "the everyman's right") is a freedom granted by the Constitution of Sweden. Since 1994 the Instrument of Government says that notwithstanding the right to own property "everyone shall have access to nature in accordance with allemansrätten". What this means is not further explicated on in the constitution, and only sparsely in other legislation. In practice, allemansrätten is defined as actions that are not crimes, will not make a person liable to pay damages, nor can be prohibited by any authority. As in other Nordic countries, the Swedish right to roam comes with an equal emphasis being placed upon the responsibility to look after the countryside; the maxim is "do not disturb, do not destroy".
Allemansrätten gives a person the right to access, walk, cycle, ride, ski, and camp on any land—with the exception of private gardens, the immediate vicinity of a dwelling house and land under cultivation. Restrictions apply for nature reserves and other protected areas. It also gives the right to pick wild flowers, mushrooms and berries (provided one knows they are not legally protected), but not to hunt in any way. Swimming in any lake and putting an unpowered boat on any water is permitted unless explicitly forbidden. Visiting beaches and walking by a shoreline is permitted, providing it is not a part of a garden or within the immediate vicinity of a residence (legally defined as the hemfridszon). The hemfridszon's size depends on conditions but can be as large as 70 metres from an ordinary dwelling house. To better protect access to water and the right to walk along beaches, it is since 1975 generally not permitted to build a new house near (generally 100 m) from a beach and/or shoreline.
Fishing remains essentially private—apart from on the biggest five lakes and the coast of the Baltic Sea, the Sound, Kattegat and Skagerrak. It is permitted to drive a car on a private road unless explicitly signposted otherwise. Small camp fires are generally permitted, but in some periods banned by local authorities due to wild fire risk. It is allowed to put up a tent on any uncultivated land for a night or two. There has been some controversy on commercial use of the berry picking rights, when companies legally contract people to pick berries in the forests.
Many Swedish people consider this to be a form of legacy or human right. Thus to put up a 'no trespassing' sign would be considered a violation.
Like other Nordic countries Icelandic law contains a version of the freedom to roam, the right to access uncultivated land, camp there, pick berries, and in some months even light a campfire. "It is permissible to cross uncultivated private property without seeking any special permission, but landowners may limit routes with signs or other marks. State-owned land such as conservation areas and forestry areas are open to everyone with few exceptions. These exceptions include – but are not limited to – access during breeding seasons or during sensitive growth periods".
Hikers should, however, "avoid taking shortcuts over fenced areas, pastures and private plots", and follow the rules in conservation areas. Footpaths should also be followed, if they exist, to help protect the landscape. Furthermore "landowners may not hinder passage of walkers alongside rivers, lakes and ocean, or on tracks and paths'. Cycling may be restricted on some paths. Equestrians must keep to bridleways where they exist and in other places show "consideration for the land".
Fishing requires a license but collecting "berries, mushrooms, seaweed and other plants for immediate consumption" is permitted on "public lands and highland pastures".
In Estonia, it is permitted to access natural and cultural landscapes on foot, by bicycle, skis, boat or on horseback.
Private property may be accessed at any time. If the private property is fenced or posted against trespassing, the permission of the owner is required to proceed. The owner of the private property is also required to post signs stating the ownership of the land, and contact numbers, to avoid legal issues. Land owners may not block access to land, roads or bodies of water that are public or designated for public use, including ice and shore paths.
All bodies of water that are public or designated for public use have public shore paths that are up to 4 m wide. The shore path along a navigable body of water may extend to a distance of 10 m of the water line. The owner may not close this path even if the private property is posted or marked with no-trespassing signs. Grazing areas and other enclosed areas along the shore paths must have stiles. Ponds with no outlet located entirely on the land of one land owner and lakes smaller than five hectares located on land belonging to more than one land owner shall not be in public use. Permission from the landowner is required to access such bodies of water.
Neither do bodies of water protected as sources of drinking water or which are in use by aquaculture or are in other special use have a shore path. All of the rights and responsibilities regarding humans’ interaction with nature are collectively termed everyman’s right. Everyman’s right does not pertain to the organizing of sporting events or other public events in open country. To organize these, the permission of the landowners or other possessors of land, and if necessary, of the local government, must be sought.
