Freedom and Accord Party

The Freedom and Accord Party (Turkish: Hürriyet ve İtilâf Fırkası), formerly and also known as the Liberal Union or the Liberal Entente, was a liberal Ottoman political party active between 1911 and 1913, during the Second Constitutional Era. As the Liberal Union/Entente, it was the second largest party in the Ottoman Parliament of 1909. It had managed to organize covering most of the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The political programme of the party advocated for Ottomanism, government decentralisation and the rights of ethnic minorities.[1]

The Freedom and Accord Party proper was founded on 21 November 1911 by those Young Turks in opposition to the Committee of Union and Progress,[2][1] and immediately attracted 70 Deputies to its ranks. Only 20 days after its formation, Freedom and Accord won the by-elections conducted in Istanbul by one vote.[3] It was the main challenger to the Committee of Union and Progress during the 1912 elections, which the Committee rigged in favor of itself, giving Freedom and Accord only 6 seats of 275 total. Notable members included Prince Sabahaddin, Kâmil Pasha, Rıza Tevfik Bölükbaşı, Ali Kemal, Refik Halit Karay, Rıza Nur, Mehmed Hâdî Pasha, Damat Ferid Pasha, and Lütfi Fikri Bey.

Albanians from the Ottoman Empire played a prominent role in the party, such as Basri Bey Dukagjini from Debre (modern Debar), Hasan Prishtina and Midhat Frashëri (the son of Abdyl Frashëri, who served as a deputy representative for the Yanya Vilayet in the Ottoman Parliament) who were among its eleven founders.[1]

The party was suppressed after the Raid on the Sublime Porte of January 1913, in which the Committee of Union and Progress's leadership, the Three Pashas, grabbed de facto control of the Empire. It was only re-established in the aftermath of the World War I. In the post-1918 Ottoman Empire, the party became known for its attempts to suppress and prosecute the Committee of Union and Progress.

Freedom and Accord Party

Hürriyet ve İtilâf Fırkası
Last LeaderDamat Ferid Pasha
Founded1911
Dissolved1919
HeadquartersIstanbul
IdeologyLiberal nationalism
Constitutionalism
Liberalism
Political positionCentre
International affiliationNone
Kamil bey
Kâmil Pasha, who became a figurehead of the Freedom and Accord Party

Elections

Election year

votes

Party list

votes

% of

party list votes

Seats won +/–
1908
6 / 288
+6 Opposition
1912
6 / 275
0 Opposition

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Gawrych 2006, p. 190.
  2. ^ Birinci 1990, p. 84.
  3. ^ Burak, p. 307.

Sources

  • Birinci, Ali (1990), Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası (in Turkish), İstanbul: Dergah Yayınları, ISBN 9759953072
  • Burak, Durdu Mehmet, Osmanlı Devleti'nde Jön Türk Hareketinin Başlaması ve Etkileri (PDF) (in Turkish), Ankara University, pp. 292–318, doi:10.1501/OTAM_0000000502, retrieved 17 March 2013
  • Gawrych, George (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. London: IB Tauris. ISBN 9781845112875.
1912 Ottoman coup d'état

1912 Ottoman coup d'état (17 July 1912) was a military coup in the Ottoman Empire against the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) government (elected during the 1912 general elections) by a group of military officers calling themselves the Saviour Officers (Ottoman Turkish: Halâskâr Zâbitân‎; Modern Turkish: Kurtarıcı Subaylar) during the dissolution era of the Ottoman Empire.The Saviour Officers are often referred to as the military wing of the Freedom and Accord Party (Liberal Union or Liberal Entente), which became the main opposition party after the 1912 election, which became notorious for electioneering and voter fraud by the CUP. Freedom and Accord members recruited elements such as the officers to their cause in protest. The coup was one of the central events of the politically volatile 1912–13 years, which saw political instability due to the power struggle between the CUP and Freedom and Accord, as well as the newly sparked Balkan Wars.

1912 Ottoman general election

Early general elections were held in the Ottoman Empire in April 1912. Due to electoral fraud and brutal electioneering, which earned the elections the nickname Sopalı Seçimler ("Election of Clubs"), the ruling Committee of Union and Progress won 269 of the 275 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, whilst the opposition Liberal Entente (also known as the Freedom and Accord Party or the Liberal Union) won only the remaining six seats.

