Freedom of Information Act (United States)

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, is a federal freedom of information law that requires the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government upon request. The Act defines agency records subject to disclosure, outlines mandatory disclosure procedures, and defines nine exemptions to the statute.[1][2] President Lyndon B. Johnson, despite his misgivings,[3][4] signed the Freedom of Information Act into law on July 4, 1966, and it went into effect the following year.[5]

As indicated by its long title, FOIA was actually extracted from its original home in Section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). Section 3 of the APA, as enacted in 1946, gave agencies broad discretion concerning the publication of governmental records. Following concerns that the provision had become more of a withholding than a disclosure mechanism, Congress amended the section in 1966 as a standalone act to implement "a general philosophy of full agency disclosure." The amendment required agencies to publish their rules of procedure in the Federal Register, 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(1)(C), and to make available for public inspection and copying their opinions, statements of policy, interpretations, and staff manuals and instructions that are not already published in the Federal Register, § 552(a)(2). In addition, § 522(a)(3) requires every agency, "upon any request for records which ... reasonably describes such records" to make such records "promptly available to any person." If an agency improperly withholds any documents, the district court has jurisdiction to order their production. Unlike the review of other agency action that must be upheld if supported by substantial evidence and not arbitrary or capricious, FOIA expressly places the burden "on the agency to sustain its action," and directs the district courts to "determine the matter de novo."

The federal government's Freedom of Information Act should not be confused with the different and varying freedom of information law enacted by the individual states.

Freedom of Information Act
Great Seal of the United States (obverse)
Long titleAn Act to amend section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, chapter 324, of the Act of June 11, 1946 (60 Stat. 238), to clarify and protect the right of the public to information, and for other purposes.
Acronyms (colloquial)FOIA
  • Public Information Act of 1966
  • Public Information Availability
Enacted bythe 89th United States Congress
EffectiveJuly 5, 1967
Public law89-487
Statutes at Large80 Stat. 250
Acts amendedAdministrative Procedure Act
Titles amended5 U.S.C.: Government Organization and Employees
U.S.C. sections created5 U.S.C. ch. 5, subch. II § 552
Legislative history
Major amendments
  • Privacy Act of 1974, PL 93–579, 88 Stat 1896
  • Government in the Sunshine Act, PL 94–409, 90 Stat 1241
  • Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, PL 99–570, 100 Stat 3207
  • Electronic Freedom of Information Act of 1996
  • The Intelligence Authorization Act of 2002, PL 107-306, 116 Stat 2383
  • OPEN Government Act of 2007, PL 110-175, 121 Stat 2524
  • Wall Street Reform Act of 2010
  • FOIA Improvement Act of 2016
United States Supreme Court cases
Department of Justice v. Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press
Department of Justice v. Landano
Scott Armstrong v. Executive Office of the President


With the ongoing stress on both constitutional and inherent rights of American citizens and the added assertion of government subservience to the individual, some, particularly representative John Moss, thought that it was necessary for government information to be available to the public. This push built on existing principles and protocols of government administration already in place.

Others, though—most notably President Lyndon B. Johnson—believed that certain types of unclassified government information should nonetheless remain secret. Notwithstanding the White House's opposition, Congress expanded Section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act as a standalone measure in 1966 to further standardize the publication of government records, consistent with the belief that the people have the "right to know" about them. The Privacy Act of 1974 was passed as a countervailing measure to ensure the security of government documents increasingly kept on private citizens.


The act explicitly applies only to executive branch government agencies. These agencies are under several mandates to comply with public solicitation of information. Along with making public and accessible all bureaucratic and technical procedures for applying for documents from that agency, agencies are also subject to penalties for hindering the process of a petition for information. If "agency personnel acted arbitrarily or capriciously with respect to the withholding, [a] Special Counsel shall promptly initiate a proceeding to determine whether disciplinary action is warranted against the officer or employee who was primarily responsible for the withholding."[6] In this way, there is recourse for one seeking information to go to a federal court if suspicion of illegal tampering or delayed sending of records exists. However, there are nine exemptions, ranging from a withholding "specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy" and "trade secrets" to "clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy."[6] The nine current exemptions to the FOIA address issues of sensitivity and personal rights. They are (as listed in Title 5 of the United States Code, section 552):[7]