The following is permitted in nature:
The following is prohibited:
Article 13 of Section I of the Constitution of Belarus guarantees that all forest and farm land is publicly owned. Forty percent of the country's territory is covered by forest, and approximately the same amount devoted to agriculture.
According to the Forest Code (Article 13) "citizens have the right to freely stay in the forest and collect wild fruits, berries, nuts, mushrooms, other food, forest resources and medicinal plants to meet their own needs."
The right to roam in Austria, particularly in forests and mountainous areas, is called Wegefreiheit. Since 1975 the right to roam in forests is guaranteed by Federal law. In particular, walking, running, hiking, and resting are automatically allowed to the public in most forest areas. However, horse riding, bike riding, and camping are not, and may only be practised with the land owner's permission. A large proportion of the forest area in Austria is owned by government bodies such as the Österreichische Bundesforste, but the same restrictions still apply. In some circumstances forests may be closed to the public for environmental reasons. The situation in mountainous areas is less clear, and differs from state to state. Some states, such as Carinthia, Styria, and Salzburg guarantee a right to roam in mountainous areas (usually defined as above the tree line), for all recreational activities. In other states, such as Tyrol, Lower Austria, and Burgenland, no explicit right to roam exists and land owners reserve the right to deny access. In practice, however, such restrictions are rarely enforced, since mountain tourism is an important industry in Austria. 
The old legal institute of "right of the way" (imbedded in the Civil Code) has its roots in Austria-Hungary law. This legal institution is applied when one land owner has a need to go through alien lands for access to his own land.
The Nature and Countryside Preservation Act, gives a legal right to roam through country ("veřejná přístupnost krajiny", public accessibility of countryside or wilderness – excluding parcels owned by a natural person). Some types of land are excluded from compulsory public accessibility: settled and building grounds, courtyards, gardens, orchards, vineyards, hop gardens, grounds destined for animal husbandry. Fields and arable land are excluded during seasons when herbage or soil would be damaged, pasture lands are excluded during cattle grazing. In national natural preserves, national natural monuments, national parks and in the first zones of landscape protected areas, state authorities can restrict public access (ordinarily only to roads or only to marked routes). Special acts can exclude also other areas (e. g. military areas, rail tracks etc.).
According to Forest Act, forests are publicly accessible ("obecné užívání lesa", common use of forest – including private ones) and citizens have a legal right to enter the forests. The right of gathering dry twigs lying on the ground and berries for personal purpose is also guaranteed. However, biking, sledge riding, skiing and horseback riding are allowed only on forest roads. Public motor vehicle riding is prohibited (highroads going through forest are not considered as parts of the forest – because they are not considered as "forest land" in land ragistration). Common use of forest can be restricted by the owner in military forests, protected areas, forest nurseries, forest orchards, deer parks, pheasantries etc.
The Road Act defines obecné užívání pozemních komunikací (common use of roads – some road can be excluded), The Water Act defines "obecné užívání povrchových vod" (common use of surface waters).
The Swiss Civil Code provides that forest and pasture are accessible freely for everyone, as long as there is no excessive usage. Except in special cases like the protection of young forest or biotopes it is not allowed to fence in forest areas. This also applies to private property. Certain activities related to excessive usage and the potential to cause damage, such as events in the woods, or access with cars, may be dependent on special authorisation. Similar regulations are in place for land which is not usable (e.g. stretches of water, rock, snow and ice), regardless of the land being unowned (i.e. being under the control of the canton and not able to be claimed as private property) or privately owned. The canton may also choose to restrict the freedom to roam in order to protect nature (e.g. the gathering of mushrooms, berries, wood, etc. in forests).
In the United Kingdom, outside of Scotland, access to much uncultivated and unenclosed land was restricted prior the enactment of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. Access to land in England and Wales is still more limited than in Northern Europe, and some other European countries, while access is very limited in Northern Ireland. Property was formerly protected in England and Wales mostly to preserve the landowner's hunting or fishing rights. The Ramblers' Association, which works to increase the rights of walkers in the United Kingdom, was a driving force behind this legislation.