1913 Ottoman coup d'état

The 1913 Ottoman coup d'état (January 23, 1913), also known as the Raid on the Sublime Porte (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî Baskını), was a coup d'état carried out in the Ottoman Empire by a number of Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) members led by Ismail Enver Bey and Muhammad Talaat Bey, in which the group made a surprise raid on the central Ottoman government buildings, the Sublime Porte (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî). During the coup, the Minister of the Navy Nazım Pasha was assassinated and the Grand Vizier, Kâmil Pasha, was forced to resign. After the coup, the government fell into the hands of the Committee of Union and Progress, now under the leadership of the triumvirate known as the "Three Pashas", made up of Enver, Talaat, and Djemal Pasha.

In 1911, the Freedom and Accord Party (also known as the Liberal Union or Liberal Entente), Kâmil Pasha's party, was formed in opposition to the CUP and almost immediately won the by-elections in Istanbul. Alarmed, the CUP rigged the general elections of 1912 with electoral fraud and violence against Freedom and Accord, earning them the nickname "Election of Clubs" (Turkish: Sopalı Seçimler). In response, the Savior Officers (Turkish: Halâskâr Zâbitân) of the army, partisans of Freedom and Accord determined to see the CUP fall, rose up in anger and caused the fall of the CUP's post-election Muhammad Said Pasha government. A new government was formed under Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, but it too was dissolved after a few months in October 1912 after the sudden outbreak of the First Balkan War.After gaining the permission of sultan Mehmed V to form a new government in late October 1912, Freedom and Accord leader Kâmil Pasha sat down to diplomatic talks with Bulgaria after the unsuccessful First Balkan War. With the Bulgarian demand for the cession of the former Ottoman capital city of Edirne (Adrianople) looming and the outrage among the Turkish populace as well as the CUP leadership, the CUP carried out the raid on the Sublime Porte. After the coup, opposition parties like Freedom and Accord were subject to heavy repression and their leaders arrested or exiled to Europe, while many CUP members were put into power. Coup leader Enver Bey (later Pasha), soon to be Minister of War, withdrew the Ottoman Empire from the ongoing London Peace Conference and moved it closer to Germany ahead of World War I.

1913 in the Ottoman Empire

The following lists events that happened during 1913 in the Ottoman Empire.

1919 Ottoman general election

General elections were held in the Ottoman Empire in 1919 and were the last official elections held in the Empire. Due to the dearth of political parties, the elections were dominated by the Association for the Defense of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia (Turkish: Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti), which consisted of nationalist local groups protesting against the Allied occupation of Turkey.

Abdullah Cevdet

Abdullah Cevdet (Ottoman Turkish: عبدالله جودت‎‎; Turkish: Abdullah Cevdet Karlıdağ; 9 September 1869 – 29 November 1932) was an Ottoman-born Turkish intellectual and physician of ethnic Kurdish origin. He was one of the founders of the Committee of Union and Progress. In 1908, he turned against the Committee of Union and Progress and joined the Democratic Party which merged with the Freedom and Accord Party in 1911. He was also a poet, translator, radical free-thinker, and an ideologist of the Young Turks until 1908.

Ali Barlas

Ali Barlas, also known as Ali Çavlum (1869 – 15 March 1953) was a Turkish politician of liberal signature, who was an official of the Freedom and Accord Party. He joined the CHP when the Turkish Republic was proclaimed.

Damat Ferid Pasha

Damat Mehmed Adil Ferid Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: محمد عادل فريد پاشا‎ Turkish: Damat Ferit Paşa;‎ 1853 – 6 October 1923), known simply as Damat Ferid Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman, who held the office of Grand Vizier, the de facto prime minister of the Ottoman Empire, during two periods under the reign of the last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, the first time between 4 March 1919 and 2 October 1919 and the second time between 5 April 1920 and 21 October 1920. Officially, he was brought to the office a total of five times, since his cabinets were recurrently dismissed under various pressures and he had to present new ones. Because of his readiness to acknowledge Ottoman atrocities against the Armenians, his involvement in the Treaty of Sèvres and his collusion with the Allied powers, he became an unpopular figure in Turkey and emigrated to Europe at the end of the Greco-Turkish War.

Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party in Palestine (Poale Zion)

Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party in Palestine (Poale Zion) was a political party, founded in 1906 in Ottoman Palestine. Its founders belonged to a group of German settlers, that had taken part in self-defense during the Homel pogrom. It was the Israeli branch of the international Poale Zion movement.The party joined the Second International in 1915. It was invited to join the International in February 1915, on the initiative of Émile Vandervelde, at a conference held in London (in which the Belgian, French, British and Russian labour parties participated. The meeting of the socialist parties from the Central Power countries, held in Vienna in April 1915 did not object to the affiliation of the party.