  1. (A) specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy and (B) are in fact properly classified pursuant to such Executive order;[8]
  2. related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency;[8]
  3. specifically exempted from disclosure by statute (other than section 552b of this title), provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as to leave no discretion on the issue, or (B) establishes particular criteria for withholding or refers to particular types of matters to be withheld;[8] FOIA Exemption 3 Statutes
  4. trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential;[8]
  5. inter-agency or intra-agency memoranda or letters which would not be available by law to a party other than an agency in litigation with the agency;[8]
  6. personnel and medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy;[8]
  7. records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information (A) could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings, (B) would deprive a person of a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication, (C) could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, (D) could reasonably be expected to disclose the identity of a confidential source, including a State, local, or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on a confidential basis, and, in the case of a record or information compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation or by an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source, (E) would disclose techniques and procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions, or would disclose guidelines for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law, or (F) could reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety of any individual;[8]
    • Virginia's FOIA council refers to this as the criminal investigative files exemption[9][10][11]
  8. contained in or related to examination, operating, or condition reports prepared by, on behalf of, or for the use of an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions;[8] or
  9. geological and geophysical information and data, including maps, concerning wells.[8]

The Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 (at 39 U.S.C. § 410(c)(2)) exempts the United States Postal Service (USPS) from disclosure of "information of a commercial nature, including trade secrets, whether or not obtained from a person outside the Postal Service, which under good business practice would not be publicly disclosed".[12]


The law came about because of the determination of United States House of Representatives member John E. Moss of California. Moss was chairman of the House Government Information Subcommittee. It took Moss 12 years to get the Freedom of Information Act through Congress.[13] Much of the desire for government transparency stemmed from the Department of Defense and Congressional committees evaluation of the nation's classification system in the late 1950s. They determined that the misuse of government classification of documents was causing insiders to leak documents that were marked "confidential." The committee also determined that the lowest rung of the confidentiality ladder "confidential" should be removed. They deemed that "secret" and "top secret" covered National security adequately.[13] The Moss Committee took it upon itself to reform confidentiality policy and implement punishments for the overuse of classification by officials and departments.

The FOIA has been changed repeatedly by both the legislative and executive branches.

Initial enactment

The Freedom of Information Act was initially introduced as the bill S. 1160 in the 89th Congress. When the two-page bill was signed into law it became Pub.L. 89–487, 80 Stat. 250, enacted July 4, 1966, but had an effective date of one year after the date of enactment, or July 4, 1967. The law set up the structure of FOIA as we know it today.

That law was initially repealed. During the period between the enactment of the act and its effective date, Title 5 of the United States Code was enacted into positive law.[14] For reasons now unclear but which may have had to do with the way the enactment of Title 5 changed how the law being amended was supposed to be cited, the original Freedom of Information Act was replaced. A new act in Pub.L. 90–23, 81 Stat. 54, enacted June 5, 1967 (originally H.R. 5357 in the 90th Congress), repealed the original and put in its place a substantively identical law. This statute was signed on June 5, 1967, and had the same effective date as the original statute: July 4, 1967.

Privacy Act Amendments of 1974

Following the Watergate scandal, President Gerald R. Ford wanted to sign FOIA-strengthening amendments in the Privacy Act of 1974, but White House Chief of Staff Donald Rumsfeld and deputy Dick Cheney were concerned about leaks.[15] Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel Antonin Scalia advised the bill was unconstitutional and even telephoned the CIA asking them to lobby a particular White House staffer.[15] President Ford was persuaded to veto the bill on October 17, 1974, according to documents declassified in 2004.[15] However, on November 21, the lame-duck Congress overrode President Ford's veto, giving the United States the core Freedom of Information Act still in effect today, with judicial review of executive secrecy claims.[15][16]

Scalia remained highly critical of the 1974 amendments, writing years later that "It is the Taj Mahal of the Doctrine of Unanticipated Consequences, the Sistine Chapel of Cost-Benefit Analysis Ignored."[17] Scalia particularly disliked the availability of judicial review, decrying that if "an agency denies a freedom of information request, shazam!—the full force of the Third Branch of the government is summoned to the wronged party's assistance."[17]

These amendments that these FOIA regulate government control of documents which concern a citizen. It gives one "(1) the right to see records about [one]self, subject to the Privacy Act's exemptions, (2) the right to amend that record if it is inaccurate, irrelevant, untimely, or incomplete, and (3) the right to sue the government for violations of the statute including permitting others to see [one's] records unless specifically permitted by the Act."[18] In conjunction with the FOIA, the PA is used to further the rights of an individual gaining access to information held by the government. The Justice Department's Office of Information and Privacy and federal district courts are the two channels of appeal available to seekers of information.[19]

1976 Government in the Sunshine Act amendments

In 1976, as part of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Exemption 3 of the FOIA was amended so that several exemptions were specified:

  1. Information relating to national defense,
  2. Related solely to internal personnel rules and practices,
  3. Related to accusing a person of a crime,
  4. Related to information where disclosure would constitute a breach of privacy,
  5. Related to investigatory records where the information would harm the proceedings,
  6. Related to information which would lead to financial speculation or endanger the stability of any financial institution, and
  7. Related to the agency's participation in legal proceedings.