In England and Wales, after a polarised debate about the merits, rights and benefits of private landowners and public recreation, in 2000 the Government legislated to introduce a limited right to roam, without compensation for landowners. The Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (CROW) was gradually implemented from 2000 onwards to give the general public the conditional right to walk in certain areas of the English and Welsh countryside: principally downland, moorland, heathland and coastal land. Forests and woodlands are excluded, other than publicly owned forests, which have a similar right of access by virtue of a voluntary dedication made by the Forestry Commission. Developed land, gardens and certain other areas are specifically excluded from the right of access. Agricultural land is accessible if it falls within one of the categories described above. People exercising the right of access have certain duties to respect other people's rights to manage the land, and to protect nature.
The new rights were introduced region by region through England and Wales, with completion in 2005. Maps showing accessible areas have been produced. Traditionally the public could walk on established public footpaths and bridleways, on common land and on the foreshore, and land owners could prevent access to other areas (or charge a fee for access).
Angling interests successfully lobbied for the exclusion of rivers in England and Wales from CROW, leaving other river users such as swimmers and canoeists with access restricted to less than 2% of navigable water. The British Canoe Union is running the Rivers Access Campaign, to highlight the level of restrictions the public face in gaining access to inland waterways in England and Wales.
Much of the Dartmoor National Park has been designated as 'Access Land', although it remains privately owned, since the Dartmoor Commons Act 1985, with no restrictions on where walkers can roam. Because of the 1985 Act, Dartmoor was largely unaffected by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, which established similar rights in other rural parts of the country, but in 2006, this Act opened up much of the remaining restricted land to walkers.
In Scotland the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 comprehensively codified into Scots law the ancient tradition of the right to universal access to the land in Scotland. The act specifically establishes a right to be on land for recreational, educational and certain other purposes and a right to cross land. The rights exist only if they are exercised responsibly, as specified in the Scottish Outdoor Access Code.
Access rights apply to any non-motorised activities, including walking, cycling, horse-riding and wild camping. They also allow access on inland water for canoeing, rowing, sailing and swimming. The rights confirmed in the Scottish legislation are greater than the limited rights of access created in England and Wales by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (CRoW).
Access rights in Northern Ireland have been described as being "the most regressive and restrictive access legislation in Europe. Most of the routes used to reach our mountains, hills, seashores, rivers and national monuments pass over private land. In almost all cases, the walker has no right to be there." The Access to the Countryside (Northern Ireland) Order 1983 gave some rights, but access is generally modelled on the restrictive 1949 English/Welsh law. The absence of a tradition of access, political influence of landowners and problems of governance have been blamed for the lack of freedom to roam.
Keep Ireland Open is a voluntary campaign organisation with the aim of improving access to the countryside. Journalist Fintan O'Toole called Irish law "perhaps the most negative and mean-minded regime for walkers in Europe". Access rights in Ireland have been described as being "the most regressive and restrictive access legislation in Europe. Most of the routes used to reach our mountains, hills, seashores, rivers and national monuments pass over private land. In almost all cases, the walker has no right to be there." The national parks are described by Keep Ireland Open as "the only places in Ireland where freedom to roam exists", but they only cover 0.9% of the country. Comhairle na Tuaithe was established by Éamon Ó Cuív, Minister for Community, Rural & Gaeltacht Affairs in 2004 to mediate between landowners, state agencies and recreational users of the countryside.
Property rights within the United States include the right to exclude others. On federally owned property, the property clause of the constitution grants the United States Congress the authority to regulate federal property "without limitations". Similarly, private property owners can restrict access to, through, or over their property. All navigable waterways and their banks, including those crossing private properties can be accessed by the public for means of travel, recreation, ingress/egress with some restrictions on anchoring of boats depending on the state. This right to waterway access is protected by the U.S. Constitution.