Kâmil Pasha

Mehmed Kâmil Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: محمد كامل پاشا‎; Turkish: Kıbrıslı Mehmet Kâmil Paşa, "Mehmed Kamil Pasha the Cypriot"), also spelled as Kiamil Pasha (1833 – 14 November 1913), was an Ottoman statesman of Turkish Cypriot origin in the late-19th-century and early-20th-century. He was the Grand Vizier of the Empire during four different periods.

Liberalism in Turkey

This article gives an overview of liberalism in Turkey.

List of political parties in the Ottoman Empire

List of parties in Ottoman Empire gives an overview of political parties in Ottoman Empire.

It is not limited to parties that won representation in the Chamber of Deputies (the popularly elected lower house of the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman parliament). Although the First Constitutional Era established the parliament in 1876 through the constitution, it was short-lived and did not involve political parties. The declaration of the Second Constitutional Era in 1908 was the first time political parties were allowed participation in the Ottoman government.

The two major parties were:

Committee of Union and Progress (CUP; İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti; 1889–1918)

Freedom and Accord Party (also known as the Liberal Union (LU) or Liberal Entente; Hürriyet ve İtilâf Fırkası; 1911–13 and 1918–20)Other general parties included:

Ottoman Socialist Party (Osmanlı Sosyalist Fırkası; 1910–13)

Ottoman Committee of Alliance (Heyet-i Müttefika-i Osmaniye, 1909)

Ottoman Democratic Party (Fırka-i İbad or Osmanlı Demokrat Fırkası; 1909–11, merged with the Freedom and Accord Party)

Ottoman Liberal People's Party (1918–20)

Ottoman Liberty Party (Osmanlı Ahrar Fırkası; 1908–10)

Socialist Workers' Federation (1909–13)

People's Party (Ahali Fırkası)

Private Enterprise and Decentralization Association (Teşebbüs-i Şahsi ve Adem-i Merkeziyet Cemiyeti; 1902–08)

Committee of Altruists for the Nation (Fedakâran-ı Millet Cemiyeti; 1908–09)

Social Democrat Party (Sosyal Demokrat Fırkası; 1918-19)

Turkey Socialist Party (Türkiye Sosyalist Fırkası; 1919-22)

Turkish Workers and Peasants Socialist Party (Türkiye İşçi ve Çiftçi Sosyalist Fırkası; 1919–20)

Renewal Party (Teceddüt Fırkası; 1918–19, continuation of the Committee of Union and Progress)Ethnic parties included:

People's Federative Party (Bulgarian Section) (1909–10)

Bulgarian Constitutional Clubs (1908–09)

Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party in Palestine (Poale Zion) (1906–?)

Al-Fatat (also known as the Young Arab Society; Jam’iyat al-’Arabiya al-Fatat)

Ottoman Party for Administrative Decentralization (Hizb al-lamarkaziyya al-idariyya al'Uthmani; 1913–?)

Armenakan Party (1885–1921)

Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (1887–present)

Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF; Hay Heghapokhagan Dashnaktsutiun or Dashnak or Tashnak; 1890–present)

Serb Democratic League

Mehmed Said Pasha

Mehmed Said Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: محمد سعيد پاشا‎‎; 1830–1914), also known as Küçük Said Pasha ("Said Pasha the Younger") or Şapur Çelebi or in his youth as Mabeyn Başkatibi Said Bey, was an Ottoman statesman and editor of the Turkish newspaper Jerid-i-Havadis.

Mehmet Ali Gerede

Mehmet Ali Bey was one of the last former Minister of the Interior of the Ottoman Empire. He was the son of Kamil Paşa, and Hafize Hanım. He was married with Eleanor Louisa Bendon from Great Britain.

Mehmet Ali Bey, intended to be a non-partisan organization in the beginning of the founders of the Committee (1918). A short time later, Freedom and Accord Party, again took part in team activities striving to win (1919). The British Friendship Society in 1920 was elected to honorary. After the proclamation of the Republic, he was deported along with other 150 personae non gratae of Turkey. He lived from 1924 until 1938 in exile in Paris, where he began to publish a newspaper with the name Chained Republic. The first issue of the newspaper in 1930, critique Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Four days before Mustafa Kemal Atatürk death in 1938, Mehmed Ali taking advantage of the amnesty law, and was returned to Turkey together with his Family. He take the adopted surname "Gerede" after the 1934 Surname Law, which required all Turkish citizens to adopt a surname.

Mehmet Ali Bey died in Istanbul on October 16, 1939.

Ottoman Socialist Party

The Ottoman Socialist Party (Turkish: Osmanlı Sosyalist Fırkası, OSF) was the first Turkish socialist political party, founded in the Ottoman Empire in 1910.