1982 Executive Order limiting the FOIA

Between 1982 and 1995, President Reagan's Executive Order 12356 allowed federal agencies to withhold enormous amounts of information under Exemption 1(relating to national security information), claiming it would better protect the country and strengthen national security.[20]

The outcry from the effect that the Reagan Order had on FOIA requests was a factor in leading President Clinton to dramatically alter the criteria in 1995.[21]

1986 Omnibus Anti-Drug Abuse Act amendments to the FOIA

The FOIA amendments were a small part of the bipartisan Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. Congress amended FOIA to address the fees charged by different categories of requesters and the scope of access to law enforcement and national security records. The amendments are not referenced in the congressional reports on the Act, so the floor statements provide an indication of Congressional intent.[22]

1995–99 expansion

Between 1995 and 1999, President Clinton issued executive directives (and amendments to the directives) that allowed the release of previously classified national security documents more than 25 years old and of historical interest, as part of the FOIA.[23] This release of information allowed many previously publicly unknown details about the Cold War and other historical events to be discussed openly.[21]

Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996

The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996 (E-FOIA) stated that all agencies are required by statute to make certain types of records, created by the agency on or after November 1, 1996, available electronically. Agencies must also provide electronic reading rooms for citizens to use to have access to records. Given the large volume of records and limited resources, the amendment also extended the agencies' required response time to FOIA requests. Formerly, the response time was ten days and the amendment extended it to twenty business days.[7]

2001 Executive Order limiting the FOIA

Executive Order 13233, drafted by Alberto R. Gonzales and issued by President George W. Bush on November 1, 2001, restricted access to the records of former presidents.

This order was revoked on January 21, 2009, as part of President Barack Obama's Executive Order 13489.[24] Public access to presidential records was restored to the original extent of five years (12 for some records) outlined in the Presidential Records Act.[25]

Intelligence Authorization Act of 2002 amending the FOIA

In 2002, Congress passed the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003, Pub.L. 107–306.[26] Within this omnibus legislation were amendments to the FOIA (pertaining mainly to intelligence agencies) entitled "Prohibition on Compliance with Requests for Information Submitted by Foreign Governments":[27]

Section 552(a)(3) of title 5, United States Code, is amended—

(1) in subparagraph (A) by inserting "and except as provided in subparagraph (E)", after "of this subsection"; and

(2) by adding at the end the following:

(E) An agency, or part of an agency, that is an element of the intelligence community (as that term is defined in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. § 401a(4))) shall not make any record available under this paragraph to—
(i) any government entity, other than a State, territory, commonwealth, or district of the United States, or any subdivision thereof; or
(ii) a representative of a government entity described in clause (i).

In effect, this new language precluded any covered U.S. intelligence agency from disclosing records in response to FOIA requests made by foreign governments or international governmental organizations. By its terms, it prohibits disclosure in response to requests made by such non-U.S. governmental entities either directly or through a "representative".[28] This means that for any FOIA request that by its nature appears as if it might have been made by or on behalf of a non-U.S. governmental entity, a covered agency may inquire into the particular circumstances of the requester in order to properly implement this new FOIA provision.[26]

The agencies affected by this amendment are those that are part of, or contain "an element of", the "intelligence community". As defined in the National Security Act of 1947 (as amended), they consist of the CIA, the National Security Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office (and certain other reconnaissance offices within the Department of Defense), the intelligence elements of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps, the FBI, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Energy, and the Coast Guard, the Department of Homeland Security, the Bureau of Intelligence and Research in the Department of State, and "such other elements of any other department or agency as may be designated by the President, or designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or agency concerned, as an element of the intelligence community".[26][29]

OPEN Government Act of 2007

President Bush signed the Openness Promotes Effectiveness in our National Government Act of 2007, Pub.L. 110–175, on December 31, 2007. This law, also known as the "OPEN Government Act of 2007", amended the federal FOIA statute in several ways.[30] According to a White House press release, it does so by:

  1. establishing a definition of "a representative of the news media;"
  2. directing that required attorney fees be paid from an agency's own appropriation rather than from the Judgment Fund;
  3. prohibiting an agency from assessing certain fees if it fails to comply with FOIA deadlines; and
  4. establishing an Office of Government Information Services (OGIS)[31] in the National Archives and Records Administration to review agency compliance with FOIA.[32]

Changes include the following:

  • it recognizes electronic media specifically and defines "News Media" as "any person or entity that gathers information of potential interest to a segment of the public, uses its editorial skills to turn the raw materials into a distinct work, and distributes that work to an audience."
  • it extends the 20-day deadline by allowing for up to 10 days between the FOIA office of the agency and the component of the agency holding the records and specifically allows for clarification of requests by the FOIA office (Effective 12/31/2007).
  • it calls for each agency to designate a FOIA Public Liaison, "who shall assist in the resolution of any disputes" (Effective 12/31/2008).
  • it requires agencies to assign tracking numbers to FOIA requests that take longer than 10 days, and to provide systems determining the status of a request.
  • it codifies and defines annual reporting requirements for each agency's FOIA program.
  • it specifically addresses data sources used to generate reports; "shall make the raw statistical data used in its reports available electronically ..."
  • it redefines the definition of an agency "record" to include information held for an agency by a government contractor.
  • it establishes an Office of Government Information Services (OGIS)[31] which will offer mediation services to resolve disputes as non-exclusive alternative to litigation.
  • it requires agencies to make recommendations personnel matters related to FOIA such as whether FOIA performance should be used as a merit factor.
  • it requires agencies to specify the specific exemption for each deletion or redaction in disclosed documents.

2009 Executive Order permitting retroactive classification

On December 29, 2009, President Barack Obama issued Executive Order 13526, which allows the government to classify certain specific types of information relevant to national security after it has been requested.[33] That is, a request for information that meets the criteria for availability under FOIA can still be denied if the government determines that the information should have been classified, and unavailable. It also sets a timeline for automatic declassification of old information that is not specifically identified as requiring continued secrecy.

2010 repeal of FOIA amendments in Wall Street reform act

The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, signed into law in July 2010, included provisions in section 929I[34][35] that shielded the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) from requests under the Freedom of Information Act. The provisions were initially motivated out of concern that the FOIA would hinder SEC investigations that involved trade secrets of financial companies, including "watch lists" they gathered about other companies, trading records of investment managers, and "trading algorithms" used by investment firms.[36]

In September 2010, the 111th Congress passed an act repealing those provisions. The act was introduced in the Senate on August 5, 2010 as S.3717[37] and given the name "A bill to amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Company Act of 1940, and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 to provide for certain disclosures under section 552 of title 5, United States Code, (commonly referred to as the Freedom of Information Act), and for other purposes."

Notable cases

A major issue in released documentation is government "redaction" of certain passages deemed applicable to the Exemption section of the FOIA. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officers in charge of responding to FOIA requests "so heavily redacted the released records as to preclude needed research."[19] This has also brought into question just how one can verify that they have been given complete records in response to a request.

J. Edgar Hoover

Lennon FBI Files Before HQ-11p1
Freedom of Information Act requests have led to the release of information such as this letter by J. Edgar Hoover about surveillance of ex-Beatle John Lennon. A 25-year battle by historian Jon Wiener based on FOIA, with the assistance of lawyers from the ACLU, eventually resulted in the release of documents like this one.

This trend of unwillingness to release records was especially evident in the process of making public the FBI files on J. Edgar Hoover. Of the 164 files and about eighteen thousand pages collected by the FBI, two-thirds were withheld from Athan G. Theoharis and plaintiff, most notably one entire folder entitled the "White House Security Survey." Despite finding out that the Truman Library had an accessible file which documented all the reports of this folder, the FBI and Office of Information and Privacy put forth "stony resistance" to the FOIA appeal process. (I–pg. 27) Some argue that it was not even this sixteen year series of three appeals to the Justice Department which gained a further opening of the files, but rather the case of Department of Justice v. Landano which spurred on a break in stolid FBI opposition.

Murder trial

A murder trial decided in 1993, Department of Justice v. Landano, 508 U.S. 165 (1993), involved what was alleged to be a felony murder committed during a group burglary by defendant Landano. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor wrote the unanimous opinion. "In an effort to support his claim in subsequent state court proceedings that the prosecution violated Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963), by withholding material exculpatory evidence, he filed Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests with the FBI for information it had compiled in connection with the murder investigation."[38]

In defense, the FBI put forth a claim that the redacted sections of the documents requested were withheld in accordance with FOIA regulations protecting the identity of informants who gave information regarding case details. However, O'Connor ruled that those who supplied information had no need to remain anonymous in the court setting. "To the extent that the Government's proof may compromise legitimate interests, the Government still can attempt to meet its burden with in camera affidavits." The court thus remanded the case to the Circuit Courts and rejected the FBI's claim of confidentiality as being a valid reason to withhold information.