In the United States governmental entities including cities, counties, states, and the federal government all manage land which are referred to as either public lands or the public domain. The majority of public lands in the United States are held in trust for the American people by the federal government and include about 640 million acres of land, about 28% of the total land area of 2.27 billion acres. Any person, including non-citizens can legally access and recreate on these lands lawfully. This is often referred to as the North American model of land conservation.
Many states have additionally enacted recreational use statutes to encourage landowners to open their property to hiking, hunting, fishing, swimming and other recreational activities. These statutes shield landowners from liability in negligence actions should those using the land recreationally be injured by something on the land; without such statutes, those using the land for these purposes with permission would be invitees or licensees depending on whether or not they had paid for the privilege, and would thus be able to sue the landowner in the event of injury under most circumstances. However, no state applies a general permission to enter private lands of any kind for recreational purposes.
California's "California Coastal Act" provides a similar right for its beaches, and is successfully suing riparian property owners who try to use trespassing laws to restrict public access to the public portions of a beach. 
Florida's state constitution establishes a public trust of "sovereignty lands", including wet beaches "below mean high water lines … for all the people," respecting a freedom to roam there, regardless of any private neighboring dry beach. Local ordinances typically limit this freedom strictly to roaming on foot, and prohibit driving motor vehicles or beaching boats. 
The Oregon Beach Bill (House Bill 1601, 1967) was a piece of landmark legislation in the U.S. state of Oregon, passed by the 1967 session of the Oregon Legislature. It established public ownership of land along the Oregon Coast from the water up to sixteen vertical feet above the low tide mark.
Much of Canada is Crown land owned by the provinces. Some is leased for commercial activity, such as forestry or mining, but on much of it there is free access for recreational activities like hiking, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, horse back riding, and licensed hunting and fishing, etc. At the same time access can be restricted or limited for various reasons (e.g., to protect public safety or resources, including the protection of wild plants and animals). In the Canadian Territories Crown land is administered by the Canadian Federal Government. Canadian National Parks have been created from Crown land and are also administered by the Federal Government. There are also provincial parks and nature reserves that have been similarly created. The aboriginal peoples in Canada may have specific rights on Crown land established under treaties signed when Canada was a British colony, and have claimed ownership of some Crown land.
In Ontario, Canadian citizens and people who have lived in Canada for at least 7 months of the preceding 12-month period are allowed to camp for free up to 21 days on any one site in a calendar year, on crown land/conservation reserves .
Although formerly a British colony, Australians only have limited access to the land, according to The Sydney Morning Herald. However, much of Australia’s land area is Crown land, which is administered by the Australian states, and while a lot of this consists of pastoral leases, and Aboriginal reserves, access is normally permitted for recreational purposes to “unallocated” Crown land; though motorized vehicles are required to follow roads.
There is extensive public access in New Zealand, including waterways and the coast, but it is "often fragmented and difficult to locate".
In 2007 the government of New Zealand reviewed the rights of public access for outdoor recreation. However, unlike the United Kingdom, "the New Zealand review recommended no increase in the public's right to access private property".
In recent years population growth has increased pressure on some areas popular for hiking and increased mobility and affluence has made previously remote areas more accessible. There is some concern that without ecological education, some recreational users have limited understanding of the economic and natural systems they are exploring, though significant harm or damage is unusual, the main concerns being disturbance of sensitive species of wildlife (particularly by dogs), and litter.
The 1992 Rio Convention on Biodiversity (subscribed to by 189 countries) expressed some caution about the potential effect of unlimited access, especially in tropical forests, where slash and burn practices undermine biodiversity. For this reason, broad public access rights are challenged in some countries' resulting Biodiversity Action Plan.
Critics from defenders of proprietorship sometimes assert that the All People's Right threatens the essence of ownership and the "management practices" of property owners, who may or may not have created and preserved environmentally important qualities  Private owners and their representatives have also argued that newly created access rights ought to lead to financial compensation for private landowners.
Men inget sägs om vad den rätten närmare är för något. Inte heller annan lagstiftning ger klart besked om detta.