Refik Halit Karay

Refik Halit Karay (15 June 1888 – 18 March 1965) was a Turkish writer and journalist.

Second Constitutional Era

The Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Turkish: ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى‎; Turkish: İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876. The parliament and the constitution of the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878) had been suspended by Abdul Hamid in 1878 after only two years of functioning. Whereas the First Constitutional Era had not allowed for political parties, the Young Turks amended the constitution to strengthen the popularly elected Chamber of Deputies at the expense of the unelected Senate and the Sultan's personal powers, and formed and joined many political parties and groups for the first time in the Empire's history.

A series of elections during this period resulted in the gradual ascendance of the Committee of Union and Progress's (CUP) domination in politics. The second largest party, with which the CUP was involved in a 2-year power struggle, was the Freedom and Accord Party (also known as the Liberal Union or Liberal Entente) founded in 1911 by those that had split off from the CUP. The period survived an attempt by reactionaries to re-institute absolutism. After World War I and the occupation of Constantinople on 13 November 1918 by the Allies, the parliament's decision to work with the Turkish revolutionaries in Ankara by signing the Amasya Protocol and agreeing in 1920 to the Misak-ı Millî (National Pact) angered the Allies, who forced the sultan to abolish the parliament. The last meeting on 18 March 1920 produced a letter of protest to the Allies, and a black cloth covered the pulpit of the parliament as reminder of its absent members.

Young Turk Revolution

The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament. More than three decades earlier, in 1876, constitutional monarchy had been established under Sultan Abdul Hamid II during a period of time known as the First Constitutional Era, which only lasted for two years before Abdul Hamid suspended it and restored autocratic powers to himself. On 24 July 1908, Abdul Hamid capitulated and announced the restoration of Constitution, which established the Second Constitutional Era. After an attempted monarchist counterrevolution in favor of Abdul Hamid the following year, he was deposed and his brother Mehmed V ascended the throne.

Once underground, organizations (named committee, group, etc.) established (declared) their parties. Among them "Committee of Union and Progress" (CUP), and "Freedom and Accord Party" also known as the Liberal Union or Liberal Entente (LU) were major parties. There were smaller parties such as Ottoman Socialist Party. On the other end of the spectrum were the ethnic parties which included; People's Federative Party (Bulgarian Section), Bulgarian Constitutional Clubs, Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party in Palestine (Poale Zion), Al-Fatat, and Armenians organized under Armenakan, Hunchakian and Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF). ARF, previously outlawed, became the main representative of the Armenian community in the Ottoman Empire, replacing the pre-1908 Armenian elite, which had been composed of merchants, artisans, and clerics who had seen their future in obtaining more privileges within the boundaries of the state's version of Ottomanism.

Young Turks

Young Turks (Turkish: Jön Türkler, from French: Les Jeunes Turcs) was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers. They favoured the replacement of the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. Later, their leaders led a rebellion against the absolute rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. With this revolution, the Young Turks helped to establish the Second Constitutional Era in 1908, ushering in an era of multi-party democracy for the first time in the country's history.After 1908, the Young Turks' initial umbrella political party, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP; Turkish: İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti), began a series of political reforms and military modernization across the Ottoman Empire. However, the CUP soon began to splinter as many of the more liberal and pro-decentralization Young Turks left to form an opposition party in late 1911, the Freedom and Accord Party (also known as the Liberal Union or Liberal Entente), with much of those staying in the CUP favoring a generally nationalist and pro-centralization policy. In a year-long power struggle throughout 1912, Freedom and Accord and the remaining members of the CUP vied for control of the Ottoman government, the year seeing a rigged election by the CUP and a military revolt by Freedom and Accord.

The struggle between the two groups of Young Turks ended in January 1913, when the top leadership of the CUP seized power from the Freedom and Accord in the Raid on the Sublime Porte. The subsequent CUP-led government was headed by interior minister and Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha. Working with him were war minister Enver Pasha and naval minister Djemal Pasha. These "Three Pashas", as they came to be known, exercised absolute control over the Ottoman Empire from 1913 to 1918, bringing the country closer to Germany, signing the Ottoman–German Alliance to enter the Empire into World War I on the side of the Central Powers, and carrying out the Armenian Genocide. Following the war, the struggle between the two groups of Young Turks revived, with the Freedom and Accord Party regaining control of the Ottoman government and Three Pashas fleeing into exile. Freedom and Accord rule was short lived, however, and the empire soon collapsed.

The term "Young Turk" is now used generally to denote a member of an insurgent group within an organization (often, although not always, a political party) advocating change, sometimes radical change, in that organization.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.