"While most individual sources may expect confidentiality, the Government offers no explanation, other than administrative ease, why that expectation always should be presumed."[38] Thus, when Theoharis and company were in the middle of fighting in court to obtain J. Edgar Hoover files, they may well have benefited from Landano and also Janet Reno's assertions of the government's need for "greater openness" and "discretionary releases" in 1993.


In the case of Scott Armstrong v. Executive Office of the President, et al., the White House used the PROFS[19] computer communications software. With encryption designed for secure messaging, PROFS notes concerning the Iran–Contra affair (arms-for-hostages) under the Reagan Administration were insulated. However, they were also backed up and transferred to paper memos. The National Security Council, on the eve of President George H.W. Bush's inauguration, planned to destroy these records. The National Security Archive, Armstrong's association for the preservation of government historical documents, obtained an injunction in Federal District Court against the head, John Fawcett, of the National Archives and Records Administration and the National Security Council's purging of PROFS records. A Temporary Restraining Order was approved by Senior U.S. District Court Judge Barrington D. Parker. Suit was filed at District Court under Judge Richey, who upheld the injunction of PROFS records.[39]

Richey gave a further injunction to prevent a purging of the George H.W. Bush's administration's records as well. On counts of leaving the White House clean for the new Clinton Administration, the Bush group appealed but was denied its request. Finally, the Clinton Administration appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals, stating that the National Security Council was not truly an agency but a group of aides to the President and thus not subject to FOIA regulations. Under the Presidential Records Act, "FOIA requests for NSC [could] not be filed until five years after the president ha[d] left office ... or twelve years if the records [were] classified."[40] The Clinton administration won, and the National Security Archive was not granted a writ of certiorari by the Supreme Court on these grounds. According to Scott Armstrong, taking into account labor and material costs, the three presidential administrations spent almost $9.3 million on contesting the National Security Archive FOIA requests for PROFS e-mail records.[41]

Secret e-mail accounts and abusive fees

The AP uncovered several federal agencies where staff regularly use fictitious identities and secret or unlisted email accounts to conduct government business. Their use stymied FOIA requests.[42][43][44][45] In some cases, the government demanded enormous (>$1 million) fees for records that appeals show should be available for minimal cost.[42][44][46][47]

Processing performance by different government agencies

The Center for Effective Government analyzed 15 federal agencies which receive the most FOIA requests in-depth. It concluded, that federal agencies are struggling to implement public disclosure rules.

In the latest analysis published in 2015 (using 2012 and 2013 data, the most recent years available) ten of the 15 did not earn satisfactory overall grades, scoring less than 70 out of a possible 100 points. Eight of the ten earned Ds, including the Department of Homeland Security (69 percent), Department of Transportation (68 percent), United States Department of the Treasury (Treasury) (68 percent), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (67 percent), the United States Department of Labor (63 percent), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (64 percent), the United States Department of Defense (61 percent), the Securities and Exchange Commission (61 percent). The Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of State earned an F. The State Department's score (37 percent) was dismal due to its extremely low processing score of 23 percent, which was completely out of line with any other agency's performance. Scores of five agencies, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Department of Health and Human Services, the SEC, the DOJ, and the EPA, even decreased marginally.[48]