Access rights may refer to:
Access rights (medieval law), the right of a liege lord to use a vassal's castle, fortified house or fortified town in time of conflict
Freedom to roam, the right to access public land
Access to Information Act, a Canadian act that allows public access to government information
Disability rights movement, disabled access to public and private locations is a key issue
Access control, the ability to permit or deny the use of something by someone
File system permissions, security control over file access in computer operating systems
Harvey v. Horan, a U.S. Federal Court case which decided right of access to DNA testing
Right of public access to the wildernessBlå Jungfrun
Blå Jungfrun, also known as "Blåkulla", in English sometimes rendered literally as The Blue Maiden is a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea. It is situated in the Kalmar Strait, between the mainland province of Småland and the island province of Öland. Administratively, the uninhabited island is part of the municipality of Oskarshamn and covers an area of approximately 0.7 km2 (0.27 sq mi) with a mean height above sea level of 86 m (282 ft). Home to black guillemots and a Swedish National Park since 1926, freedom to roam at Blå Jungfrun is limited with visitors prohibited from staying overnight on the island or making fires.
The island consists partly of bare rock with the remainder covered in dense hardwood forest. There are several caves and an ancient stone labyrinth from which it is forbidden to remove stones.
Geologically the island is an ancient inselberg rising from the Sub-Cambrian peneplain. After its formation in the Precambrian time Blå Jungfrun was buried in sandstone being shielded for erosion. It was freed from its sandstone cover in geologically recent times.Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000
The Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (c 37), known as the CRoW Act is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament affecting England and Wales which came into force on 30 November 2000.Culture of Estonia
The culture of Estonia combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the country's Finnic national language Estonian, with Nordic cultural aspects. The culture of Estonia is considered to be largely influenced by Germanic culture, having grown out of it. Due to its history and geography, Estonia's culture has also influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's Baltic Finns, Baltic Germans and Slavs, as well as by cultural developments in the former dominant powers, Sweden, Denmark and Russia. Traditionally, Estonia has been seen as an area of rivalry between western and eastern Europe on many levels. An example of this geopolitical legacy is an exceptional combination of multiple nationally-recognized Christian traditions: Western Christianity (the Catholic Church and the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church) and Eastern Christianity (the Orthodox Church (the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church)). The symbolism of the border or meeting of east and west in Estonia was well illustrated on the reverse side of the 5 krooni note. Like the mainstream cultures in the other Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism arising out of practical reasons (see freedom to roam and universal suffrage), and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency.Easement
An easement is a nonpossessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it. It is "best typified in the right of way which one landowner, A, may enjoy over the land of another, B". It is similar to real covenants and equitable servitudes; in the United States, the Restatement (Third) of Property takes steps to merge these concepts as servitudes.Easements are helpful for providing pathways across two or more pieces of property, allowing individuals to access other properties or a resource, for example to fish in a privately owned pond or to have access to a public beach. An easement is considered as a property right in itself at common law and is still treated as a type of property in most jurisdictions.
The rights of an easement holder vary substantially among jurisdictions. Historically, the common law courts would enforce only four types of easement:
Right-of-way (easements of way)
Easements of support (pertaining to excavations)
Easements of "light and air"
Rights pertaining to artificial waterwaysModern courts recognize more varieties of easements, but these original categories still form the foundation of easement law.Institute of Public Rights of Way and Access Management
The Institute of Public Rights of Way and Access Management (IPROW) is an independent society representing individuals involved in the management of public rights of way and other access in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Its members are principally local government officers, some are employees in a private company performing the contracted-out rights of way function, and a minority are self-employed specialists, lawyers or performing associated work in private, public or third sectors.
Rights of way in England and Wales are the minor highways — public footpaths, bridleways and byways — which are recorded by surveying authorities (usually county councils or unitary authorities) on Definitive Maps and Statements of public rights of way, as prescribed in the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949.
Depending on the size of the highway authority, rights of way officers may be involved in any or all of the duties to maintain the legal record, assert the public right and maintain the ways so they are usable. Large authorities may have several officers, each specialising in one duty or another, smaller authorities may have officers each dealing with all duties in an area, which in a small authority may be the whole of its area.Keep Ireland Open
Keep Ireland Open is a voluntary campaign organisation established to promote access to the Irish countryside and walkways. Founded in 1994, its current chairman is former Green Party TD, Roger Garland. The group believes Irish legislation protecting rights-of-way and access to recreational use of land is inadequate and minimal. It consists of combination of individual members and various outdoors and environmental groups; including the Irish Ramblers, An Óige, all of the Scout and Guide Associations, the United Farmers Association, Irish Wildlife Trust, Association of Irish Riding Clubs, Federation of Local History Society and numerous other walking groups. It claims that the Republic of Ireland has one of the poorest records of protecting walking routes in Europe and that it is heavily influenced by farmers' lobby groups that resist further legislation. The organisation states freedom to roam over rough grazing land, a network of well-maintained rights-of-way in lowland areas and minimisation of barbed-wire fencing in mountain areas and beaches, as its aspirations. Keep Ireland Open has also been involved in several individual access disputes around the country, in Wicklow, Cork, Sligo, Donegal, Mayo and many other areas. These include groups such as the Uggool Beach and Free the Old Head of Kinsale campaigns which campaign actively for restoration of public access where it was previously enjoyed.
Keep Ireland Open representatives make presentations to government bodies, county councils, and submissions to Oireachtas Committees in support of the right to roam.Kjell Christian Ulrichsen
Kjell Christian Ulrichsen (born 18 November 1944) is a Norwegian businessperson.
Along with Erik Must, Ulrichsen established the stock broker Fondsfinans. The two later bought part of the publishing company Gyldendal Norsk Forlag. On 26 November 2008, he sold his shares to Must for NOK 350 per share, even though co-owner Trygve Hegnar, with whom they were in a conflict, had bid NOK 500. Through the company Stabæk Holding he owns Telenor Arena, the home ground of Stabæk Fotball, and was previously one of the club's main owners.From the age of two until the age of eighteen, Ulrichsen lived at an orphanage. He is cousin of Queen Sonja. He has had a legal conflict with Sandefjord Municipality regarding his property on Østerøya regarding him trying to hinder the public their freedom to roam.List of national parks of Norway
Norway has 47 national parks, of which 37 are on the mainland and 7 on Svalbard. National parks in Norway are stricter than many other countries, and nearly all motorized vehicles are prohibited. The freedom to roam applies, thus hiking, skiing and camping throughout the park are permitted, given that consideration to nature is taken. Roads, accommodation and national park centers are located outside the national parks. The parks are under the management of the Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management and the local county governor.Ytre Hvaler is a marine park and all parks in Svalbard also contain marine areas. Sør-Spitsbergen is the largest park, covering an area of 13,286 km2 (5,130 sq mi), although only 5,141 km2 (1,985 sq mi) is land. The largest park on the mainland is Hardangervidda, which covers an area of 3,422 km2 (1,321 sq mi). Gutulia is the smallest, covering 23 km2 (8.9 sq mi).Mass trespass of Kinder Scout
The mass trespass of Kinder Scout, also called the Kinder mass trespass, was a notable act of wilful trespass by ramblers. It was undertaken at Kinder Scout, in the Peak District of Derbyshire, England, on 24 April 1932, to highlight the fact that walkers in England and Wales were denied access to areas of open country. Political and conservation activist Benny Rothman of the Young Communist League of Manchester was one of the leaders of the mass trespass.Nikola Šarčević
Nikola Šarčević (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Шарчевић; born 9 July 1974, Örebro) is a Swedish musician of Serbian origin. He is the bassist, vocalist, and primary songwriter for the Swedish punk rock band Millencolin and also have a solo career with 4 studio albums.Open Country
"Open Country" is a designation used for some UK access land.
It was first defined under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 (and extended by the Countryside Act 1968), and was land over which an appropriate access agreement had been made. In particular significant upland areas of the northern Peak District, where there had been much dispute over access prior to World War II, were so designated (see Mass trespass of Kinder Scout).