See also


  1. ^ Branscomb, Anne (1994). Who Owns Information?: From Privacy To Public Access. BasicBooks.
  2. ^ 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(4)(F)
  3. ^ "FOIA Legislative History". The National Security Archive. The National Security Archive. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  4. ^ Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley. "Lyndon B. Johnson: "Statement by the President Upon Signing the "Freedom of Information Act.", July 4, 1966". The American Presidency Project. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  5. ^ Metcalfe, Daniel J. (23 May 2006). The Presidential Executive Order on the Freedom of Information Act (PDF). 4th International Conference of Information Commissioners. pp. 54–74. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  6. ^ a b Office of Information and Privacy (OIP) (2005-10-10). "U.S. Department of Justice Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) General Information". Retrieved 2010-01-03.
  7. ^ a b "FOIA Update: The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. sect. 552, As Amended By Public Law No. 104-231, 110 Stat. 3048". Office of Information and Privacy, U.S. Department of Justice.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i ACLU Step-by-Step Guide to using the Freedom of Information Act; American Civil Liberties Union Foundation pamphlet written by Allan Robert Adler, pp. 3–5, ISBN 0-86566-062-X
  9. ^ "AO-04-14". 22 May 2014. further records were denied pursuant to the criminal investigative files exemption, subdivision A 2 a of § 2.2-3706.
  10. ^ Provence, Lisa (31 August 2015). "Exempt or not exempt? Judge considers FOIA lawsuit". when he requested the records again in February 2015, it was denied, citing the "criminal investigative files" exemption to the Freedom of Information Act
  11. ^ "February 14: For the love of ..." 13 February 2018. Alan Gernhardt at the Virginia Freedom of Information Advisory Council says the videos could fall under FOIA's criminal investigative files exemption, especially if they were shown at a preliminary hearing.
  12. ^ "USPS: ZIP Codes are "Commercially Sensitive" Trade Secrets". The Blog. November 6, 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  13. ^ a b Gold, Susan Dudley. 2012. Freedom of Information Act. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
  14. ^ The enactment of Title 5 into positive law was done by Pub.L. 89–554, 80 Stat. 378, enacted September 6, 1966. This means that while Title 5 existed before, it was merely a compilation of laws but not the law itself. Only about half of the U.S. Code is positive law, meaning the law itself. See for background on positive law codifiation of the U.S. Code.
  15. ^ a b c d "Veto Battle 30 Years Ago Set Freedom of Information Norms: Scalia, Rumsfeld, Cheney Opposed Open Government Bill; Congress Overrode President Ford's Veto of Court Review". Electronic Briefing Book No. 142. National Security Archive (George Washington University, Washington, D.C.). 2004-11-23.
  16. ^ Memorandum for President Ford from Ken Cole, "H.R. 12471, Amendments to the Freedom of Information Act," September 25, 1974 Source: Gerald R. Ford Library. Document 10.
  17. ^ a b Scalia, Antonin (March 1982). "The Freedom of Information Act Has No Clothes" (PDF). Regulation. 6 (2): 14. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  18. ^ Your Right to Federal Records: Questions and Answers on the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act. Electronic Privacy Information Center. 1992.
  19. ^ a b c Theoharis, Athan (1998). A Culture of Secrecy: The Government Versus the People's Right to Know. Kansas: University Press of Kansas. p. 27.
  20. ^ Exec. Order No. 12356, 3 C.F.R. 166 (1983)
  21. ^ a b "Brief Amici Curiae of The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press and the Society of Professional Journalists in support of Leslie R. Weatherhead, Respondent". United States of America, United States Department of Justice, and United States Department of State, Petitioners, v. Leslie R. Weatherhead, Respondent, in the Supreme Court of the United States. 1999-11-19.
  22. ^ "FOIA Reform Legislation Enacted: FOIA Update Vol. VII, No. 4". U.S. Department of Justice. 1986.
  23. ^ "Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)". Illinois Institute of Technology Paul V. Galvin Library. Retrieved 2002-06-04.
  24. ^ Executive Order no. 13489, Presidential Records, 74 FR 4669 (January 21, 2009)
  25. ^ "Executive Order 13489 on Presidential Records".
  26. ^ a b c "FOIA Post: FOIA Amended by Intelligence Authorization Act". United States Department of Justice Office of Information and Privacy. 2002.
  27. ^ Pub.L. 107–306, 116 Stat. 2383, § 312 (to be codified at 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(3)(A), 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(3)(E)).
  28. ^ 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(3)(E)(ii) (as amended)
  29. ^ 50 U.S.C. § 401a(4) (2000)
  30. ^ "Public Law 110-175 OPENNESS PROMOTES EFFECTIVENESS IN OUR NATIONAL GOVERNMENT ACT OF 2007". Government Printing Office. 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  31. ^ a b "OGIS Home Page". National Archives and Records Administration.
  32. ^ President Bush Signs S. 2488 into Law FAS Project on Government Secrecy
  33. ^ "Executive Order 13526". Federation of American Scientists.
  34. ^ "House holds hearing on controversial SEC FOIA exemption".
  35. ^ Guidance to Staff on Application of Section 929I of the Dodd-Frank Act (modified: September 15, 2010) from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
  36. ^ "Schapiro explains why some info should be secret". CNN. September 16, 2010.
  37. ^ Bill Summary & Status- 111th Congress (2009–2010) S.3717 from THOMAS at the Library of Congress
  38. ^ a b United States Dep't of Justice v. Landano, 373 U.S. 83 (1963).
  39. ^ Theoharis (1998), pp. 151–152.
  40. ^ Theoharis (1998), p. 156.
  41. ^ Theoharis (1998), p. 159.
  42. ^ a b Gillum, Jack (4 June 2013). "TOP OBAMA APPOINTEES USING SECRET EMAIL ACCOUNTS". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-10-07. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  43. ^ "US officials found to be using secret government email accounts". The Guardian. The Associated Press. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  44. ^ a b Woolery, Liz (14 June 2013). "'Secret' Email Accounts Raise More Questions, Concerns About Government Transparency". Chilling Effects Clearinghouse. Archived from the original on 2013-07-20. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  45. ^ "While US Attorney General, Eric Holder Used Kareem Abdul-Jabbar's Birth Name as His Official Email Address". VICE News. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  46. ^ "DEA wants $1.4 million before it will begin processing request". MuckRock. Retrieved 2016-02-13.
  47. ^ "The Pentagon's $660 million FOIA fee". MuckRock. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  48. ^ Making the Grade: Access to Information Scorecard 2015 March 2015, 80 pages, Center for Effective Government, retrieved 21 March 2016