The term is also used in the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 to describe 'areas of mountain, moor, heath and down' that are generally available for access under that Act. (It appears that the rights conferred by this new definition are in general less comprehensive than those conferred under the 1949 Act, but will apply to a wider area.)
The Countryside Agency's publication Managing Public Access appears to envisage that most land originally designated under the 1949 Act will in due course receive redesignation under the CRoW Act, as the original access agreements lapse.Open Spaces Society
The Open Spaces Society is a campaign group that works to protect public rights of way and open spaces in the United Kingdom, such as common land and village greens. It is Britain's oldest national conservation body and a registered charity.Right of way
Right of way is a term used to describe "the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another", or "a path or thoroughfare subject to such a right". This article is mainly about access by foot, by bicycle, horseback, or along a waterway, and Right-of-way (transportation) focusses on highways, railways, pipelines, etc. A footpath is a right of way that can only be used by pedestrians.
A similar right of access also exists on some public land in the United States. In Canada, Australia and New Zealand, such land may alternatively be called Crown land.
In some countries, especially in Northern Europe, where the freedom to roam has historically taken the form of general public rights, a right of way may not be restricted to specific paths or trails.
When one person owns a piece of land which is bordered on all sides by lands owned by others, a court will be obliged to grant that person a right of way through the bordering land.Rights of way in England and Wales
In England and Wales, other than in the 12 Inner London Boroughs and the City of London, the "right of way" refers to paths on which the public have a legally protected right to pass and re-pass. The law in England and Wales differs from Scots law in that rights of way exist only where they are so designated (or are able to be designated if not already), whereas in Scotland any route that meets certain conditions is defined as a right of way, and in addition there is a general presumption of access to the countryside ("right to roam"). Private rights of way or easements also exist (see also Highways in England and Wales).Rivers Access Campaign
The Rivers Access Campaign is being undertaken by the British Canoe Union (BCU) to open up the inland water-ways in England and Wales on behalf of members of the public. Under current England and Wales law, public access to rivers is restricted, and only 2% of all rivers in England and Wales have public access rights. The BCU is using the campaign not just to raise awareness of the access issues, but to try to bring about changes in the law.
The campaign uses slogans such as "We have been given the Right To Roam, But not Permission To Paddle!" and "Access for All". Also, a series of informative posters and pamphlets have been produced using cartoon artwork by Andrew Quick.Scottish Outdoor Access Code
The Scottish Outdoor Access Code provides detailed guidance on the exercise of the ancient tradition of universal access to land in Scotland, which was formally codified under the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003. Under Scots law everyone has the right to be on most land and inland water for recreation, education and going from
place to place providing they act responsibly. The basis of access rights in Scotland is one of shared responsibilities, in that those exercising such rights have to act responsibly, whilst landowners and managers have a reciprocal responsibility to respect the interests of those who exercise their rights. The code provides detailed guidance on these responsibilities.
Access rights apply to any non-motorised activities, including walking, cycling, horse-riding and wild camping. They also allow access on inland water for canoeing, rowing, sailing and swimming.
The rights confirmed in the Scottish legislation are greater than the limited rights of access created in England and Wales by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (CRoW).This Code has been approved by both the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament. It is expected to provide sufficient guidance to ensure that most access problems can be resolved by reference to it. Failure to comply with the Code is not, in of itself, an offence, however where a dispute cannot be resolved and is referred to the Sheriff for determination, the court will consider whether the guidance in the Code has been disregarded by any of the parties.Scottish Rights of Way and Access Society
The Scottish Rights of Way and Access Society was formed in 1845 as the 'Association for the Protection of Public Rights of Roadway in and around Edinburgh'. By 1885 it had become the 'Scottish Rights of Way and Recreation Society' and traded as the 'Scottish Rights of Way Society between 1993 and 1999. The Society which also promotes itself through the shortened title ‘ScotWays’, is a charity and, since 1946, a company limited by guarantee based in Edinburgh. Its aims relate to the preservation and improvement of access to the Scottish countryside.The Society first published a book Scottish Hill Tracks in 1947. Now in its fifth edition, it details routes for walkers, cyclists and horse-riders.