Further reading

External links

Center for Effective Government

The Center for Effective Government, formerly OMB Watch, was a think tank and advocacy group based in Washington, D.C. It was focused on government transparency. Founded in 1983, the organization ceased operations in 2016, folding its work into the Project On Government Oversight.

FOIA Exemption 3 Statutes

Statutes Found to Qualify under Exemption 3 of the U.S. Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C.§ 552(b)(3). Under its terms, as amended in 1976 and 2009, a statute qualifies as an "Exemption 3 statute" only if it "(i) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as to leave no discretion on the issue; or (ii) establishes particular criteria for withholding or refers to particular types of matters to be withheld." Additionally, any statute enacted after October 29, 2009 acting to exclude information release must contain a specific citation to subsection (b)(3) of the FOIA statute.

FOIA Oversight and Implementation Act of 2014

The FOIA Oversight and Implementation Act of 2014 (H.R. 1211) is a bill that would amend the Freedom of Information Act in order to make it easier and faster to request and receive information. The bill would require the Office of Management and Budget to create a single FOIA website for people to use to make FOIA requests and check on the status of their request. The bill would also create a Chief FOIA Officers Council charged with reviewing compliance and recommending improvements. This bill would also require the federal agency to release the information it disclosed to the person who requested it publicly afterwards.The bill was introduced in the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress.

Federal Advisory Committee Act

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub.L. 92–463, 86 Stat. 770, enacted October 6, 1972), is a United States federal law which governs the behavior of federal advisory committees. In particular, it has special emphasis on open meetings, chartering, public involvement, and reporting. The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) oversees the process. During fiscal year 2008, GSA reported 917 active committees composed of almost 64,000 members that provided advice and recommendations to 50 federal agencies. Financially, the cost of these committees amounted to $344.3 million in fiscal year 2008.

Federal Records Act

The Federal Records Act of 1950 is a United States federal law enacted in 1950. It provides the legal framework for federal records management, including record creation, maintenance, and disposition.

Freedom of Information Act

Freedom of Information Act may refer to the following legislations in different jurisdictions which mandate the national government to disclose certain data to the general public upon request:

Freedom of Information Act 1982, the Australian act

Freedom of Information Act (United States) of 1966

Freedom of Information Act 2000, the UK act

Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002

Freedom of Information Act in PakistanSee Freedom of information laws by country for similar laws in other jurisdictions.

Glomar response

In United States law, the term Glomar response, also known as Glomarization or Glomar denial, refers to a response to a request for information that will "neither confirm nor deny" (NCND) the existence of the information sought. For example, in response to a request for police reports relating to a certain individual, the police agency may respond with the following: "We can neither confirm nor deny that our agency has any records matching your request." Such a response is invariably a false statement, regardless of whether the entity actually possesses the information requested, as they actually can confirm or deny it, but simply chose not to. Accordingly, Glomar responses are favored for their ability to reject a request for information without claiming the information does not exist. There are two common situations in which Glomarization is used. The first is in a national security context, where to reject a request on security grounds would implicitly suggest that the documents or programs that the requester is seeking indeed exist, but to confirm their existence would mandate their disclosure. The second instance is in the case of privacy, in which a response as to whether a person is or is not mentioned in an entity's (e.g., law enforcement, mental health facility, etc.) files may have a stigmatizing connotation. Glomar responses are commonly associated with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests.

Lower courts have thus far ruled the Glomar response to have potential merit if the secretive nature of the material truly requires it, and only if the agency provides "as much information as possible" to justify its claim. Otherwise, the principles established in FOIA may outweigh claims to secrecy.

Government in the Sunshine Act

The Government in the Sunshine Act (Pub.L. 94–409, 90 Stat. 1241, enacted September 13, 1976, 5 U.S.C. § 552b) is a U.S. law passed in 1976 that affects the operations of the federal government, Congress, federal commissions, and other legally constituted federal bodies. It is one of a number of Freedom of Information Acts, intended to create greater transparency in government.

Mosaic theory (investments)

The Mosaic theory in finance is a method used in security analysis to analyze information about a corporation.


MuckRock is a United States-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization which assists anyone in filing governmental requests for information through the Freedom of Information Act, then publishes the returned information on its website and encourages journalism around it.

Office of Attorney Recruitment and Management

The Office of Attorney Recruitment and Management (OARM) is the office of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) responsible for the recruitment of law students and attorneys for the department. It is also responsible to oversee matters pertaining to the employment, separation and general administration of the DOJ attorneys and law students in the general schedule pay grades of GS-15 and below. The OARM oversees many programs regarding law school and attorney assistance and internships. The OARM is the DOJ's adjudicative office in FBI Whistleblower cases.Under the Freedom of Information Act (United States) (FOIA) requests for the OARM are handled by the Justice Management Division

Open Government Initiative

The Open Government Initiative is an effort by the administration of President of the United States Barack Obama to "creating an unprecedented level of openness in Government.". The directive starting this initiative was issued on January 20, 2009, Obama's first day in office.The philosophy of the initiative is that the government should be transparent, participatory and collaborative. Agencies across the federal government established Open Government Web pages and asked the public for ideas and suggestions.

Presidential Records Act

The Presidential Records Act (PRA) of 1978, 44 U.S.C. §§ 2201–2207, is an Act of Congress of the United States governing the official records of Presidents and Vice Presidents created or received after January 20, 1981, and mandating the preservation of all presidential records. Enacted November 4, 1978, the PRA changed the legal ownership of the official records of the President from private to public, and established a new statutory structure under which Presidents must manage their records. The PRA was amended in 2014, including prohibition of sending electronic records through non-official accounts unless an official account is copied on the transmission, or a copy is forwarded to an official account shortly after creation.

Reclaim The Records

Reclaim The Records is a non-profit organization and activist group that advocates for greater transparency and accessibility for genealogical, archival, and vital records in the United States. They use state Freedom of Information requests and lawsuits to force government agencies, archives, and libraries to provide copies of previously inaccessible records to the public. Reclaim The Records then digitizes and publishes the records online for free public use, without any copyrights or usage restrictions.Reclaim The Records is the first genealogical organization to successfully sue a government agency for the release of records back to the public. As of December 2017, the organization has acquired and freely published more than twenty million records, most of which had never been open to the public before in any location or format, or else were only available in very outdated formats such as microfiche in limited locations but had never gone online before.

Shenyang J-6

The Shenyang J-6 (Chinese: 歼-6; designated F-6 for export versions; NATO reporting name: Farmer) is the Chinese-built version of the Soviet MiG-19 'Farmer' fighter aircraft.

U.S. reclassification program

The U.S. intelligence community's secret historical document reclassification program is a project to reclassify certain documents that have already been declassified and released to the public through the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).

United States Copyright Office

The United States Copyright Office (sometimes abbreviated USCO), a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States including a Copyright Catalog. It is used by copyright title searchers who are attempting to clear a chain of title for copyrighted works.

The head of the Copyright Office is called the Register of Copyrights. The Acting Register is Karyn Temple Claggett who replaced Maria Pallante upon her departure in October 2016.

The Copyright Office is housed on the fourth floor of the James Madison Memorial Building of the Library of Congress, at 101 Independence Avenue, SE, in Washington, DC.

United States Department of Labor

The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments. The department is headed by the U.S. Secretary of Labor.

The purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster, promote, and develop the wellbeing of the wage earners, job seekers, and retirees of the United States; improve working conditions; advance opportunities for profitable employment; and assure work-related benefits and rights. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations. These mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers.

The department's headquarters is housed in the Frances Perkins Building, named in honor of Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945.

Federal legislation
Policies and manuals
Supreme Court decisions

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